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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Phenomenological Model of the Jet Mixing Process in D.I. Diesel Engines

The paper describes a detailed mathematical analysis of the problem of jet mixing in swirling or transverse flow fields under non-isothermal, non-isodense conditions. The model takes into account potential core effects, cross sectional distortion and differences in profiles between the distributed properties (velocity, concentration, temperature and density). Comparisons with a wide range of experimental results have produced excellent agreement.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on DOC Selection for Euro 6 Compliant Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms along with top performance for vehicle, a good strategy should be incorporated to control system out NOx emissions and soot regeneration. Extruded Vanadium catalyst is deployed for this passive regeneration system with DOC (Diesel Oxidation Catalyst), DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction), where the amount of catalyst loading in DOC plays an apex role in deciding conversion efficiency of SCR and passive regeneration capabilities. This study mainly focuses on the impact of catalyst loading of DOC over SCR efficiency. NO2 to NOx ratio should be close to 0.5 for optimum conversion efficiency of SCR. Catalyst loading in DOC decides the amount of NO2 coming upstream to SCR.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study on Euro 6 Turbocharger Selections and Its Deterioration with Closed Crank-Case Ventilation in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Euro 6 emission norms are getting implemented in India from April 2020 and it is being viewed as one of the greatest challenges ever faced by the Indian automotive industry. In order to achieve such stringent emission norms a good strategy will be to optimize the engine out emission through in cylinder emission control techniques and a right sized after treatment system has to be used for this optimized engine. There exist several factors and trade-off between these should be established for in cylinder optimization of emissions. Since the turbocharger plays an apex role in controlling both the performance and engine out emissions of a CI engine, turbocharger selection is a crucial step in the development of new generation of Euro 6 engines in India. Such engines are equipped with additional actuators such as Intake Throttle Valve and Exhaust Throttle Valve and combination of these flap operations with turbocharger output plays a prominent role in controlling performance and emission.
Technical Paper

A Compressed Natural Gas Mass Flow Driven Heavy Duty Electronic Engine Management System

This paper describes the conversion of a stationary spark ignition engine to a heavy duty (HD) natural gas engine suitable for transportation applications, in response to the new urban truck and bus legislation of 1994 and 1998. The approach to the fuel and ignition control system is to use a microprocessor controlled engine management system based on inputs from combustion air and natural gas mass flow sensors. As the emission control system is also based on stoichiometric three way catalyst technology, it is felt that the control approach is very robust. The engine and control system were first mounted on a HD dynamometer for the development work where engine control parameters were calibrated. In addition steady state emission data were collected and estimates of the HD transient emission levels were obtained.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Effects of Included Spray Angle on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Operating Parameters

Effects of included spray angle with different injection strategies on combustion characteristics, performance and amount of pollutant emission have been computationally investigated in a common rail heavy-duty DI diesel engine. The CFD model was firstly validated with experimental data achieved from a Caterpillar 3401 diesel engine for a conventional part load condition at 1600 rev/min. Three different included spray angles (α = 145°, 105°, 90°) were studied in comparison with the traditional spray injection angle (α = 125°). The results show that spray targeting is very effective for controlling the in-cylinder mixture distributions especially when it accompanied with various injection strategies. It was found that 105° spray cone angle along with an optimized split pre- and post-Top Dead Center (TDC) injection strategy could significantly reduce NOx and soot emissions without much penalty of the fuel consumption, as compared to the wide spray angle.
Technical Paper

A Computer Cooling System Study of a Diesel Powered Truck for Control of Transient Coolant, Oil and Cab Temperatures

A Vehicle-Engine-Cooling (VEC) system computer simulation model was used to study the transient performance of control devices and their temperature settings on oil, coolant and cab temperatures. The truck used in the study was an International Harvester COF-9670 cab over chassis heavy-duty vehicle equipped with a standard cab heater, a Cummins NTC-350 diesel engine with a McCord radiator and standard cooling system components and aftercooler. Input data from several portions of a Columbus to Bloomington, Indiana route were used from the Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) program to determine engine and vehicle operating conditions for the VEC system computer simulation model. The control devices investigated were the standard thermostat, the Kysor fan-clutch and shutter system. The effect of shutterstat location on shutter performance along with thermostat, shutter and fan activation temperature settings were investigated for ambient temperatures of 32, 85 and 100°F.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of Backhoe Type Excavators

This paper describes the simulation model of a backhoe excavator. The model uses a prescribed motion cycle and the objective of the program is to determine the power requirements for each of the cylinders as well as the total engine power requirement. Most computer simulations are developed by expressing the differential equations of motion for the system being studied. The known force inputs to the system are applied and the time response of the system is then obtained by numerically integrating the governing differential equations. This paper on the other hand develops the reverse of this. Utilizing a prescribed geometry and trajectory cycle for a linkage system as the input, the program solves for the types of force inputs that are required to achieve that trajectory. With the time dependence of the trajectory known, the total power required and the power required of each cylinder is also evaluated. A typical excavator linkage is shown in Fig. 1.
Technical Paper

A Computer-Aided System for Evaluation of Off-Road Wheeled Vehicle Mobility

A Computer Aided System (CAS) is developed in order to evaluate off-road wheeled vehicle mobility. The system takes into consideration both vehicle technical parameters and the main specifications of the soil on which the vehicle is expected to operate. Thirty seven vehicle technical parameters organized in nine groups are considered. These groups are: weights, engine parameters, dimensions, performance, transmission, steering, brakes, tires, and self recovery means. The main soil specifications of the soil considered are the soil type (clay, silt, or sand) and the shear and bearing resistance represented by the cone index or the gradient cone index. The evaluation process depends on considering a datum value for each vehicle technical parameter. These datum values or norms are obtained from a statistical analysis study of the technical parameters for a sample of 155 off-road wheeled vehicles representing different schools from all over the world [1].
Technical Paper

A Controllable Water Cooled Charge Air Cooler (WCCAC) for Diesel Trucks

Water-cooled charge air cooling is being considered as part of various technology solutions in response to 2007 US, 2010 US, EU4 and EU5 emissions standards. As manufacturers determine appropriate engine and vehicle solutions to meet the upcoming emissions standards, charge air cooling requirements are increasing due to higher turbocharger outlet temperatures and pressures, higher EGR rates, and requests for intake manifold temperature control to manage combustion and exhaust temperatures. Valeo and EMP have collaborated on the development and testing of a water cooled charge air cooler (WCCAC), controlled by a 12 volt brushless motor coolant pump. The system design addresses material temperature limitations of air-air aluminum CAC's and has the potential to simplify the packaging of the air induction system.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Analysis of the Roles of Soot Formation and Oxidation in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Emissions and in-cylinder pressure traces are used to compare the relative importance of soot formation and soot oxidation in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The equivalence ratio at the lift-off length is estimated with an empirical correlation and an idealized model of diesel spray. No correlation is found between the equivalence ratio at lift-off and the soot emissions. This confirms that trends in soot emissions cannot be directly understood by the soot formation process. The coupling between soot emission levels and late heat release after end of injection is also studied. A regression model describing soot emissions as function of global engine parameters influencing soot oxidation is proposed. Overall, the results of this analysis indicate that soot emissions can be understood in terms of the efficiency of the oxidation process.
Technical Paper

A Cost Effective, New Coating for Multi Layer Steel Exhaust Gaskets

Current trends in environmental and emissions regulations are driving changes in new engine systems, and increasing the need for more effectively sealed joints in exhaust systems. At the high temperatures in these exhaust systems it is difficult for traditional gaskets to provide an effective seal, as they degrade at high operating temperatures. This paper introduces a coating that has both excellent temperature stability and good compliance, thus forming an excellent sealing enhancement for metallic layers in exhaust system gaskets. Temperature stability data is presented along with sealing data, which illustrate the superior performance of this material compared to current systems.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of Methanol-Powered Buses in Windsor Ontario

Emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles have come under increased scrutiny with passage of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Methanol (M100) is seen as an important option for operators of transit fleets given the fuel's liquid nature and relative availability. This paper presents the results of a 36-month demonstration of a fleet of six methanol-powered transit buses equipped with DDC 6V-92TA engines. The engines were delivered in 1991 and were the first batch of Detroit Diesel engines certified to meet 1991 clean air standards. A similarly equipped control fleet of six diesel buses was tracked simultaneously. This paper includes an evaluation of bus operating data and emissions. Data such as fuel and oil consumption were collected along with a complete list of maintenance actions on both fleets. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was carried out by Environment Canada at their River Road (Ottawa) test facility.
Technical Paper

A Demonstration of Transit Bus Particulate Traps in Ottawa Ontario

Heavy-duty diesel engines for transit bus applications are having to meet increasingly stringent emission standards. The new engines are significantly cleaner than they were just a few years ago. However, due to the long life of transit buses in Ontario (18 years), many buses still in service are powered by older engines which produce greater amounts of regulated exhaust emissions. The Ottawa-Carleton Regional Transit Commission (OC Transpo) has an interest in reducing emissions from older transit buses in their fleet. Eight Donaldson particulate trap systems were installed on transit buses. The purpose of the work, involving four different bus/engine combinations, was to assess the practicality and benefits of particulate traps in transit applications. This paper discusses the demonstration of diesel exhaust particulate traps in Ottawa-based transit buses.
Technical Paper

A Descriptive Analysis of Gerodisc Type Limited Slip Differentials and All Wheel Drive Couplings

A new hydro-mechanical coupling has been developed for use as a slip limiting device in differentials, axle and transfer cases as well as a stand alone, self contained transmission coupling for all wheel drive applications. The exceptional torque capacity to packaging size ratio of this device allows secondary axles to be driven exclusively through the coupling before or after the final drive reduction. In this paper, the operation principle and general construction of the Gerodisc type coupling devices are discussed as well as analysis and comparison of theoretical performance capabilities, laboratory bench test data and actual on vehicle field testing data.
Technical Paper

A Design Guide for Wet Multiple Plate Clutches on Forklift Truck Transmissions Considering Strength Balance between Friction Material and Mating Plate

Wet multiple plate clutches consist of friction plates, on which a friction material is bonded, and mating plates that are plain metal plates. Since the frequency and the range of load in the field of forklift trucks vary widely and are more severe than those for passenger cars, the wet multiple plate clutches on forklift trucks are often damaged. Damaged clutches that were returned from the field typically had 3 types of symptoms: 1.Only the friction material was damaged, 2.Only the mating plates were deformed, 3.Both symptoms were observed. It was clear that the cause of these symptoms depended on the difference of the operating application and the strength criteria of each part. This showed that a design guide for wet multiple plate clutches considering the strength balance between the two parts according to the work application was required. The relevant flow chart of this design process was proposed.
Technical Paper

A Design for Six Sigma Approach to Optimize a Front-Wheel-Drive Transmission for Improved Efficiency and Robustness

Environmental concerns and government regulations are factors that have led to an increased focus on fuel economy in the automotive industry. This paper identifies a method used to improve the efficiency of a front-wheel-drive (FWD) automatic transmission. In order to create improvements in large complex systems, it is key to have a large scope, to include as much of the system as possible. The approach taken in this work was to use Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. This was done to optimize as many of the front-wheel-drive transmission components as possible to increase robustness and efficiency. A focus of robustness, or consistency in torque transformation, is as important as the value of efficiency itself, because of the huge range of usage conditions. Therefore, it was necessary to find a solution of the best transmission component settings that would not depend on specific usage conditions such as temperatures, system pressures, or gear ratio.
Technical Paper

A Design of Cooling Water Jacket Structure and an Analysis of Its Coolant Flow Characteristics for a Horizontal Diesel Engine

In order to fulfill the technical requirements of a high-efficiency low-emissions off-road horizontal diesel engine, a unique design is proposed and optimized in this paper for the cooling water jacket structure with a forced-cooling closed-loop cooling system. The cooling water flow rate, temperature, and pressure at the inlet and several other critical locations of the cooling water jacket were measured and analyzed at different engine operating conditions for the water jacket designs. A numerical simulation model of the coolant flow and the cooling system was built and used to analyze the thermal/fluid characteristics of the coolant flow in the water jacket. The impact of different structural and packaging design parameters on coolant flow and heat transfer was investigated. The design deficiency of an original (earlier) design of the water jacket was pointed out and an improved design was proposed.
Journal Article

A Design of Experiments Analysis to Determine the Importance of Relevant Factors on the STL of an Acoustic Part

This paper discusses a design of experiments (DOE) analysis that was performed to understand relevant factors that influence the acoustic performance of a sound package part used in the commercial vehicle industry for the floor mat application. The acoustic performance of the sound package part which is a double wall system and constructed of a barrier and cellular decoupler material is expressed in terms of sound transmission loss (STL). An experiment was designed using the Taguchi DOE technique with three factors and three levels to acquire the STL data and is discussed in the paper. The results of the DOE analysis and the confidence in the model are discussed as well as the benefits of predicting expected STL performances are mentioned in the paper.
Technical Paper

A Detail Study of Axle Shaft Stress State Change due to Vertical Bending Load in a Commercial Vehicle Axle

Heavy commercial vehicle axle shafts are designed for torsion load. Typically, axle shaft fracture mode during the test is torsional in nature through either shaft body diameter or spline end. However, some of the field return axles shows fracture mode on axle shaft flange. This fracture mode does not resemble with a typical lab test torsional fracture. Metallurgical investigation report indicated that the fracture mode is bending in nature. This paper thus focuses on detail study of change in boundary condition and load transfer path under abusive vertical bending load on axle. A detail finite element analysis is performed to understand stress state change in axle shaft under this condition. A fracture hypothesis is proposed based on observations of finite element analysis results. A detail case study is presented depicting correlation of proposed hypothesis with physical fracture mode.
Technical Paper

A Detailed Study on Differential Bearing Adjuster Ring Thread Engagement and Joint Strength, under Combined Bending and Axial Loading

Adjuster rings are used in commercial vehicle axle assembly to preload differential bearings and provide support in the axial direction. Adjuster along with the carrier and bearing cap combined to form a threaded joint. Adjuster with external threads engages with internal threads formed in carrier and bearing cap. Preload in differential assembly maintains the system rigidity and helps to maintain an optimized hypoid gear engagement. An adequate preload is important to achieve a desirable bearing life. Reduction in thread engagement at adjuster joint fully or partially will cause a reduction in preload and can lead to gear misalignment. This can cause severe durability concerns. In some cases, it is observed that under vehicle operating loads adjuster ring is backed off from its assembled condition by bending the split pin (split pin is, positive lock, used to maintain adjuster position) and adjuster threads were stripped off.