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Technical Paper

ɸ-Sensitivity Evaluation of n-Butanol and Iso-Butanol Blends with Surrogate Gasoline

Using renewable fuels is a reliable approach for decarbonization of combustion engines. iso-Butanol and n-butanol are known as longer chain alcohols and have the potential of being used as gasoline substitute or a renewable fraction of gasoline. The combustion behavior of renewable fuels in modern combustion engines and advanced combustion concepts is not well understood yet. Low-temperature combustion (LTC) is a concept that is a basis for some of the low emissions-high efficiency combustion technologies. Fuel ɸ-sensitivity is known as a key factor to be considered for tailoring fuels for these engines. The Lund ɸ-sensitivity method is an empirical test method for evaluation of the ɸ-sensitivity of liquid fuels and evaluate fuel behavior in thermal. iso-Butanol and n-butanol are two alcohols which like other alcohol exhibit nonlinear behavior when blended with (surrogate) gasoline in terms of RON and MON.
Technical Paper

Φ-Sensitivity for LTGC Engines: Understanding the Fundamentals and Tailoring Fuel Blends to Maximize This Property

Φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. A fuel is φ-sensitive if its autoignition reactivity varies with the fuel/air equivalence ratio (φ). Thus, multiple-injection strategies can be used to create a φ-distribution that leads to several benefits. First, the φ-distribution causes a sequential autoignition that reduces the maximum heat release rate. This allows higher loads without knock and/or advanced combustion timing for higher efficiencies. Second, combustion phasing can be controlled by adjusting the fuel-injection strategy. Finally, experiments show that intermediate-temperature heat release (ITHR) increases with φ-sensitivity, increasing the allowable combustion retard and improving stability. A detailed mechanism was applied using CHEMKIN to understand the chemistry responsible for φ-sensitivity.
Technical Paper

α-Pinene - A High Energy Density Biofuel for SI Engine Applications

This study proposes a novel biofuel for spark ignition (SI) engine, α-pinene (C10H16), which is non-oxygenated and thus has a gravimetric energy density comparable to that of hydrocarbon fuels. The ignition characteristics of α-pinene were evaluated in an ignition quality tester (IQT) under standard temperature and pressure conditions. The measured ignition delay time (IDT) of α-pinene is 10.5 ms, which is lower than that of iso-octane, 17.9 ms. The estimated research octane number (RON) for pinene from IQT is 85. A temperature sweep in IQT showed that that α-pinene is less reactive at low temperatures, but more reactive at high temperatures when compared to isooctane. These results suggest that α-pinene has high octane sensitivity (OS) and is suitable for operation in turbocharged SI engines. With these considerations, α-pinene was operated in a single cylinder SI engine.
Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Technical Paper

μ - Synthesis of Robust Control on Active Mounts for Vehicle Vibration Reduction

This paper presents a new design method for solving the vehicle vibration problem induced by engine drive, by using a μ-synthesis. We have tried the active control of engine mounts to insulate the vibration of engine. We experimented on the effects by using computer simulation and vibration simulator. Computer simulation results show that resonance peak can be effectively reduced. We have also confirmed the effect of vibration simulator, which shall be reported in this paper.
Technical Paper

‘Bigelow Aerospace® Life Support Laboratory - Planning and Status’

This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
Technical Paper

‘FM’ - A High Efficiency Combustion System for the Future Light Duty Engine?

Consideration of the approaching ‘energy crisis’ reveals two requirements for future light duty automotive engines. 1) maximum economy and 2) the ability (perhaps with detail design re-optimisation) to accept a range of fuels of petroleum or other extract, of differing ignition characteristics. One combustion system which meets these requirements is the MAN ‘FM’, the potential of which has already been demonstrated in truck-size engines but on which little information has been published in light-duty engine bore sizes. The paper describes both design and experimental work carried out to evaluate the application of the FM combustion system to a light duty passenger car engine. Consideration is given to the critical design parameters associated with the application of the FM system to a multi-cylinder gasoline based engine and how the criteria can be met. Details of the design and construction of a single cylinder derivative of the multi-cylinder engine are given.
Technical Paper

“A Successful Electronic Ignition System thru Fundamental Problem Analysis”

For 1974, Ford Motor Company is providing, as standard equipment, a solid state ignition system on all 400 CID and 460 CID engines as well as on all California vehicles equipped with 200 through 351 CID engines. This paper explains the Ford solid state ignition system and the objectives and design philosophy that was used in the development of the system. Further, a review of the design and production validation test plans is discussed. With this background, specific examples of the effectiveness of complete problem analysis for fundamental cause and corrective action is presented in addition to control methods and evaluation of corrective action. This problem analysis system allowed this automotive electronic product to go into production with a high degree of confidence in meeting the reliability goals.
Technical Paper

“All Electric” Controls and Accessories for Ground Vehicle Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems

This paper discusses the use of electromechanical devices as the kinematic portions of a microprocessor based gas turbine control system. Specific applications are: 1. An electric motor driven, positive displacement pump, which provides metered high pressure fuel to the distribution manifold. Fuel metering to be provided by varying the motor angular velocity. 2. An electric motor driven lube oil pump. 3. Electromechnical actuators for motion and control of compressor and power turbine variable geometry. 4. A starter/generator integral with the gas generator. Topics covered include: Comparison to conventional hydro-mechanical systems. Response characteristics of the fuel pump and actuator systems. Brushless D.C. motor characteristics. Power electronics requirements for brushless D.C. motors. Control electronics interface with brushless D.C. motor systems. Reliability and maintainability issues. Diagnostic/prognostic enhancements.
Technical Paper

“Buckling” Failure Assessment for Long Cylinders

A new method for the structural study of long hydraulic cylinders has been developed. The rational analysis, taking cognizance of most known conditions and disturbances, is capable of an iterative type solution by computer. Some examples of its use are given, illustrating the effects of stroke length and mounting position on stresses, deflections, internal bearing loads, and critical axial load.
Technical Paper

“Build Your Hybrid” - A Novel Approach to Test Various Hybrid Powertrain Concepts

Powertrain electrification is becoming increasingly common in the transportation sector to address the challenges of global warming and deteriorating air quality. This paper introduces a novel “Build Your Hybrid” approach to experience and test various hybrid powertrain concepts. This approach is applied to the light commercial vehicles (LCV) segment due to the attractive combination of a Diesel engine and a partly electrified powertrain. For this purpose, a demonstrator vehicle has been set up with a flexible P02 hybrid topology and a prototype Hybrid Control Unit (HCU). Based on user input, the HCU software modifies the control functions and simulation models to emulate different sub-topologies and levels of hybridization in the demonstrator vehicle. Three powertrain concepts are considered for LCVs: HV P2, 48V P2 and 48V P0 hybrid. Dedicated hybrid control strategies are developed to take full advantage of the synergies of the electrical system and reduce CO2 and NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

“Catalytic Engine” NOx Reduction of Diesel Engines with New Concept Onboard Ammonia Synthesis System

Ammonia is one of the most useful compounds that react with NOx selectively on a catalyst, such as V2O5-TiO2, under oxygen containing exhaust gas. However ammonia cannot be stored because of its toxicity for the small power generator in populated areas or for the diesel vehicles. A new concept for NOx reduction in diesel engine using ammonia is introduced. This system is constructed from the hydrogen generator by fuel reformer, the ammonia synthesizer, SCR catalyst for NOx reduction and the gas injection system of reformed gas into the cylinder. Experimental results show that, the SCR catalyst provides a very high rate of NOx reduction, reformed gas injection into cylinder is very effective for particulate reduction. WHEN CONSIDERING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES of the 1990's the question of how to harmonize the engine with the natural environments is one of the greatest problems. The internal combustion engine changes a substance into energy via its explosive combustion.
Technical Paper

“Consumer Attitudes and Perceptions about Safety and Their Preferences and Willingness to Pay for Safety”

The U.S. National Highway Transportation and Safety Agency's (NHTSA) early estimates of Motor Traffic Fatalities in 2009 in the United States [1] show continuing progress on improving traffic safety on the U.S. roadways. The number of total fatalities and the fatality rate per 100 Million Vehicle Miles (MVM), both show continuing declines. In the 10 year period from 1999 through 2009, the total fatalities have dropped from 41,611 to 33,963 and the fatality rate has dropped from 1.5 fatalities per 100MVM to 1.16 fatalities per 100MVM, a compound annual drop of 2.01% and 2.54% respectively. The large number of traffic fatalities, and the slowing down of the fatality rate decline, compared to the decade before, continues to remain a cause of concern for regulators.
Technical Paper

“Cromard” Thin Wall Steel Liners and Hard Chrome Plated Liners for High Production Gasoline and Diesel Engines

This paper, confined to the application of hard chrome plated liners to high-speed four-stroke diesel and gasoline engines, illustrates the increase in their popularity in the United Kingdom, and the advanced production methods which make this economically possible. The need for balanced engine life has long been apparent and is even more important today, the growth of motor transport having outstripped repair facilities. Iron bore life has been surpassed by improvement in the life of other component parts in the modern diesel engine. The provision of hard chrome plated liners can restore the balance. Further development and turbocharging of diesel engines has shown the need for a bore material capable of preventing scuffing and galling at elevated temperatures. Hard chrome has already proved itself in four-stroke engines under these conditions.
Technical Paper

“Doing More with Less” - The Fuel Economy Benefits of Cooled EGR on a Direct Injected Spark Ignited Boosted Engine

Due to the rising costs of fuel and increasingly stringent regulations, auto makers are in need of technology to enable more fuel-efficient powertrain technologies to be introduced to the marketplace. Such powertrains must not sacrifice performance, safety or driver comfort. Today's engine and powertrain manufacturers must, therefore, do more with less by achieving acceptable vehicle performance while reducing fuel consumption. One effective method to achieve this is the extreme downsizing of current direct injection spark ignited (DISI) engines through the use of high levels of boosting and cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Key challenges to highly downsized gasoline engines are retarded combustion to prevent engine knocking and the necessity to operate at air/fuel ratios that are significantly richer than the stoichiometric ratio.
Technical Paper

“Experimental Investigations on NOx Reduction Using Antioxidant Additives in Conjunction with SCR in a Diesel Engine Powered by Ricinus Communis Biodiesel”

The current study has concentrated on discovering and developing clean alternative energy sources like biodiesel and employing novel methods to reduce harmful emissions and enhance engine performance behavior. The consumption of biodiesel in diesel engines reduces the emissions from the tailpipe, but some researchers claim that it actually produces more NOx pollution than engines that run on regular diesel, which limits the use of biodiesel. In this study, Ricinus communis biodiesel was generated through transesterification process, and its fuel properties were assessed. The employ of biodiesel in diesel engines minimize exhaust emissions; however, multiple investigators claim that the consumption of biodiesel generates greater amounts of nitrogen oxide pollutants than diesel-fueled engines, which limits the possibility of biodiesel usage.