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Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Spark Ignition Combustion Modeling - A Comparison of Different Approaches

2013-09-08
2013-24-0022
Internal combustion engines development with increased complexity due to CO2 reduction and emissions regulation, while reducing costs and duration of development projects, makes numerical simulation essential. 1D engine simulation software response for the gas exchange process is sufficiently accurate and quick. However, combustion simulation by Wiebe function is poorly predictive. The objective of this paper is to compare different approaches for 0D Spark Ignition (SI) modeling. Versions of Eddy Burn Up, Fractal and Flame Surface Density (FSD) models have been coded into GT-POWER platform, which connects thermodynamics, gas exchange and combustion sub-models. An initial flame kernel is imposed and then, the flame front propagates spherically in the combustion chamber. Flame surface is tabulated as a function of piston position and flame radius. The modeling of key features of SI combustion such as laminar flame speed and thickness and turbulence was common.
Technical Paper

Zero-Venting, Regenerable, Lightweight Heat Rejection for EVA Suits

2005-07-11
2005-01-2974
Future space exploration missions will require a lightweight spacesuit that expends no consumables. This paper describes the design and performance of a prototype heat rejection system that weighs less than current systems and vents zero water. The system uses regenerable LiCl/water absorption cooling. Absorption cooling boosts the heat absorbed from the crew member to a high temperature for rejection to space from a compact, non-venting radiator. The system is regenerated by heating to 100°C for two hours. The system provides refrigeration at 17°C and rejects heat at temperatures greater than 50°C. The overall cooling capacity is over 100 W-hr/kg.
Technical Paper

Zero-dimensional Model and Pressure Data Analysis of a Variable-Displacement Lubricating Vane Pump

2009-06-15
2009-01-1859
A zero-dimensional dynamic model was developed in the Matlab/Simulink® environment to predict the behaviour of a variable-displacement lubricating vane pump for internal combustion engine applications. Based on the geometric and kinematic characteristics of the pump, the model allows predictions of the pressure evolution in each chamber of the pump and in the delivery piping, by employing an integrative-derivative approach. Simulation results were compared with experimental data of pressure transducers, which were fitted along the periphery of the pump case and in the delivery channel. The analysis of the experimental data shows that the pressure dynamics, which is experienced by the transducers, is in some cases quite different from the pressure dynamics in the pump chambers and produces pressure peaks which are not actually present in the original signal. The pressure transducers output was then also modelled in order to properly compare simulation results and experimental data.
Technical Paper

Zero-dimensional Modeling of Flame Propagation During Combustion of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Mixtures

2023-04-11
2023-01-0190
To achieve global climate goals, greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced. The energy and transportation sectors are responsible for about one third of the greenhouse gases emitted worldwide, and they often use internal combustion engines (ICE). One effective way to decarbonize ICEs may be to replace carbon-containing fossil fuels such as natural gas entirely, or at least partially, with hydrogen. Cost-effective development of sustainable combustion concepts for hydrogen and natural gas/hydrogen mixtures in ICEs requires the intensive use of fast and robust simulation tools for prediction. The key challenge is appropriate modeling of flame front propagation. This paper evaluates and applies different approaches to modeling laminar flame speeds from the literature. Both appropriate models and reaction kinetic calculations are considered.
Technical Paper

Zeroshift Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)

2007-01-17
2007-26-061
Zeroshift technology allows a manual transmission to change gear in zero seconds. The Zeroshift Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) is easy to manufacture and allows a cost effective alternative to the traditional torque converter based automatic transmission. Zeroshift offers potential fuel economy improvements from driveline efficiency and the best possible vehicle acceleration. Compared to an existing AMT, Zeroshift offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This seminal paper provides an introduction to the technology together with test data from a demonstrator vehicle.
Technical Paper

Zeroshift. A Seamless Automated Manual Transmission (AMT)With No Torque Interrupt

2007-04-16
2007-01-1307
Zeroshift technology allows a manual transmission to change gear in zero time. The Zeroshift automated manual transmission (AMT) is easy to manufacture and allows a cost effective alternative to the traditional torque converter based automatic transmission. Zeroshift offers potential fuel economy improvements from driveline efficiency and the best possible vehicle acceleration. Compared to an existing AMT, Zeroshift offers an uninterrupted torque path from the engine to vehicle which allows for a seamless gearshift. This paper provides an introduction to the technology together with test data from a demonstrator vehicle.
Technical Paper

Zinc Alloy Engine Components

1988-02-01
880286
The ZA series of zinc alloys produce high strength die castings with the same cast-to size capability as the well proven SAE 903 alloy. The enhanced properties have been utilised in the two engine components described in this paper. ZA 27 has been used for the tooth belt drive camshaft pulley of a motorcycle engine and ZA8 has been used for the temperature resistant housing of a car ignition distributor.
Technical Paper

Zinc Distribution in Vacuum Brazed Alclad Brazing Sheet

1978-02-01
780301
Vacuum brazing technology is currently capable of producing aluminum automotive heat exchangers such as radiators and heater cores. The possible use of 7072 claddings on the surfaces exposed to the coolant to provide additional corrosion protection is of considerable interest. This paper describes the effect of typical vacuum brazing cycles on the distribution of zinc in 7072 clad vacuum brazing sheet. For heavier gauges (.05″), there is sufficient retained zinc in the post-braze composite. For lighter gauges (.02″ or less), nominal composition 7072 does not provide adequate retained zinc; however, if the initial zinc concentration is increased to 3% there is sufficient retained zinc so that the cladding is significantly more anodic than the core.
Technical Paper

Zinc Soldered Copper and Brass Radiators: Their Processing and Their Test Results

1992-02-01
920177
Copper and brass radiators have served the automobile industry for many years using traditional fabrication processes. Demand for newer and stronger radiators with lighter weight for the modern vehicles prompted investigation of alternate materials. Properties of zinc alloys and their compatibility with brass suggested these could be used for radiator manufacture. Many zinc alloy compositions were investigated in the initial studies, because a solder alloy has to have many positive attributes. The first screening studies evaluated the ability of the solder to spread over copper and brass surfaces, representing tube, fin, and header materials. The second most important feature was the melting range of the developed alloy. In order to retain the anneal resistance of the fin and temper in the tube it was desirable to have a zinc solder with a melting temperature at 800°F or less.
Technical Paper

Zinc-Air Batteries for Electric Vehicles

1991-09-01
911912
This paper describes a design for an electric vehicle (EV) battery system using a secondary (rechargeable) lead-acid section for power and a recyclable (mechanically replaced) primary zinc-air section for range. This approach optimizes the performance of each battery, resulting in a system with driving performance (acceleration, range, and refueling time) equal to that for internal combustion vehicles (ICVs). The physical characteristics of the system's components are highly compatible with their ICV counterparts, resulting in a substantial reduction in the cost of building prototype vehicles. The overall cost of the rechargeable/recyclable approach is estimated to be equal to that for the traditional single rechargeable battery approach.
Technical Paper

Zirconia Based Ceramic, In-Cylinder Coatings and Aftertreatment Oxidation Catalysts for Reduction of Emissions from Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970469
Diesel engines are coming under stricter requirements to reduce emissions. particularly those of particulates and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Recently, the U. S. EPA put into place staged requirements for heavy duty diesel engines in urban bus applications which are aimed at ultimately bringing pre-1994 engines into particulate emissions compliance with 1994 heavy duty on-road truck standards (0. 1 g/bhp-hr TPM). This reflects the need to control emissions in crowded urban environments. Zirconia based ceramic combustion management coatings, although originally developed for adiabatic or low heat rejection engines to boost thermal efficiency, have also been shown to contribute to the reduction in diesel emissions. Heavy duty transient testing of rebuilt 2-stroke MUI diesel bus engines equipped with stabilized zirconia based coatings applied by thermal spray process have shown significant reduction in exhaust opacity relative to a baseline, uncoated engine.
Article

Zwick Roell provides flexible materials testing over a wide temperature range

2018-10-19
To enable the tests required for development work to be performed with maximum efficiency, the Zwick Roell Group (ZwickRoell) – a global supplier of materials testing machines based out of Ulm, Germany – developed a materials testing machine that can be equipped with both a temperature chamber and a high-temperature furnace.
Technical Paper

a new look at High Compression Engines

1959-01-01
590015
THE automotive and petroleum industries have been concerned for many years with the mutual problem of improving the thermal efficiency of gasoline engines. Great progress in refining technology, as well as advances in engine design in recent years, have made it desirable to take a new look at high-compression engines. This paper describes an investigation of the effect of compression ratio on engine efficiency over a range of compression ratios from 9/1 to 25/1. The results show that the thermal efficiency of the multicylinder engines used in this study peaked at a compression ratio of 17/1. The decrease in thermal efficiency at higher compression ratios is due primarily to delay in the completion of the combustion process. This paper received the 1958 Horning Memorial Award.
Technical Paper

a progress report — Dry-Type Air Cleaners on Farm Tractors

1959-01-01
590026
GREATER ease of servicing is one of the ultimate goals in the development of dry-type air cleaners. The authors acknowledge, however, that the oil-bath cleaner is a rugged proved component that has done a good job for the farmers who serviced it properly. This paper describes studies made in Illinois of oil-bath and dry air cleaners in field service. At the same fuel/air ratios, the maximum horsepower of a test engine was greater with the dry-type filter than with the oil-bath cleaner. It was found that with AC fine dust and steady airflow, the oil-bath cleaners had significantly lower efficiencies than the dry-type filter. At less than rated airflow the efficiency of the oil-bath cleaner decreased while that of the dry filter remained high.
Technical Paper

a study of Self-Contained Starting Systems for Turbojet and Turboprop Engines

1960-01-01
600011
SUBSTANTIAL POWER is necessary to start the modern jet engine. Thus, starting equipment has become a major concern of air transport operators. This paper discusses the equipment used with self-contained starting systems. The authors discuss and evaluate a variety of self-contained systems: combustor, fuel-air combustion, cartridge, liquid propellant, hydraulic supported by auxiliary power units, and electric supported by APU. Possible future systems are: self-breathing systems, oxygen combustors, and liquid-oxygen-water-fuel combustors. It is emphasized that the choice of a starting system for a particular aircraft will depend on aircraft characteristics and the aircraft's intended use.*
Technical Paper

a universal means for Rating Diesel Engines for Deposits and Wear

1960-01-01
600066
THE NEW CRC Diesel Engine Rating Manual is intended to furnish a universal language for identification of diesel-engine deposits and wear. Diesel-engine pistons are evaluated for lacquer deposits by utilizing an area demerit basis and color gradations of brown and gray from clean to black. In studying various means for evaluating thickness and texture of deposit in oil systems, it was decided that the scratch gage developed by the CRC Engine Deposit Rating Panel of the CRC-Motor Engine Varnish and Sludge Group was suitable for diesel engines. A procedure for establishing a volume factor which furnishes a weighted interpretation of the deposit was created.*
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

1959-01-01
590049
AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2009-04-20
2009-01-1125
Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

basic design of Turbochargers for diesel engines

1960-01-01
600007
ALTHOUGH turbocharging of low-speed diesel engines has been used world-wide for a long time, it is only during recent years that it has been applied to high-speed diesels. This is the result of considerable engineering efforts from both the turbocharger and the diesel side that were put into the turbocharger, which appears to be a so utterly simple device. This paper de­scribes some of these engineering efforts. The basic design characteristics are developed with the point of view in mind that the turbo­charger has become much more than just an ad­ditional accessory. It is a vital component of the basic engine itself, contributing actively to the advancement of this prime mover. The basic de­sign characteristics center heavily around aero­dynamical and thermodynamical performance cri­teria which are so important in any advanced high-speed turbomachine.
Technical Paper

considerations of some JET-DEFLECTION PRINCIPLES for - - directional control - - lift

1958-01-01
580062
THE performance characteristics of various devices applicable for jet directional control, lift augmentation, and VTOL-STOL studied at the NACA Lewis Laboratory are discussed, including jet deflection devices applicable to the conventonal round nozzle and novel nozzle configurations. The results indicate that many of the deflection devices applicable to conventional nozzles can readily be used for directional control or lift augmentation. Other deflection devices, such as movable plug, internal flap, cylindrical thrust reverser, swiveled primary with fixed shroud, and 90 deg side-bleed nozzle, are limited in application to jet directional control or aircraft trim because the loss in axial thrust for a given deflection force is prohibitive or the maximum deflected force obtainable is limited.
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