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Technical Paper

“Omega” Fin Design for Enhanced Cooling Capability on IGBTs

Vehicle electrification is a rapidly growing and developing technology. As with any new technology there are hurdles that must be overcome as development marches forward. Overcoming these obstacles will require new and innovative solutions. One area of electrification that is quickly developing is the ability to convert voltage from AC to DC and from DC to AC. This is important since the battery pack outputs a DC voltage which must be converted to AC to drive the electric motor. The reverse is true when braking, the AC voltage generated by the electric motor is converted to DC in order to charge the battery. The conversion of voltage back and forth is controlled through the use of an inverter. The inverter uses Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors or IGBTs which generate heat while in operation. As the IGBTs heat up their efficiency goes down. In order to maintain a high level of efficiency the circuity can be directly cooled through the use of a heat sink.
Technical Paper

“One-Side Aluminized Steel Sheet” Development and Properties of a New Anti-Corrosion Material

Nisshin Steel Co., Ltd. has developed a new process for the production of a “one-side aluminized steel sheet”. The process utilizes a double layer one-side “stop-off” coating to prevent the molten Al from adhering to the steel surface. The “Stop-off” coating is removed by simple mechanical brushing after hot dipping. The characteristics of this product by above mentioned process are: 1) The steel side was as clean as a conventional cold rolled surface and showed no trace of the “stop-off” layer. Thereby, phosphating and ED painting were performed. 2) In the salt spray test data was obtained from zinc and Al coated steel surfaces; the coatings on both surfaces being of equal thickness.
Technical Paper

“OptiVent” - A New Approach for Controlling Mass Air Flow and Combustion in Direct Injection SI-Engines

Combustion concepts for future SI engines try to meet CO2-emission commitments and legislation all over the world. Where the Diesel engine has an advantage by principle, the efficiency of the SI engine has to be improved significantly, while of course the exhaust emissions must not become worse. An approach is to reduce the gas exchange losses using fully variable valve trains on the intake side of the combustion engine. OptiVent is a patented new way of controlling the mass air flow in the cylinder of a combustion engine using opening valves during the compression phase of a four stroke engine. This technology regards a wider range of variability on the valvetrain components of the engine especially for opening the valves more than one time during a cycle. On the other hand it is necessary to combine this technology with direct injection to avoid fuel losses in the exhaust system and raising the exhaust hydrocarbon emission of the engine.
Technical Paper

“Optimization of Operational Parameters on Engine Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Powered with Mimusops Elengi Methyl Ester with Doped TiO2 Nanoparticle with Varying Injection Pressure”

The current research was aimed at determining the most effective way to use alternative renewable feedstock to power a diesel engine. Mimusops elengi, a new and novel biofuel was recognized for this current study, which is widely available in the south of India. The investigation was conducted on B20 volume basis (20% Mimusops elengi methyl ester blended with 80% diesel). Furthermore, it was recognized that when the performance characteristics were traded off, the emission magnitude has slightly higher. To address the diesel engine pollution, an oxygenated nano additive like titanium oxide was dissipated only with the fuel blend at distinct mass fractions of 25 parts per million (ppm) with differing injection pressures of 180 bar, 200 bar, 220 bar, and 240 bar. The tests were created using a statistical programme known as design of experiments, which is purely based on Taguchi and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

“Optimization” of Lower Deck Cargo Systems

The ability to carry cargo efficiently in passenger aircraft has influenced airline economics to the point that optimisation of the freight capacity is mandatory. This document discusses the alternative loading possibilities in defined Lover Deck Compartments and their doors to cater for current and future trends in ULD dimensions. As a result items for study centred on: 1) Optimisation of the available volumes Freight capacity resulting in the selection of “Pallets”-doors for both the Forward and AFT Compartments. Flexibility to meet Freight and Baggage requirements. Possible load arrangements to optimize aircraft C of G 2) Bulk Cargo Compartment Additional LD3 Container position in AFT/Bulk compartment to cater for an uneven number of Baggage container, allowing the carriage of an additional pallet. What is regarded as an optimum is presented.
Technical Paper

“Over the Rainbow”

To a large degree all of us at one time or another have envisioned our “Over the Rainbow” version of a future should be. System engineers envision perfect harmony between vehicle aerodynamics and avionics integration. The program manager dreams of schedules and funding well within the projected budget. Then reality; budget constraints, backward compatibility, technology availability, schedule problems, and etc. This paper is intended to recognize the “dreamer” and at the same time offer a means of reconciliation to the real world. We will address advanced avionics architectures and a transitionary means to attain our goals and objectives. An “Avionics System Index” will be presented which defines and specifies a means of describing and partitioned avionics configuration.
Technical Paper


Research information on solid lubricants has been compiled for consideration in the possible use of such materials in aircraft electrical equipment. Solid lubricants are capable of lubricating at the maximum temperatures (600° F) for aircraft electrical equipment. Many solids that adhere well to metals may be useful lubricants; those with layer-lattice structure usually give low friction. Solid lubricants are most commonly used as bonded films but the use of fluid carriers and surface reaction products have considerable merit.
Technical Paper

“Passenger Vehicle Petrol Consumption - Measurement in the Real World”

A survey of the in-service fuel consumption of passenger vehicles and derivatives in the Australian fleet was carried out in 1984-85. Seven hundred and four owners across Australia took part in the survey. Vehicle owners reported by questionnaire the amount of fuel used during four tank fills of normal operation, the distance travelled, and other details of the operating circumstances. The survey shows a clear downward trend in the fuel consumption of the Australian passenger fleet. The data also provides comparisons of actual fuel consumption obtained on the road, with laboratory derived values for fuel consumption. Vehicles in a sub-set of 40 were fitted with fuel flow meters during the survey and tested to Australian Standard 2077 for fuel consumption. The questionnaire method is shown to be a valid and accurate technique for determining in-service fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

“Pedestrian in the Loop”: An Approach Using Augmented Reality

A large number of testing procedures have been developed to ensure vehicle safety in common and extreme driving situations. However, these conventional testing procedures are insufficient for testing autonomous vehicles. They have to handle unexpected scenarios with the same or less risk a human driver would take. Currently, safety related systems are not adequately tested, e.g. in collision avoidance scenarios with pedestrians. Examples are the change of pedestrian behaviour caused by interaction, environmental influences and personal aspects, which cannot be tested in real environments. It is proposed to use augmented reality techniques. This method can be seen as a new (Augmented) Pedestrian in the Loop testing procedure.
Technical Paper

“Performance Emission Parameters Behavior of a DI Diesel Engine Using Al2O3 and TiO2 Nano Additive Biodiesel Blends”

This study mainly focuses on the blending of Alumina and Titanium oxide nanoparticles (NP’s) in Spirulina biodiesel blends (SB20) to estimate the influence of engine (combustion, performance and emission) parameters of a diesel engine. The characterization of Al2O3 and TiO2 NP’s like SEM were reported. By using various fuel samples such as Diesel, SB20, SB20+40 ppm AO, SB20+80 ppm AO, SB20+40 ppm TO and SB20+80 ppm TO, the engine tests on the diesel engine were conducted at various load conditions. The BTE for SB20+80 ppm AO were enhanced by 12.35% and 8.4 % compared to the SB20 fuel and SB20+40 ppm AO fuel samples. The combustion parameters were improved for the NP’s as additives (Al2O3 and TiO2) fuels than the SB20 fuel sample because NP’s contain oxygen content. The parameters of engine exhaust emissions such as HC, CO and smoke are drastically diminished for the SB20+40 ppm AO, SB20+80 ppm AO, SB20+40 ppm TO and SB20+80 ppm TO fuels compared to the SB20 fuel.