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Technical Paper

“Hot Tube Test”-Analysis of Lubricant Effect on Diesel Engine Scuffing

1984-02-01
840262
To prevent engine scuffing in the field a new laboratory test called the Hot Tube Test has been established in order to evaluate the high temperature stability of diesel engine oils. In a strip mining application field test using 47 bulldozers powered by the same engine type, half of the engines suffered from piston scuffing failures when operated on a variety of commercially available API CD quality SAE 30 Grade engine oils. All the field test oils have been investigated using the Hot Tube Test, and an analysis of the results indicates that it would be possible to accurately predict scuffing failures by this test method. Furthermore, the reliability of this analysis has been verified by bench engine testing on reference oils. The reasons why the Hot Tube Test predicts the anti-scuffing performance of engine oils are discussed.
Technical Paper

“Influence of Engine Variables on Exhaust Oxides of Nitrogen Concentrations from a Multi-Cylinder Engine”

1967-02-01
670482
The influence of engine variables on the concentration of oxides of nitrogen present in the exhaust of a multicylinder engine was studied. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) were measured with either a mass spectrometer or a non-dispersive infrared analyzer. The NO concentration was low for rich operation (deficient in oxygen) and increased with air-fuel ratio to a peak value at ratios slightly leaner than stoichiometric proportions. A further increase in air-fuel ratio resulted in reduced NO concentrations. Advanced spark timing, decreased manifold vacuum, increased coolant temperature and combustion chamber deposit buildup were also found to increase exhaust NO concentration. These results support either directly or indirectly the hypothesis that exhaust NO concentration is primarily a result of the peak combustion gas temperature and the available oxygen.
Technical Paper

“LABORATORY OCTANE RATINGS WHAT DO THEY MEAN?”

1957-01-01
570099
The results of several anti-knock studies are discussed in this paper. Road anti-knock performance for 1000 fuel blends covering the years 1940 to 1957 have been investigated. The laboratory Research octane numbers of these fuels covered the range from 80 to 105. The fuels were evaluated in 46 cars representing a cross-section of the automotive products for these years. The objective of these investigations was to determine the practical application of the laboratory to road octane rating relationships, and the effect of vehicles, and operating conditions on these relationships. The results show that there is a valid correlation between laboratory and road octane ratings. The relative importance of Research and Motor octane ratings on road performance is influenced by make of car, engine speed, throttle position, and distributor advance characteristics. It also indicated that aromatics improve, whereas olefins reduce high speed Modified Borderline ratings.
Technical Paper

“MBE 4000-A New Engine for the US Class 8 Truck Market”

2000-12-04
2000-01-3457
Due to ever soaring fuel costs and even more stringent emission regulations which require more elaborate technical efforts and unfortunately lead to a negative trend on fuel economy as well, todays and future trucking business is extremely challenged. These facts create an urgent requirement for the engine manufacturer to offer an engine with an optimized cost-benefit-ratio for the trucking business. Mercedes-Benz, as the leader in the European commercial vehicle market - of which e. g. high fuel costs, long maintenance intervals and high engine power-to-weight ratios have always been key characteristics - has developed a new class 8 engine for the US market. The MBE 4000 is a 6 cylinder inline engine in the compact size and low weight category, but due to its displacement of 12,8 liters it offers high performance characteristics like heavier big block engines.
Technical Paper

“Nucleate Boiling Investigations and the Effects of Surface Roughness”

1999-03-01
1999-01-0577
The findings presented in this paper are part of a long term project aimed at raising the science of heat transfer in internal combustion engine cooling galleries. Initial work has been undertaken by the authors and an experimental facility is able to simulate different sizes of coolant passages. External heat is applied and data for the forced convective, nucleate boiling and transition or critical heat flux (CHF) regimes has been obtained. The results highlighted in this paper attempt to quantify the effects of cooling passage surface roughness on the nucleate boiling regime. Tests have been conducted using aluminium test pieces with surface finishes described as smooth, intermediate and as-cast. It has been found that the as-cast surface increases the heat flux density in the nucleate boiling region over that of the smooth and intermediate surfaces.
Technical Paper

“OPERAS” In Advanced Diesel Engines for Commercial and Military Applications

2006-04-03
2006-01-0927
Advanced diesel engines developed for the commercial market need to be adapted to the military requirements by OPERAS (Optimizing the injection pressure P, the Exhaust gas recirculation E, injection events Retard and/or Advance and the swirl ratio S). The different after treatment devices, already used or expected to be applied to diesel engines, require feed gases of appropriate properties for their efficient operation. To produce these gases some OPERAS are needed to control the diesel combustion process. Since military vehicles do not need the after treatment devices, the OPERAS of the commercial engines should be modified to meet the military requirements for high power density, better fuel economy, reduction of parasitic losses caused by the cooled EGR system, and reduction of invisible black and white smoke in the field.
Technical Paper

“Omega” Fin Design for Enhanced Cooling Capability on IGBTs

2020-04-14
2020-01-0597
Vehicle electrification is a rapidly growing and developing technology. As with any new technology there are hurdles that must be overcome as development marches forward. Overcoming these obstacles will require new and innovative solutions. One area of electrification that is quickly developing is the ability to convert voltage from AC to DC and from DC to AC. This is important since the battery pack outputs a DC voltage which must be converted to AC to drive the electric motor. The reverse is true when braking, the AC voltage generated by the electric motor is converted to DC in order to charge the battery. The conversion of voltage back and forth is controlled through the use of an inverter. The inverter uses Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors or IGBTs which generate heat while in operation. As the IGBTs heat up their efficiency goes down. In order to maintain a high level of efficiency the circuity can be directly cooled through the use of a heat sink.
Technical Paper

“OptiVent” - A New Approach for Controlling Mass Air Flow and Combustion in Direct Injection SI-Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-0592
Combustion concepts for future SI engines try to meet CO2-emission commitments and legislation all over the world. Where the Diesel engine has an advantage by principle, the efficiency of the SI engine has to be improved significantly, while of course the exhaust emissions must not become worse. An approach is to reduce the gas exchange losses using fully variable valve trains on the intake side of the combustion engine. OptiVent is a patented new way of controlling the mass air flow in the cylinder of a combustion engine using opening valves during the compression phase of a four stroke engine. This technology regards a wider range of variability on the valvetrain components of the engine especially for opening the valves more than one time during a cycle. On the other hand it is necessary to combine this technology with direct injection to avoid fuel losses in the exhaust system and raising the exhaust hydrocarbon emission of the engine.
Technical Paper

“Optimization of Operational Parameters on Engine Performance and Emissions of a Diesel Engine Powered with Mimusops Elengi Methyl Ester with Doped TiO2 Nanoparticle with Varying Injection Pressure”

2022-12-23
2022-28-0574
The current research was aimed at determining the most effective way to use alternative renewable feedstock to power a diesel engine. Mimusops elengi, a new and novel biofuel was recognized for this current study, which is widely available in the south of India. The investigation was conducted on B20 volume basis (20% Mimusops elengi methyl ester blended with 80% diesel). Furthermore, it was recognized that when the performance characteristics were traded off, the emission magnitude has slightly higher. To address the diesel engine pollution, an oxygenated nano additive like titanium oxide was dissipated only with the fuel blend at distinct mass fractions of 25 parts per million (ppm) with differing injection pressures of 180 bar, 200 bar, 220 bar, and 240 bar. The tests were created using a statistical programme known as design of experiments, which is purely based on Taguchi and response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

“Performance Emission Parameters Behavior of a DI Diesel Engine Using Al2O3 and TiO2 Nano Additive Biodiesel Blends”

2023-11-10
2023-28-0127
This study mainly focuses on the blending of Alumina and Titanium oxide nanoparticles (NP’s) in Spirulina biodiesel blends (SB20) to estimate the influence of engine (combustion, performance and emission) parameters of a diesel engine. The characterization of Al2O3 and TiO2 NP’s like SEM were reported. By using various fuel samples such as Diesel, SB20, SB20+40 ppm AO, SB20+80 ppm AO, SB20+40 ppm TO and SB20+80 ppm TO, the engine tests on the diesel engine were conducted at various load conditions. The BTE for SB20+80 ppm AO were enhanced by 12.35% and 8.4 % compared to the SB20 fuel and SB20+40 ppm AO fuel samples. The combustion parameters were improved for the NP’s as additives (Al2O3 and TiO2) fuels than the SB20 fuel sample because NP’s contain oxygen content. The parameters of engine exhaust emissions such as HC, CO and smoke are drastically diminished for the SB20+40 ppm AO, SB20+80 ppm AO, SB20+40 ppm TO and SB20+80 ppm TO fuels compared to the SB20 fuel.
Technical Paper

“Prediction of In-Cylinder Pressure, Temperature, and Loads Related to the Crank Slider Mechanism of I.C. Engines: A Computational Model”

2003-03-03
2003-01-0728
This paper describes the initial works related to the study of Internal Combustion Engines, as an object of mechanical design, at the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira. It is reported a concise, complete methodology for simple model of internal combustion engine. The emphasis of the paper is placed on the use of the in-cylinder parameters (pressure and temperature) and inertial loads in the crank-slider mechanism to derive the loads that act on all the components of the crank-slider mechanism as well as the theoretical output torque for a given geometrical structure and inertial properties. These loads can then be used to estimate the preliminary dimensions of engine components in the initial stage of engine development. To obtain the pressure and temperature inside the cylinder, under different operation parameters, such as air fuel ratio and spark angle advance, a Zero dimensional model is applied. The heat transfer from the cylinder and friction are not taken into account.
Technical Paper

“Real-Time Estimation of Soot for a Wall Flow DPF Regeneration Management and an Efficient DOE for Model Calibration.”

2021-09-22
2021-26-0333
Estimation of soot deposited on a wall flow type DPF, is a vital information to ensure safe and efficient DPF management. Accuracy in determining mass of soot present inside the DPF ensures a correct regeneration management strategy in-terms of fuel efficiency and DPF safety considering soot overloading and too frequent regenerations. It also ensures an efficient detection of anomalies in the PM filtration mandated by the BSVI/EURO VI legislation as a part of On-board diagnostics. Classical approach of determining soot present inside DPF involves monitoring increase in pressure drop. Real time usage of such a model is limited by the inaccuracy of measuring pressure drop at low exhaust flows. Hence, contemporary engine controllers use pressure drop based models as a failsafe and estimate DPF soot loading by modelling soot release rate due to engine combustion and the rate at which it is oxidized.
Technical Paper

“Second-Generation” SAE 5W-30 Passenger Car Engine Oils

1986-10-01
861515
High performance lubricant additive systems have been developed to formulate SAE 5W-30 passenger car engine oils which meet current and anticipated requirements of the North American original equipment manufacturers. The trend in North America is to recommend SAE 5W-30 oils that not only meet the API SF requirements for gasoline engines (“first-generation” oils), but also meet the stringent API CC requirement for light duty diesel engines (“second-generation” oils). Furthermore, the engine builders have issued “world specifications” for motor oils which incorporate additional “second-generation” SAE 5W-30 characteristics, such as enhanced API SF limits, improved fuel efficiency, an increased margin of bearing protection, and lower finished-oil phosphorus levels. The additive systems described herein exceed API SF and CC requirements as well as “second-generation” performance hurdles.
Technical Paper

“TFC/IW in 1982”

1982-02-01
820301
TFC/IW, total fuel consumption divided by inertia weight is reported with other engineering variables for recent EPA data for industry passenger cars and truck. TFC/IW is used in comparisons between gasoline and diesel engines, 49 States and California, passenger cars and trucks. The California fuel economy penalty due to more stringent emissions standards is discussed. The relationship between TFC/IW and ton miles per gallon is shown. Special attention is focused on 4 cylinder gasoline powered vehicles in 49 States passenger car fleet. The use of TFC/IW to answer the question, ‘What Changed?’ when comparing the fuel economies of two fleets is described.
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