Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Externally Scavenged Engines for Range Extender Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1022
In this work, the authors assess the potential of the 2-stroke concept applied to Range Extender engines, proposing 3 different configurations: 1) Supercharged, Compression Ignition; 2) Turbocharged, Compression Ignition; 3) Supercharged, Gasoline Direct Injection. All the engines feature a single power cylinder of 0.49l, external air feed by piston pump and an innovative induction system. The scavenging is of the Loop type, without poppet valves, and with a 4-stroke like lubrication system (no crankcase pump). Engine design has been supported by CFD simulations, both 1D (engine cycle analysis) and 3D (scavenging, injection and combustion calculations). All the numerical models used in the study are calibrated against experiments, carried out on engines as similar as possible to the proposed ones.
Journal Article

2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines for Light Aircraft

2011-09-11
2011-24-0089
The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

2004-03-08
2004-01-1257
An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

21 Development of a Small Displacement Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1790
We have developed a small-displacement gasoline direct-injection engine (1.3L). Gasoline direct-injection engines rely on ultra-lean stratified combustion to deliver significantly better fuel economy, and are already used in many practical applications. When gasoline direct-injection is applied to a small-displacement engine, however, the amount of wall wetting of fuel on the piston surface will increase because the traveled length of the fuel spray is short. This may result in problems such as smoke production, high emissions of unburned HC, and poor combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

24 Noise, Emissions and Fuel Economy Investigation on a Small DI Diesel Using Taguchi Methods

2002-10-29
2002-32-1793
To provide optimal performance of a small DI diesel in relation to noise, emissions and fuel economy, an experimental investigation was carried out using Taguchi methods. A single cylinder 3.5 kW diesel was selected for performance test at different engine speeds, loads and static injection timings. These controlled parameters were varied at three levels and the resulting changes in response variables viz. engine noise, smoke, HC, NOx, CO, CO2 emissions and fuel economy (b.s.f.c) were observed. The levels for low noise, smoke, emissions and b.s.f.c could be predicted and relevant combination of controlled parameters specified. Confirmation engine runs were carried out and the results showed good agreement with the predicted optimized quantities of interest based on Taguchi analysis. The effect of engine parameters to the above responses was evaluated in terms of percent contributions by using analysis of variance.
Technical Paper

25 Development of Rapid Composite Plating System for Motorcycle Engine Cylinders

2002-10-29
2002-32-1794
Weight reduction of automobiles is key technology in order to improve fuel economy and driving performance. Concerning of the motorcycle engine, weight reduction is also the fundamental and important technologies. Cylinder is one of the main parts of engine and the wear characteristics of the cylinder liner are largely related to the engine performance. Gray iron liners squeezed in aluminum cylinder block have been widely used. This is due to the excellent resistance to abrasion of gray iron. In order to realize light all aluminum cylinder, the good abrasion resistant method is necessary to develop to be applied with inner surface of liners. We have developed the new Rapid Composite Plating System for the motorcycle engine cylinders. This system made it possible to adopt all aluminum cylinders without cast iron liners to new type of engine.
Journal Article

25cc HCCI Engine Fuelled with DEE

2009-06-15
2009-01-1771
This paper describes the set-up and testing of a single cylinder 25cc, air cooled, 4-stroke Spark Ignition (SI) engine converted to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with the aid of various combustion control systems. The combustion control systems were investigated regarding their effects on combustion stability and heat release phasing. Engine operation was compared with unique findings from previous work done on a very small 2-stroke HCCI engine. HCCI engine operation was possible between 1000 - 4000 rpm when using Diethyl Ether (DEE) as the test fuel. Maximum operational fuel-air equivalence ratio (Φ) was 0.75 when operating without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). This relatively high equivalence ratio was attainable due to thermal gradients induced by the high surface area to volume ratio of the small engine combustion chamber, resulting in high chamber heat transfer.
Technical Paper

26 Development of “BF-Coat” for Snowmobile Piston

2002-10-29
2002-32-1795
The pistons in a snowmobile engine are subjected to severe temperature conditions not only because snowmobiles are operated in extremely cold temperatures but also because the engine has a high output per unit volume of approximately 150kW/liter. The temperature of the piston top may go from -40°C (when a cold engine is started) to 400°C or higher (when the engine is running at full load). When the piston and cylinder inner wall are cold, the performance of the lubricating oil drops; when they are hot, scuffing may be produced by problems such as tearing of the oil film between the piston and cylinder. When the engine is run at full load for a long time, moreover, the piston is subjected to prolonged high-temperature use, which is conducive to the production of piston boss hole abrasion and ring groove adhesive wear.
Technical Paper

27 A New Method for Valve Seat without Ring

2002-10-29
2002-32-1796
A surface modification method by electrical discharge has been developed for the valve seats of aluminum cylinder heads. This method employs a conventional electrical discharge machine to generate continuous discharge arcs between an electrode and a cylinder head, whereby the molten electrode material is transferred and clad onto the valve seat area on the cylinder head. Using this new cladding method, a wear-resistant cladding can be formed on each valve seat area in a matter of minutes and, if the same number of electrodes as valve seat areas are set one on one, all the valve seat areas can be clad simultaneously. The advantages of this method include local cladding capability, outstanding adhesion, quick cladding speed, and excellent adaptability to various types of engines. The chemical composition of the cladding was determined by a preliminary test using dynamo engines, and the durability of the cladding was evaluated using the same dynamo engines.
Technical Paper

3 - Valve Stratified Charge Engines: Evolvement, Analysis and Progression

1974-02-01
741163
A historical review of the patents and literature pertaining to 3-valve stratified charge engines is presented in this paper. This very old invention appears to be a practical approach for the “clean engine” being sought for vehicular use since it has the intrinsic capability of simultaneously giving good fuel economy and producing minimal objectionable exhaust emissions. The prime requisites of this engine are a rich prechamber charge and a very lean main chamber charge regardless of prechamber volume, nozzle diameter, valving and spark plug location. Fuel-air equivalence ratios of the charges in the two combustion chambers are significantly important in order to achieve the proper optimization. These ratios should be about 15% rich for the prechamber and 15 to 30% lean for the main chamber at the moment of ignition.
Technical Paper

3 D CAD/CAM Design of a 4 Valve 4 Cylinder Aluminum Head

1990-02-01
900655
Due to the requirements of the market, engine manufacturers and their suppliers must develop new products in a short lead time, with high quality, high reliability and lowest possible costs. A method to obtain a short lead time for a complicated aluminum cylinder head is the design in 3 D CAD and the use of simultaneous engineering. A practical example shows the design of a 16-valve cylinder head in 3 D CAD (Catia). The cylinder head supplier received a CAD-tape with the main dimensions such as valve locations, shape of the combustion chamber and ports and location of the bolts. A design team completed the cylinder head design in 3 D CAD in consideration of the needs for foundry technology, casting tool design and machining of the part. Special casting tools for the prototyping were manufactured parallel to the cylinder head design.
Technical Paper

3 Load Cell Tumble Meter Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-3004
This paper will describe the development of the 3-load cell tumble meter. This is a new method for measuring the tumble component of in-cylinder mixture motion. In-cylinder mixture motion is an important parameter for understanding and improving combustion stability of piston engines.
Technical Paper

3-D Analysis of the Flow Through a Multihole V.C.O. Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

1995-02-01
950085
A 3-D analysis of the flow through a multihole, V.C.O. (Valve Covered Orifice) nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine has been carried out. The analysis was performed by means of a finite element code. The nozzle comprises five injection holes. Aims of the analysis were: the investigation of the pressure drops along the conical clearance between the needle and the nozzle; the evaluation of the energy losses in the injection holes; the disclosure of the velocity profile at the injection hole outlets. the differences of flowrate for each hole with geometrical asymmetries. This kind of analisys is the first step of a more complete spray analysis; in fact, the spray from an injection hole is influenced by the injection pressure and the velocity profile. In particular, the needle lift and the needle tip deviation have been parametrized. The analysis betters both the theoretical knowledge of this kind of nozzle and the hydraulic phenomena occurring inside.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in a DI Diesel Engine using a Flamelet Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0662
A 3-dimensional numerical study has been conducted investigating the combustion process in a VW 1.9l TDI Diesel engine. Simulations were performed modeling the spray injection of a 5-hole Diesel injector in a pressure chamber. A graphical methodology was utilized to match the spray resulting from the widely used Discrete Droplet Spray model to pressure chamber spray images. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained regarding the simulated and experimental spray penetration and cone angles. Thereafter, the combustion process in the engine was simulated. Using engine measurements to initialize the combustion chamber conditions, the compression stroke, the spray injection and the combustion simulation was performed. The novel RTZF two-zone flamelet combustion model was used for the combustion simulation and was tested for partial load operating conditions. An objective analysis of the model is presented including the results of a numerical parameter study.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations of Premixed-Charge Natural Gas Combustion in Rotary Engines

1991-02-01
910625
A three-dimensional model for premixed- charge naturally-aspirated rotary engine combustion is used to identify combustion chamber geometries that could lead to increased indicated efficiency for a lean (equivalence ratio =0.75) natural gas/air mixture. Computations were made at two rpms (1800 and 3600) and two loads (approximately 345 Kpa and 620 Kpa indicated mean effective pressure). Six configurations were studied. The configuration that gave the highest indicated efficiency has a leading pocket with a leading deep recess, two spark plugs located circumferentially on the symmetry plane (one after the minor axis and the other before), a compression ratio of 9.5, and an anti-quench feature on the trailing flank.
Technical Paper

3-D LDV Measurement of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine

1995-02-01
950648
In-cylinder flows in a motored four-valve SI engine were examined by simultaneous three-component LDV measurement. The purpose of this study was to develop better physical understanding of in-cylinder flows and quantitative methods which correlate in-cylinder flows to engine performance. This study is believed to be the first simultaneous three-component LDV measurement of the air flow over a planar section of a four-valve piston-cylinder assembly. Special attention is paid to the tumble formation process, three-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy, and measurement of the tumble ratio. The influence of the induction system and the piston geometry are believed to have a significant effect on the in-cylinder flow characteristics. Using LDV measurement, the flows in two different piston top geometries were examined. One axial plane was selected to observe the effect of piston top geometries on the flow field in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Heat Transfer in Diesel Engine Piston Cooling Galleries

2005-04-11
2005-01-1644
Ever increasing specific power of diesel engines has put huge demand on effective thermal management of the pistons for the desired reliability and durability. The piston temperature control is commonly achieved by injecting cooling oil into piston galleries, but the design of the cooling system as well as the boundary conditions used in FEA simulations have so far relied mostly on empirical methods. A numerical procedure using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has therefore been developed to simulate the cooling process and to estimate the cooling efficiency of gallery. The model is able to predict the detailed oil flow and heat transfer in gallery, of different designs and engine applications, under dynamic conditions. The resulted spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient from the CFD model, with better accuracy, enables improved prediction of piston temperature in finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

3-D Multiphase Flow Simulation of Coolant Filling and Deaeration Processes in an Engine Coolant System

2024-01-16
2024-26-0310
The thermal performance of an engine coolant system is efficient when the engine head temperature is maintained within its optimum working range. For this, it is desired that air should not be entrapped in the coolant system which can lead to localized hot spots at critical locations. However, it is difficult to eliminate the trapped air pockets completely. So, the target is to minimize the entrapped air as much as possible during the coolant filling and deaeration processes, especially in major components such as the radiator, engine head, pump etc. The filling processes and duration are typically optimized in an engine test stand along with design changes for augmenting the coolant filling efficiency. However, it is expensive and time consuming to identify air entrapped locations in tests, decide on the filling strategy and make the design changes in the piping accordingly.
X