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Journal Article

Development of a High Performance Natural Gas Engine with Direct Gas Injection and Variable Valve Actuation

Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engine application due to its low carbon content and high knock resistance. Performance of natural gas engines is further improved if direct injection, high turbocharger boost level, and variable valve actuation (VVA) are adopted. Also, relevant efficiency benefits can be obtained through downsizing. However, mixture quality resulting from direct gas injection has proven to be problematic. This work aims at developing a mono-fuel small-displacement turbocharged compressed natural gas engine with side-mounted direct injector and advanced VVA system. An injector configuration was designed in order to enhance the overall engine tumble and thus overcome low penetration.
Journal Article

Strategies Towards Meeting Future Particulate Matter Emission Requirements in Homogeneous Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

Since the introduction of the EURO 5 emission legislation particulate matter emissions are no longer only a concern in the development of Diesel engine powertrains. In addition to particulate mass (PM) requirements the new European legislation will also foresee the implementation of a particulate number (PN) requirement for all spark ignition (SI) vehicles with the introduction of EURO 6. Measurements with state of the art gasoline engine powered vehicles show that conventional MPFI engines are already below the future proposed limits while gasoline engines with direct injection are above these limits and will require additional development efforts. This paper discusses both fuel system component requirements as well as control strategies in support of reducing particulate emissions. On the component side, mixture formation in regard to evaporation rate and penetration is a key factor.