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Technical Paper

On-Road Testing to Characterize Speed-Following Behavior in Production Automated Vehicles

A fully instrumented Tesla Model 3 was used to collect thousands of hours of real-world automated driving data, encompassing both Autopilot and Full Self-Driving modes. This comprehensive dataset included vehicle operational parameters from the data busses, capturing details such as powertrain performance, energy consumption, and the control of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Additionally, interactions with the surrounding traffic were recorded using a perception kit developed in-house equipped with LIDAR and a 360-degree camera system. We collected the data as part of a larger program to assess energy-efficient driving behavior of production connected and automated vehicles. One important aspect of characterizing the test vehicle is predicting its car-following behavior. Using both uncontrolled on-road tests and dedicated tests with a lead car performing set speed maneuvers, we tuned conventional adaptive cruise control (ACC) equations to fit the vehicle’s behavior.
Technical Paper

On-Track Measurement of Road Load Changes in Two Close-Following Vehicles: Methods and Results

As emerging automated vehicle technology is making advances in safety and reliability, engineers are also exploring improvements in energy efficiency with this new paradigm. Powertrain efficiency receives due attention, but also impactful is finding ways to reduce driving losses in coordinated-driving scenarios. Efforts focused on simulation to quantify road load improvements require a sufficient amount of background validation work to support them. This study uses a practical approach to directly quantify road load changes by testing the coordinated driving of two vehicles on a test track at various speeds (64, 88, 113 km/h) and vehicle time gaps (0.3 to 1.3 s). Axle torque sensors were used to directly measure the load required to maintain steady-state speeds while following a lead vehicle at various gap distances.
Technical Paper

Performance and Efficiency Assessment of a Production CNG Vehicle Compared to Its Gasoline Counterpart

Two modern light-duty passenger vehicles were selected for chassis dynamometer testing to evaluate differences in performance end efficiency resulting from CNG and gasoline combustion in a vehicle-based context. The vehicles were chosen to be as similar as possible apart from fuel type, sharing similar test weights and identical driveline configurations. Both vehicles were tested over several chassis dynamometer driving cycles, where it was found that the CNG vehicle exhibited 3-9% lower fuel economy than the gasoline-fueled subject. Performance tests were also conducted, where the CNG vehicle's lower tractive effort capability and longer acceleration times were consistent with the lower rated torque and power of its engine as compared to the gasoline model. The vehicles were also tested using quasi-steady-state chassis dynamometer techniques, wherein a series of engine operating points were studied.
Journal Article

Real-World Thermal Effects on Wheel Assembly Efficiency of Conventional and Electric Vehicles

It is widely understood that cold ambient temperatures negatively impact vehicle system efficiency. This is due to a combination of factors: increased friction (engine oil, transmission, and driveline viscous effects), cold start enrichment, heat transfer, and air density variations. Although the science of quantifying steady-state vehicle component efficiency is mature, transient component efficiencies over dynamic ambient real-world conditions is less understood and quantified. This work characterizes wheel assembly efficiencies of a conventional and electric vehicle over a wide range of ambient conditions. For this work, the wheel assembly is defined as the tire side axle spline, spline housing, bearings, brakes, and tires. Dynamometer testing over hot and cold ambient temperatures was conducted with a conventional and electric vehicle instrumented to determine the output energy losses of the wheel assembly in proportion to the input energy of the half-shafts.
Technical Paper

Technical Analysis of the 1994 HEV Challenge

The 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge provided the backdrop for collecting data and developing testing procedures for hybrid electric vehicle technology available at colleges and universities across North America. The data collected at the competition was analyzed using the HEV definitions from the draft SAE J1711 guidelines. The energy economy, percentage of electrical to total energy used, and acceleration performance was analyzed for any correlation between the over-the-road data and the commuter-sustaining, commuter-depleting, and reserve-sustaining hybrid vehicles. The analysis did not provide any direct correlation between over-the-road data and the three hybrid types. The analysis did show that the vehicle configurations provide the best information on vehicle performance. It was also clear that a comprehensive data analysis system along with a well-defined testing procedure would allow for a more complete analysis of the data.
Journal Article

Test Procedure Development for “Blended Type” Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles

Several plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have recently been made available by conversion companies for laboratory testing. The viability of the technology must be evaluated by dynamometer benchmark testing, but because the technology is so new, existing and new test methods must first be investigated. Converted Gen 2 Toyota Prius vehicles from Hymotion, EnergyCS, and Hybrids Plus were tested at Argonne's dynamometer facility according to general testing concepts. These vehicles all share basic attributes - all are blended type PHEVs, all use Lithium battery technology, and all deplete charge in a similar fashion (although at different rates). In a time span of one year, lessons learned from one vehicle were carried over into the next test vehicle. A minimum test method was formulated that is well suited for all these vehicles. The method was validated with two vehicles of varying charge-depleting range.

Test Results of Plug-In Vehicles According to SAE Standard Testing Practices

Over the past several years, new recommended practices for testing plug-in vehicles have been developed by SAE standards committees. At first only proprietary or prototype vehicles were available to validate new procedures. However, with the recent availability of Chevy Volt and Nissan Leaf, these test procedures were put to the test in Argonne�s National Laboratory�s dynamometer test facility. Procedures for the Volt were according to the SAE J1711 procedures. The Leaf was tested according to procedures still under development in the SAE J1634 task force. Identified were aspects of the tests that were successful and areas where more development is needed. As described in SAE J2841, the Volt results were analyzed using a �utility factor� to estimate in-use expectations of electric-only miles.
Technical Paper

Testing Hybrid Electric Vehicle Emission and Fuel Economy at the 1994 DOE/SAE Hybrid Electric Vehicle Challenge

From June 12-20, 1994, an engineering design competition called the 1994 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge was held in Southfield, Michigan. This collegiate-level competition, which involved 36 colleges and universities from across North America, challenged the teams to build a superior HEV. One component of this comprehensive competition was the emissions event. Special HEV testing procedures were developed for the competition to find vehicle emissions and correct for battery state-of-charge while fitting into event time constraints. Although there were some problems with a newly-developed data acquisition system, we were able to get a full profile of the best performing vehicles as well as other vehicles that represent typical levels of performance from the rest of the field. This paper will explain the novel test procedures, present the emissions and fuel economy results, and provide analysis of second-by-second data for several vehicles.
Technical Paper

The 1995 HEV Challenge: Results and Technology Summary

The objective of this paper is to analyze and summarize the performance results and the technology used in the 1995 Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) Challenge. Government and industry are exploring hybrid electric vehicle technology to significantly improve fuel economy and reduce emissions of the vehicles without sacrificing performance. This last in a three-year series of HEV competitions provided the testing grounds to evaluate the different approaches of 29 universities and colleges constructing HEVs. These HEVs competed in an array of events, including: acceleration, emissions testing, consumer acceptance, range, vehicle handling, HVAC testing, fuel economy, and engineering design. The teams also documented the attributes of their vehicles in the technical reports. The strategies and approaches to HEV design are analyzed on the basis of the data from each of the events. The overall performance for promising HEV approaches is also examined.
Journal Article

Validating Volt PHEV Model with Dynamometer Test Data Using Autonomie

The first commercially available Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV), the General Motors (GM) Volt, was introduced into the market in December 2010. The Volt's powertrain architecture provides four modes of operation, including two that are unique and maximize the Volt's efficiency and performance. The electric transaxle has been specially designed to enable patented operating modes both to improve the electric driving range when operating as a battery electric vehicle and to reduce fuel consumption when extending the range by operating with an internal combustion engine (ICE). However, details on the vehicle control strategy are not widely available because the supervisory control algorithm is proprietary. Since it is not possible to analyze the control without vehicle test data obtained from a well-designed Design-of-Experiment (DoE), a highly instrumented GM Volt, including thermal sensors, was tested at Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF).