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Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery by an Organic Rankine Cycle for Heavy Duty Vehicles

The use of reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) dominates the sector of the in-the-road transportation sector, both for light and heavy duties. CO2 reduction is the technological driver, considering the severe worldwide greenhouse commitments. In ICE more than one third of the fuel energy used is rejected to the environment as thermal waste through the exhaust gases. Therefore, a greater fuel economy could be achieved, recovering this energy and converting it into useful electric power on board. Financial benefits will be produced in terms of fuel cost which will rebound similar benefits in terms of CO2 emitted. For long hauling vehicles, which run for thousands of miles, frequently at fixed engine operating conditions, this recovery appears very worthy of attention. In this activity, an ORC-based power unit was designed, built and tested fed by a heavy duty diesel engine, so contributing to the huge efforts on going in that specific sector.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery from Multiple Heat Sources in a HD Truck Diesel Engine Using a Rankine Cycle - A Theoretical Evaluation

Few previous publications investigate the possibility of combining multiple waste heat sources in a combustion engine waste heat recovery system. A waste heat recovery system for a HD truck diesel engine is evaluated for utilizing multiple heat sources found in a conventional HD diesel engine. In this type of engine more than 50% of heat energy goes futile. The majority of the heat energy is lost through engine exhaust and cooling devices such as EGRC (Exhaust gas recirculation cooler), CAC (Charge air cooler) and engine cooling. In this paper, the potential of usable heat recuperation from these devices using thermodynamic analysis was studied, and also an effort is made to recuperate most of the available heat energy that would otherwise be lost. A well-known way of recuperating this heat energy is by employing a Rankine cycle circuit with these devices as heat sources (single loop or dual loop), and thus this study is focused on using a Rankine cycle for the heat recovery system.
Technical Paper

Waste Heat Recovery on a Diesel-Electric Hybrid Bus Using a Turbogenerator

An increase in global oil consumption, coupled with a peak in oil production, has seen the price of fuel escalate in recent years, and consequently the transport sector must take measures to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles. Similarly, ever-tightening emissions legislation is forcing automotive manufacturers to invest in technology to reduce toxic emissions. In response to these concerns, this project aims to address one of the fundamental issues with the Internal Combustion Engine - approximately one third of the fuel energy supplied to the engine is lost as heat through the exhaust system. The specific aim of this project is to reduce the fuel consumption of a diesel-electric hybrid bus by recovering some of this waste heat and converting it to useful power. This report details how turbocompounding can be applied to the engine, via the inclusion of a turbogenerator, and assesses its waste heat recovery performance.
Journal Article

Waste Heat Recovery: The Next Challenge for Commercial Vehicle Thermomanagement

A significant driver for the development of future commercial vehicles is likely to be the introduction of fuel consumption related legislation in various regions around the world. The application of a waste heat recovery system to the powertrain of such vehicles is seen as a possible step, amongst many, to help them achieve the required fuel economy. In particular, the Rankine Cycle (a closed steam cycle) is often proposed as a potential means for deriving work from the engine exhaust heat. Rankine Cycle systems are already in use in off-highway applications, such as stationary engines or marine power-packs. However, the technical and commercial viability of these systems for on-highway, principally long haul truck application is as yet unproven. Aspects such as the in-use economy benefits, the system performance density, the component robustness and all interactions with the other vehicle systems have to be evaluated.
Technical Paper

Water Cooling System Analysis of Permanent Magnet Traction Motor of Mining Electric-Drive Dump Truck

The large power mining dump truck usually has electric drive system for the harsh operating conditions of mining. The traction motor and multi-stage reducer are assembled in the limited space of the two rear wheels. The permanent magnet motor is often used as traction motor for its much advantage characteristic. However, the permanent magnet is particularly sensitive to the high temperatures since it can loose a part of magnetization when it is exposed to a high temperature. It is necessary to have better cooling system for improvement thermal performance of permanent magnet (PM) motor. The heat losses generated by permanent magnet motor in the off-road electric driving truck are cooled by the water to maintain the motor working effectively. This paper is focus on analyzing the thermal behavior of the PM motor numerically and experimentally.
Technical Paper

Water Quality Control in Fluid Power Systems Using Tap Water as a Pressure Medium

Measuring water quality and preventing drawbacks caused by deteriorated water quality in tap water fluid power systems is a unique problem. Tap water is a suitable environment for waterborne microorganisms. It also contains dissolved and undissolved organic and inorganic matter. Wear particles in the tap water fluid power systems are a separate problem, however closely linked to problems above mentioned. Contamination and the quality of the pressure medium in the system is a function of local characteristics of tap water, operating parameters, system and component design and contamination introduced to the system. To study effects of water quality on tap water fluid power systems, and to evaluate methods for measuring water quality and particle counting, a pilot scale hydraulic system was constructed. The pilot scale system emulates typical operation of a commercial tap water fluid power system.
Technical Paper

Water Rejection of Vegetable Oil Base Stocks for Tractor/Hydraulic Fluids

Separation of water from vegetable oil base stocks for environmentally acceptable tractor/hydraulic fluids was studied. Mixtures of canola, a representative vegetable oil, with mineral oil and three synthetic esters were emulsified and allowed to separate. In additional work, hydrogen bonding interfering compounds, alcohols and nitrogen containing compounds, were added to base stocks and finished fluids to improve the water rejection properties. Two of the synthetic esters were found to improve water rejection in economical concentrations, while the other formed a stable emulsion with the vegetable oil and water. The mineral oil tested formed a stable water-in-oil emulsion with low concentrations of canola oil, then reacheed a maximum rejection concentration as the canola increased, since canola forms a oil-in-water emulsion. The hydrogen bonding inhibitors worked with base stocks but were not helpful when the additive package was included.
Technical Paper

Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluid Evaluation by ASTM D 2882: Significant Contributors to Erroneous Results

One of the most commonly used tests to evaluate the antiwear properties of a hydraulic fluid is ASTM D 2882 which is based on a Vicker's V-104 vane pump. Although this is a commonly used test, the results are subject to numerous potential problems in both testing procedure and pump hardware. In this paper, the particular focus will be placed on potential problems that may be encountered with testing of water-glycol hydraulic fluids which may lead to erroneous and non-reproducible results.
Technical Paper

Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluid Performance Monitoring: Fluid Performance and Analysis Strategy

Hydraulic fluid performance, including water-glycols (W/G), is dependent on the chemical composition of the fluid and cleanliness. An overview of W/G fluid chemistry on pump wear is provided here. Also provided, is a brief overview of the impact of fluid cleanliness on the potential wear properties of various components. Finally, an overview of recommended analytical procedures to assure adequate long-term fluid hydraulic and lubrication performance is provided. If these procedures are followed, substantial improvements in hydraulic pump longevity and performance will be realized.
Technical Paper

Water-Glycol Hydraulic Fluids: Conversion and Troubleshooting of Mineral Oil Hydraulic Systems

With increasing interest in more biodegradable and fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and with the availability of water-glycol hydraulic fluids suitable for high-pressure hydraulic pump operation, there is increasing interest in the conversion of mineral oil hydraulic systems to these alternative fluids. In this paper, the proper conversion procedures and troubleshooting of some common causes of hydraulic failures for the conversion of mineral oil hydraulic fluids to a water-glycol will be reviewed.
Technical Paper

Wear Characteristics of a Roller Follower Variable Valve Timing System

This study investigates the wear characteristics of a variable valve timing (VVT) system used to vary the phasing of the inlet valve events on a medium speed marine diesel engine. The running-in properties of critical components within the system are examined. The effect of surface finish and surface hardness upon wear is examined. It was found that in order to prevent excessive wear between the roller and tappet follower then the roller should be harder than the tappet. Tappet and roller hardness values of 60 and 70 Rockwell Hardness ‘C’ (HRC) respectively were found to be satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Wear Study of Coated Heavy Duty Exhaust Valve Systems in a Experimental Test Rig

The exhaust valve system of combustion engines experiences a very complex contact situation of frequent impact involving micro sliding, high and varying temperatures, complex exhaust gas chemistry and possible particulates. The wear rate has to be extremely low, and the individual wearing events operate at a scale that is very demanding to detect. The tribological conditions in the exhaust valve system are expected to become even worse for engines that will follow the future emission regulations. The regulations demand reduced amounts of soot and particles, sulfur compounds, etc., which today act beneficial for the seating surfaces. The reductions are expected to increase the metal-to-metal contact.
Technical Paper

Wear Trends of Axial Piston Type Pumps Operating in Severe Environments

Axial piston type pumps are often exposed to severe operating conditions because of the duty cycle, the environment, or, in some situations, poor maintenance and even abuse. The detrimental effects on the pump and the hydraulic system as a result of these adverse conditions are often not known or predictable. In this study, four controlled severe operating conditions were imposed on four identical axial piston type pumps. They included 1) constant high load pressure and normal fluid temperature, 2) constant high load pressure and elevated fluid temperature, 3) cyclic load pressure and normal fluid temperature, and 4) cyclic load pressure and elevated fluid temperature. The tests were long-term; they were run continuously for up to 5000 hours. The pump wear was monitored in all cases using ferrography. In addition, the condition of the fluid was monitored and the circuit filters were examined periodically. The results of the findings are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

Wear of Bearing Materials

Wear characteristics of four bearing materials have been investigated under different sliding conditions. The bearing materials used were CDA 954, CDA 863, CDA 932, and CDA 938. Using a Taber Wear Tester, a cylinder on a flat geometry was used as a tribo contact pair. All bearing materials in the form of a thick cylindrical disk were subjected to combined sliding-rolling motion against a rotating flat disk. The flat disk was either an abrasive disk, or a very soft steel disk, or a hardened steel disk with and without lubrication. Wear was measured as weight loss after several thousand cycles of rotation. Maximum wear of the bearing materials occurred when the counter body was a very soft steel disk. These results together with the wear rate of each bearing material sliding against four different counter bodies are presented. These results are found to be of practical importance in the design and application of journal bearings made of materials used in this investigation.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction of Shifter Forks using Steel Inserts

Shift quality of a manual transmission is a critical characteristic that is requires utmost care by the designers while structuring the transmission. Shift quality is affected by many factors viz. synchronizer design, shift fork design, shifter design, gear design, transmission oil selection etc. Designers have realized that shift fork is critical element for improving shift feel of a transmission. This paper focuses upon the reduction in weight of the overall transmission shift system by using steel inserts in aluminum shifter forks. No compromise on the stiffness and strength of the shift fork of a manual transmission is done. Stiffness and strength of shifter fork is optimized using contact pattern analysis and stiffness analysis on MSC Nastran. All the subsystem (i.e. synchronizer and the shift system component) are constrained to optimize the shift fork stiffness. A 5-speed manual transmission is used as an example to illustrate the same.
Technical Paper

Well-to Wheel Greenhouse Gas Emissions of LNG Used as a Fuel for Long Haul Trucks in a European Scenario

The EU Commission's “Clean Power for Transport” initiative aims to break the EU's dependence on imported oil whilst promoting the use of alternative fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Among the options considered is the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a substitute for diesel in long haul trucks. It is interesting to ask how the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of LNG compare with conventional diesel fuel for this application. The LNG available in Europe is mainly imported. This paper considers the “well-to-tank” emissions of LNG from various production routes, including: gas production, treatment and liquefaction, shipping to Europe, terminal, distribution and refuelling operations. “Tank-to-Wheel” emissions are considered for a range of currently-available engine technologies of varying efficiency relative to diesel.