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Technical Paper

X-36 Tailless Agility Aircraft Subsystems Integration

The X-36 is a remotely piloted 28% scale model of a two-axis-unstable notional future fighter aircraft with canards, a mid-wing and features the absence of any vertical control surfaces, Figure 1. The aircraft was jointly developed by the NASA Ames Research Center and McDonnell Aircraft & Missile Systems and flight tested at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Objectives of this program were to demonstrate fighter aircraft agility for a vertical tailless configuration and to demonstrate the development of a low cost alternative to full size prototype aircraft. This paper presents some aspects of the subsystem integration methodology used to develop the X-36 Tailless Agility Research Aircraft.
Technical Paper

X-Ray CT-Scan Digitizing for the Inspection and Computational Analysis of Complex Engine Parts

This paper deals with the problem of complex engine part analysis. It presents an original approach based on the use of X-ray Computed Tomography scan digitizing method. In comparison with classical digitizing method, Computed Tomography method proves to be the only solution in the case of complex parts with internal areas. A validation example for which the precision of the method is estimated, is proposed. At last, the potential of the method is illustrated through the complex example of an engine head cooling circuit for which a computational CFD calculation is made.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Technical Paper

X-Wing: A Low Disc-Loading V/STOL for the Navy

The X-Wing concept employs a single lifting system for all modes of flight. The lifting system is comprised of four very rigid, circulation control wings with blowing for lift modulation and control. For hover and low speed flight, the wings rotate such as the rotor of a helicopter. For high speed flight, the wings are stopped in an “X” configuration across the fuselage - from which the name of the concept is derived - with two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Such a vehicle is also envisioned to have an integrated gas turbine propulsive system for all flight modes. At low speeds, the gas generators) would drive a shaft to turn the wings and the circulation control compressor as well as a set of propulsive fans. For high-speed flight, the shaft would drive only the compressor and accessories as the fans propel the vehicle. The X-Wing concept has been underdevelopment for over 15 years.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
Technical Paper

Yaw Dynamics of Command Steered Multi Axle Semitrailer

This paper investigates the yaw dynamic behaviour of a seven axle tractor semitrailer combination vehicle developed by VRDE (Vehicle Research & Development). The semitrailer has four steerable axles which follow command steering law i.e. all axles of semitrailer are steered in a particular relation with articulation of tractor. A 4 dof (degree of freedom) linear yaw plane model was developed for this combination vehicle. Yaw response characteristics such as lateral acceleration, yaw rate and articulation angle for step and sine steer is obtained from this model. Effects of speed on the above parameters are also studied to the same steering inputs. Lateral tyre forces due to semitrailer steering at various speeds are estimated to understand its distribution on each axle. Steady state yaw rate and articulation angle gain are obtained to predict the understeer / oversteer behaviour of combination vehicle.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Based Trailer Hitch Angle Estimation for Trailer Backup Assist

In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control System

From the beginning of 1995 on, RB will start the production of the Vehicle Dynamics Control System. A key part of this system is the Yaw Rate Sensor described in this paper. The basic requirements for this sensor for automotive applications are: mass producibility, low cost, resistance against environmental influences (such as temperature, vibrations, EMI), stability of all characteristics over life time, high reliability and designed-in safety. Bosch developed a sensor on the basis of the “Vibrating Cylinder”. The sensor will be introduced into mass production in beginning of 1995.
Technical Paper

Yaw Stability Control of Tractor Semi-Trailers

Tractor semi-trailer stability during emergency braking and steering maneuvers has been an issue that was improved through implementation of Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS). Although some improvements have been achieved, the need for new control methodologies is evident from the number of accidents reported by NHTSA involving tractor semi-trailers. In this paper, a new control algorithm has been developed for improving the tractor semi-trailer stability through utilization of yaw moment, i.e., tire differential braking strategy. This new, multifaceted, adaptive control algorithm which allows the estimation of the unknown vehicle parameters through use of the adaptation laws is based on the Lyapunov Direct Method. A tractor semi-trailer model with four degrees of freedom was used to develop the control algorithm and the adaptation laws. The controller was implemented on a 2-axle tractor 1-axle van trailer in TruckSim 7©.
Journal Article

Yaw Stability Enhancement of Articulated Commercial Vehicles via Gain-Scheduling Optimal Control Approach

In this paper, a gain-scheduling optimal control approach is proposed to enhance yaw stability of articulated commercial vehicles through active braking of the proper wheel(s). For this purpose, an optimal feedback control is used to design a family of yaw moment controllers considering a broad range of vehicle velocities. The yaw moment controller is designed such that the instantaneous tractor yaw rate and articulation angle responses are forced to track the target values at each specific vehicle velocity. A gain scheduling mechanism is subsequently constructed via interpolations among the controllers. Furthermore, yaw moments derived from the proposed controller are realized by braking torque distribution among the appropriate wheels. The effectiveness of the proposed yaw stability control scheme is evaluated through software-in-the-loop (SIL) co-simulations involving Matlab/Simulink and TruckSim under lane change maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Yaw Testing of an Instrumented Vehicle with and without Braking

Two methods for calculating speed from curved tire marks were investigated. The commonly used critical speed formula and a computer simulation program were evaluated based on their ability to reproduce the results of full-scale yaw tests. The effects of vehicle braking and friction coefficient were studied. Twenty-two yaw tests were conducted at speeds between 70 and 120 km/h. For half of the tests, about 30% braking was applied. Using the measured sliding coefficient of friction, both the critical speed formula and the computer simulations under-predicted the actual speed of the vehicle. Using the measured peak coefficient of friction, both methods over-estimated the actual speed. There was less variance in the computer simulation results. Braking tended to increase the speeds calculated by the critical speed formula.
Technical Paper

Yaw/Roll Stability Modeling and Control of HeavyTractor-SemiTrailer

This paper sets up a simplified dynamic model for simulating the yaw/roll stability of heavy tractor-semitrailer using Matlab/Simulink. A linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based on partial-state feedback controller is used to optimize the roll stability of the vehicle. The control objective for optimizing roll stability is to be reducing the lateral load transfer rate while keeping the suspension angle less than the maximum allowable angle. The simulation result shows that the LQR controller is effective in the active roll stability control of the heavy tractor-semitrailer.
Technical Paper

Yet Another Look At Crash Pulse Analysis

The effect of vehicle acceleration history on dummy loading in the frontal impact NCAP event is explored with help of a one-dimensional mathematical model. Both numerical and analytical approaches are used to identify the ideal vehicle pulse. The numerical solution reveals limitations of square wave pulse. The analytical approach results in explicit formulation of the ideal pulse. Response of the mathematical model used in this paper is statistically correlated to a number of randomly selected NCAP frontal tests. Both the baseline model and the resulting optimized pulse are also confirmed using a validated three-dimensional Madymo model. Based on the analytical results, a simple measure of quality of the vehicle acceleration history is formulated.
Technical Paper

Yield Mapping with Digital Aerial Color Infrared (CIR) Images

Yield potential was predicted and mapped for three corn fields in Central Illinois, using digital aerial color infrared images. Three methods, namely statistical (regression) modeling, genetic algorithm optimization and artificial neural networks, were used for developing yield models. Two image resolutions of 3 and 6 m/pixel were used for modeling. All the models were trained using July 31 image and tested using images from July 2 and August 31, all from 1998. Among the three models, artificial neural networks gave best performance, with a prediction error less than 30%. The statistical model resulted in prediction errors in the range of 23 to 54%. The lower resolution images resulted in better prediction accuracy compared to resolutions higher than or equal to the yield resolution. Images after pollination resulted in better accuracy compared to images before pollination.
Technical Paper

ZENITH: A Nano-Satellite for Atmospheric Monitoring

This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
Technical Paper

ZF Retarder in Commercial Vehicles

This paper describes the ZF - Intarder, a wear-free vehicle brake for commercial vehicles. Qualities such as optimum weight saving, compactness, compatibility with all PTOs and no change in driveshaft length, are the results of a new development. Performance measurements demonstrate connection with engine cooling system. Field test measurements provide new information about frequency of use of various brake levels and electronic speed control. An evaluation of financial issues indicates advantages for operation.
Technical Paper

Zen and the Art of Airplane Sizing

This paper describes the development of a set of algorithms that find the takeoff gross weight of an aircraft for given vehicle and engine characteristics, and mission requirements. A major objective was to find the most elementary set that would still yield useful answers. The result was a set that could be encoded on an inexpensive programmable pocket calculator with only 24 lines of code. Results are compared with actual characteristics of an executive jet and its derivative versions.
Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Models for EGR Mass-Rate and EGR Unbalance Estimation in Diesel Engines

A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
Technical Paper

Zero Hand Coding Approach for Controller Development

As the demand for more complex system development and the ever-increasing requirement for improvement in software productivity, the need for graphical programming or Zero-Hand Coding for automatic generation of controller software becomes highly desirable. The graphical programming must not be limited to the algorithm development which consists of the application modules but must be extended to the microcontroller platform, which include the middleware (i.e. operating system, I/O device drivers) and hardware. Automatic code generation is very important for programming the complex microcontroller internal parameters and registers. The combined software tool chain is to generate the final target specific executable code. This approach is very beneficial for system development, reduction of the development cycle and bridges the gap between control and software engineers reducing time, effort and cost of the production software.