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Technical Paper

Winterization of Vehicles To -50F

1969-02-01
690580
Discussion in this paper is centered on general problems of subarctic operation, results of the 1968-1969 winter testing at Ft. Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, and the testing planned for the 1969-1970 season at Ft. Churchill. Significant findings from the 1968-969 testing indicate the vital importance of care in preparation of vehicles for the arctic, the need for greater simplicity and reliability in design of winterization systems, and the inadequacy of currently used elastomeric components (hoses, o-rings, etc.).
Technical Paper

Wire Braid Angle Response Characteristics in Hydraulic Hose

1997-09-08
972706
This report is concerned with the effects of braid angle on the behavior of hydraulic hose. For equilibrium conditions to exist, and if the braid layers are assumed to bear tension forces only, the angle of the reinforcement layers must be along that of the total force exerted by the internal pressure. This is the neutral angle θN, which has a theoretical value of 54.74° (54°44′). It is possible to hypothesize a fretting wear model in which wires move on top of one another inside a braid layer if the braid angle is different from this theoretical neutral angle. Even though theoretical claims are made by some technical professionals, the hydraulic hose industry has been successfully making hoses with non-neutral braid angles for years. Testing and application have shown that fretting wear is not a principal cause of hose failure and fatigue.
Standard

Wireless Power Transfer for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles

2024-05-29
WIP
J2954/2
The published SAE J2954 standard established an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless power transfer (WPT) for light duty plug-in electric vehicles. This SAE Information Report, SAE J2954/2, defines new power transfer levels in the higher power ranges needed for heavy-duty electric vehicles. This Recommended Practice document addresses the requirements based on these charge levels and different vehicle applications as a first step in the process of completing a standard that the industry can use, both for private (fleet) and public wireless power transfer, including for charging electric vehicle batteries. This revision focusses exclusively on static HD-WPT. A new document, has been created, SAE RP J2954/3 that will encompass all dynamic wireless power transfer (D-WPT).
Standard

Wireless Power Transfer for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles

2022-12-16
CURRENT
J2954/2_202212
The published SAE J2954 standard established an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless power transfer (WPT) for light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. This SAE Information Report, SAE J2954/2, defines new power transfer levels in the higher power ranges needed for heavy-duty electric vehicles. This document addresses the requirements based on these charge levels and different vehicle applications as a first step in the process of completing a standard that the industry can use, both for private (fleet) and public wireless power transfer, including for charging electric vehicle batteries. This document is the first step in a process towards HD static and dynamic WPT. This document lacks specific requirements and solutions, for which field data is needed.
Standard

Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-in/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology

2023-09-18
WIP
J2954
The SAE J2954 standard establishes an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless power transfer (WPT) of light-duty plug-in electric vehicles. The specification defines various charging levels between WPT 1-3 (3.7kVA to 11.1kVA). A standard for WPT based on these charge levels enables selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging also establishing a universal Ground Assembly WPT 3 (GA) at 11.1kVA which is interoperable to Vehicle Assemblies (VA) WPT 1-3. SAE J2954 contains requirements for safety, performance, and interoperability of WPT. It also contains recommended methods for evaluating electromagnetic emissions, but the requirements and test procedures are controlled by regulatory bodies.
Standard

Wiring Aerospace Vehicle

2006-10-05
HISTORICAL
AS50881C
This specification covers all aspects from the selection through installation of wiring and wiring devices and optical cabling and termination devices used in aerospace vehicles. Aerospace vehicles include manned and unmanned airplanes, helicopters, lighter-than- air vehicles, missiles and external pods.
Standard

Wiring Aerospace Vehicle

2010-07-15
HISTORICAL
AS50881D
This specification covers all aspects from the selection through installation of wiring and wiring devices and optical cabling and termination devices used in aerospace vehicles. Aerospace vehicles include manned and unmanned airplanes, helicopters, lighter-than- air vehicles, missiles and external pods.
Technical Paper

Work Extraction Efficiency in a Series Hybrid Opposed Piston Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1242
This work investigates the development of a novel series hybrid architecture utilizing a single cylinder opposed piston engine. The opposed piston engine presents unique benefits in a hybrid architecture such as its lower heat transfer due to a favorable surface area to volume ratio and lack of a cylinder head, as well as the thermodynamic benefits of two stroke operation with uniflow scavenging. A particular focus of this effort is the work extraction efficiency of two design concepts. The first design concept utilizes a geartrain to couple the crankshafts of the engine in a conventional manner, providing a single power take-off for coupling to an electric motor/generator. In this design, the large inertia of the geartrain dampens the speed fluctuation of the single cylinder engine, reducing the peak torque required to for the electric machine. However, the friction losses caused by the geartrain limit the maximum work extraction efficiency.
Technical Paper

Working Fluid De-freezing in Radiator on Base of LHP

2007-07-09
2007-01-3199
Selection of working fluid is one of the main criterions for designing of heat pipes thermal control systems (TCS) for space application. In this paper we will describe how we solved the task of development of the TCS with working fluid of high thermal physical properties. In 2004-2006 we developed the Engineering model of Deployable Radiator based on Loop Heat Pipe by CAST purchase order. It was developed for qualification tests. Ammonia application as LHP working fluid is stipulated by its high thermal physical properties. However Ammonia freezing temperature is of minus 77ºC. Such fact impedes Ammonia application when operation temperatures of LHP Radiator are lower than this value, for example, It takes several tens of hours to orbit a spacecraft and prepare it for work (at that moment the spacecraft is out of power supply) and the working fluid can be frozen in a condenser-radiator when the spacecraft being in the shadow over a long period of time.
Technical Paper

Working Fluid Properties Variation During Combustion in Premixed Charge Hydrogen Engines

2012-09-10
2012-01-1646
Several studies have been performed to investigate the effects of using hydrogen in spark ignition (SI) engines. One general conclusion that emerged was that stoichiometric operation of premixed charge hydrogen engines features increased losses compared to other fuels such as methane. Most studies attribute this higher loss to increased rates of heat transfer from the working fluid to the combustion chamber walls. Indeed, heat flux measurements during combustion and expansion recorded much higher values for hydrogen compared to methane stoichiometric operation. With regard to fluid properties, using the same net heat release equation as for gasoline engines results in an over prediction of heat losses to the combustion chamber walls. Also, the variation of specific heats ratio greatly influences calculated values for the rate of heat release. Therefore, a more detailed analysis of heat losses is required when comparing hydrogen to other fuels.
Technical Paper

Working Out of Heat Pipes for Low Temperature Radiative Cooling Systems for Space Optic Sensors

1996-07-01
961603
The substantiation of heat pipe usage in passive radiative cooling systems on temperature level (190…240) K for space optical sensors is presented. Heat pipes can be sound practice like heat conducting lines between sensor and radiator particularly at distances more 0.2 m and irreplaceable at distances (0.5…2) m. Embedding heat pipe with radiator allows to create the uniform temperature basis in case of several sensors connection to single radiator and to improve radiator efficiency. It is analyzed approach to design of thermocontrol and cooling radiative systems with heat pipes to reduce sensitiveness to external light disturbances and to enlarge area of radiative system application. The results of design, thermovacuum test and flight operation of thermocontrol radiative system samples are under discussion as well.
Technical Paper

World Wide Escort/Lynx Engine Design and Development

1981-02-01
810008
In 1981, Ford Motor Company introduced a new family of fuel efficient four cylinder engines world wide. These engines, based on a compound valve arrangement in a hemispherical combustion chamber, were specifically designed for installation in light weight front-wheel-drive vehicles. Ford Research efforts were integrated with the resources of Ford U.S. and Ford of Europe to design and develop the engine in a compressed time frame. The technical and organizational efforts to accomplish this task, as well as, the design and development are discussed.
Standard

Wrench, Spanner

2021-07-28
CURRENT
AS6018A
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers adjustable and non-adjustable spanner wrenches generally used for aerospace machinery maintenance and for tightening and loosening hose couplings and hydrant caps. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrench, Spanner

2013-05-28
HISTORICAL
AS6018
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) covers adjustable and non-adjustable spanner wrenches generally used for aerospace machinery maintenance and for tightening and loosening hose couplings and hydrant caps. Inclusion of dimensional data in this document is not intended to imply all of the products described therein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes.
Standard

Wrought Nickel and Nickel-Related Alloys

2018-02-15
CURRENT
J470_201802
This Report presents general information on over 50 alloys in which nickel either predominates or is a significant alloying element. It covers primarily wrought materials, and is not necessarily all inclusive. Values given are in most cases average or nominal, and if more precise values are required the producer(s) should be contacted. This report does not cover the so-called "superalloys," or the iron base stainless steels. Refer to SAE J467, Special Purpose Alloys, and SAE J405, Chemical Compositions of SAE Wrought Stainless Steels, respectively, for data on these alloys.
Technical Paper

X-Wing: A Low Disc-Loading V/STOL for the Navy

1985-10-01
851772
The X-Wing concept employs a single lifting system for all modes of flight. The lifting system is comprised of four very rigid, circulation control wings with blowing for lift modulation and control. For hover and low speed flight, the wings rotate such as the rotor of a helicopter. For high speed flight, the wings are stopped in an “X” configuration across the fuselage - from which the name of the concept is derived - with two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Such a vehicle is also envisioned to have an integrated gas turbine propulsive system for all flight modes. At low speeds, the gas generators) would drive a shaft to turn the wings and the circulation control compressor as well as a set of propulsive fans. For high-speed flight, the shaft would drive only the compressor and accessories as the fans propel the vehicle. The X-Wing concept has been underdevelopment for over 15 years.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control System

1995-02-01
950537
From the beginning of 1995 on, RB will start the production of the Vehicle Dynamics Control System. A key part of this system is the Yaw Rate Sensor described in this paper. The basic requirements for this sensor for automotive applications are: mass producibility, low cost, resistance against environmental influences (such as temperature, vibrations, EMI), stability of all characteristics over life time, high reliability and designed-in safety. Bosch developed a sensor on the basis of the “Vibrating Cylinder”. The sensor will be introduced into mass production in beginning of 1995.
Technical Paper

ZENITH: A Nano-Satellite for Atmospheric Monitoring

2015-09-15
2015-01-2395
This paper describes the ZENITH Nano-Satellite cum planetary atmospheric entry vehicle, called CanSat, the first Nano-Satellite project that has been developed by Delhi Technological University (Formerly Delhi College of Engineering), India. The satellite will function for monitoring the concentrations of various gases in the atmosphere. For this, the satellite consists of arduino microcontroller interfaced with the various Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gas sensors for measuring the concentrations of various gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, nitrous oxides, ozone, etc. The data obtained from the CanSat will be transmitted to the ground station where all the data will be stored and also the locations will be stored using GPS sensor. The academic goal of this project is to recruit students to the field of space science and technology.
Technical Paper

ZF Retarder in Commercial Vehicles

1992-11-01
922452
This paper describes the ZF - Intarder, a wear-free vehicle brake for commercial vehicles. Qualities such as optimum weight saving, compactness, compatibility with all PTOs and no change in driveshaft length, are the results of a new development. Performance measurements demonstrate connection with engine cooling system. Field test measurements provide new information about frequency of use of various brake levels and electronic speed control. An evaluation of financial issues indicates advantages for operation.
Technical Paper

Zero Dimensional Models for EGR Mass-Rate and EGR Unbalance Estimation in Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0070
A precise estimation of the recirculated exhaust gas rate and oxygen concentration as well as a predictive evaluation of the possible EGR unbalance among cylinders are of paramount importance, especially if non-conventional combustion modes, which require high EGR flow-rates, are implemented. In the present paper, starting from the equation related to convergent nozzles, the EGR mass flow-rate is modeled considering the pressure and the temperature upstream of the EGR control valve, as well as the pressure downstream of it. The restricted flow-area at the valve-seat passage and the discharge coefficient are carefully assessed as functions of the valve lift. Other models were fitted using parameters describing the engine working conditions as inputs, following a semi-physical and a purely statistical approach. The resulting models are then applied to estimate EGR rates to both conventional and non-conventional combustion conditions.
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