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Technical Paper

3 Load Cell Tumble Meter Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-3004
This paper will describe the development of the 3-load cell tumble meter. This is a new method for measuring the tumble component of in-cylinder mixture motion. In-cylinder mixture motion is an important parameter for understanding and improving combustion stability of piston engines.
Technical Paper

3-D Analysis of the Flow Through a Multihole V.C.O. Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

1995-02-01
950085
A 3-D analysis of the flow through a multihole, V.C.O. (Valve Covered Orifice) nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine has been carried out. The analysis was performed by means of a finite element code. The nozzle comprises five injection holes. Aims of the analysis were: the investigation of the pressure drops along the conical clearance between the needle and the nozzle; the evaluation of the energy losses in the injection holes; the disclosure of the velocity profile at the injection hole outlets. the differences of flowrate for each hole with geometrical asymmetries. This kind of analisys is the first step of a more complete spray analysis; in fact, the spray from an injection hole is influenced by the injection pressure and the velocity profile. In particular, the needle lift and the needle tip deviation have been parametrized. The analysis betters both the theoretical knowledge of this kind of nozzle and the hydraulic phenomena occurring inside.
Technical Paper

3-D CFD Analysis of the Combustion Process in a DI Diesel Engine using a Flamelet Model

2000-03-06
2000-01-0662
A 3-dimensional numerical study has been conducted investigating the combustion process in a VW 1.9l TDI Diesel engine. Simulations were performed modeling the spray injection of a 5-hole Diesel injector in a pressure chamber. A graphical methodology was utilized to match the spray resulting from the widely used Discrete Droplet Spray model to pressure chamber spray images. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained regarding the simulated and experimental spray penetration and cone angles. Thereafter, the combustion process in the engine was simulated. Using engine measurements to initialize the combustion chamber conditions, the compression stroke, the spray injection and the combustion simulation was performed. The novel RTZF two-zone flamelet combustion model was used for the combustion simulation and was tested for partial load operating conditions. An objective analysis of the model is presented including the results of a numerical parameter study.
Technical Paper

3-D Computations of Premixed-Charge Natural Gas Combustion in Rotary Engines

1991-02-01
910625
A three-dimensional model for premixed- charge naturally-aspirated rotary engine combustion is used to identify combustion chamber geometries that could lead to increased indicated efficiency for a lean (equivalence ratio =0.75) natural gas/air mixture. Computations were made at two rpms (1800 and 3600) and two loads (approximately 345 Kpa and 620 Kpa indicated mean effective pressure). Six configurations were studied. The configuration that gave the highest indicated efficiency has a leading pocket with a leading deep recess, two spark plugs located circumferentially on the symmetry plane (one after the minor axis and the other before), a compression ratio of 9.5, and an anti-quench feature on the trailing flank.
Technical Paper

3-D LDV Measurement of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine

1995-02-01
950648
In-cylinder flows in a motored four-valve SI engine were examined by simultaneous three-component LDV measurement. The purpose of this study was to develop better physical understanding of in-cylinder flows and quantitative methods which correlate in-cylinder flows to engine performance. This study is believed to be the first simultaneous three-component LDV measurement of the air flow over a planar section of a four-valve piston-cylinder assembly. Special attention is paid to the tumble formation process, three-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy, and measurement of the tumble ratio. The influence of the induction system and the piston geometry are believed to have a significant effect on the in-cylinder flow characteristics. Using LDV measurement, the flows in two different piston top geometries were examined. One axial plane was selected to observe the effect of piston top geometries on the flow field in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Heat Transfer in Diesel Engine Piston Cooling Galleries

2005-04-11
2005-01-1644
Ever increasing specific power of diesel engines has put huge demand on effective thermal management of the pistons for the desired reliability and durability. The piston temperature control is commonly achieved by injecting cooling oil into piston galleries, but the design of the cooling system as well as the boundary conditions used in FEA simulations have so far relied mostly on empirical methods. A numerical procedure using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has therefore been developed to simulate the cooling process and to estimate the cooling efficiency of gallery. The model is able to predict the detailed oil flow and heat transfer in gallery, of different designs and engine applications, under dynamic conditions. The resulted spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient from the CFD model, with better accuracy, enables improved prediction of piston temperature in finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

3-D Multiphase Flow Simulation of Coolant Filling and Deaeration Processes in an Engine Coolant System

2024-01-16
2024-26-0310
The thermal performance of an engine coolant system is efficient when the engine head temperature is maintained within its optimum working range. For this, it is desired that air should not be entrapped in the coolant system which can lead to localized hot spots at critical locations. However, it is difficult to eliminate the trapped air pockets completely. So, the target is to minimize the entrapped air as much as possible during the coolant filling and deaeration processes, especially in major components such as the radiator, engine head, pump etc. The filling processes and duration are typically optimized in an engine test stand along with design changes for augmenting the coolant filling efficiency. However, it is expensive and time consuming to identify air entrapped locations in tests, decide on the filling strategy and make the design changes in the piping accordingly.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer among Multi-Component Coupling System in Internal Combustion Chamber

2008-06-23
2008-01-1818
A 3-D numerical analysis model of transient heat transfer among the multi-component coupling system in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine has been developed successfully in the paper. The model includes almost all solid components in combustion chamber, such as piston assembly, cylinder liner, cylinder head gasket, cylinder head, intake valves and exhaust valves, etc. With two different coupling heat transfer modes, one is the lubricant film heat conduction between two moving components, another is the contact heat conduction between two immovable solid components, and with the direct coupled-field analysis method of FEM, the heat transfer relation among the components is established. The simulation result dedicates the transient heat transfer process among the components such as moving piston assembly and cylinder liner, moving valves and cylinder head. The effect of cylinder head gasket on heat transfer among the components is also studied.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on CuO Nanofluids as Heat Transfer Medium for Diesel Engine Cooling System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1109
CuO-water nanofluids was utilized as heat transfer medium in the cooling system of the diesel engine. By using CFD-Fluent software, for 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% mass concentration of nanofluids, 3-dimensional numerical simulation about flow and heat transfer process in the cooling system of engine was actualized. According to stochastic particle tracking in turbulent flow, for solid-liquid two phase flow discrete phase, the moving track of nanoparticles was traced. By this way, for CuO nanoparticles of different mass concentration nanofliuds in the cooling jacket of diesel engine, the results of the concentration distribution, velocity distribution, internal energy variation, resident time, total heat transfer and variation of total pressure reduction between inlet and outlet were ascertained.
Technical Paper

3-Dimentional Numerical Transient Simulation and Research on Flow Distribution Unevenness in Intake Manifold for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2420
The design of engine intake system affects the intake uniformity of each cylinder of the engine, which in turn has an important impact on the engine performance, the uniform distribution of EGR exhaust gas and the combustion process of each cylinder. In this paper, the constant-pressure supercharged diesel engine intake pipe is used as the research model to study the intake air flow unevenness of the intake pipe of the supercharged diesel engine. The pressure boundary condition at the outlet of each intake manifold is set as the dynamic pressure change condition. The three-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient flow process in the intake manifold of diesel engine is simulated and analyzed by using numerical method, and the change of the Intake air flow field in the intake manifold under different working conditions during the intake overlapping period is discussed.
Standard

32 Bit Binary CL (BCL) and 7 Bit ASCII CL (ACL) Exchange Input Format for Numerically Controlled Machines

2016-05-31
CURRENT
EIA494B
The scope of this Standard is the definition of the response of a numerically controlled machine to a valid sequence of records made up of 32 bit binary words or ASCII text strings. The Standard defines the structure of these records and of the 32 bit binary words or ASCII text strings which make up the records. This standard addresses the control of machines capable of performing 2, 3, 4, and 5 axis motion of an active tool (mill, laser, pen, etc.) relative to a part, and those capable of 2 and 4 axis tool motion relative to a rotating part (turning machines), including parallel tool slide sets capable of concurrent (merged) motion.
Technical Paper

34 Experimental Analysis of Piston Slap from Small Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1803
This project is an experimental investigation and optimization of piston slap noise in small two-stroke gasoline engine. Piston slap is one of the most significant mechanical noise sources in an internal combustion engine. It is a dynamic impact phenomenon between the piston and the cylinder block caused by changes in the lateral forces acting on the piston. The change in cylinder block vibration level caused by the piston impact is considered as a measure of piston slap during this experiment. The intensity of piston slap is measured in terms of vibration level in ‘g’ units, by means of accelerometers mounted on the cylinder block with Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dead Center (BDC) marker. For the design of low noise engines, all the major parameters, which contribute to piston slap, are listed and the critical four are examined through additional experiments.
Technical Paper

36 Development of a High Performance Small Gas Engine for a Gas Engine Heat Pump

2002-10-29
2002-32-1805
GHP which, is the heat pump system for an air conditioning, is directly driven the compressor by a small gas engine. The NOx was reduced 70% less than a conventional gas engine with improvement of thermal efficiency. The combustion chamber shape using strong squish flow is improved in order that the pattern of a heat release is changed to be suitable. Because the relation between NOx and the thermal efficiency is the trade off relation, the air fuel ratio and the ignition timing must be precisely controlled. Detecting the change of the Pi variation calculated from the engine speed variation can control the air fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Analyses of Intake Duct Geometry Impact on Tumble Motion and Turbulence Production in SI Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2199
In recent years, engine manufacturers have been continuously involved in the research of proper technical solutions to meet more and more stringent CO2 emission targets, defined by international regulations. Many strategies have been already developed, or are currently under study, to attain the above objective. A tendency is however emerging towards more innovative combustion concepts, able to efficiently burn lean or highly diluted mixtures. To this aim, the enhancement of turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber has a significant importance, contributing to improve the burning rate, to increase the thermal efficiency, and to reduce the cyclic variability. It is well-known that turbulence production is mainly achieved during the intake stroke. Moreover, it is strictly affected by the intake port geometry and orientation.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Coolant System Simulation for Vehicle Drive-Cycle

2021-09-22
2021-26-0407
The present work deals with the 3-D, transient, system level CFD simulation of an automotive coolant system using a 3D CFD solver Simerics MP+®. The system includes actual CAD of radiator, cooling jacket, coolant pump, bypass valve and thermostat valve. This work is in continuation of the work done by Srinivasan et al. [1] where wax melting, conjugate heat transfer, Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) of the valve had been solved. Thermostat valve was controlled by wax phase change model which also incorporates the hysteresis effect of wax melting and solidification. The previous work dealt with the simulation of complete cycle, opening, and closing of the thermostat valve system. Besides the physics considered in the previous study, the current model also includes the treatment of cavitation to account for the presence of dissolved gases and vaporization of the liquid coolant.
Journal Article

3D CFD Simulation of Hydraulic Test of an Engine Coolant System

2022-03-29
2022-01-0207
Designing an efficient vehicle coolant system depends on meeting target coolant flow rate to different components with minimum energy consumption by coolant pump. The flow resistance across different components and hoses dictates the flow supplied to that branch which can affect the effectiveness of the coolant system. Hydraulic tests are conducted to understand the system design for component flow delivery and pressure drops and assess necessary changes to better distribute the coolant flow from the pump. The current study highlights the ability of a complete 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation to effectively mimic a hydraulic test. The coolant circuit modeled in this simulation consists of an engine water-jacket, a thermostat valve, bypass valve, a coolant pump, a radiator, and flow path to certain auxiliary components like turbo charger, rear transmission oil cooler etc.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

3D FEA Thermal Modeling with Experimentally Measured Loss Gradient of Large Format Ultra-Fast Charging Battery Module Used for EVs

2022-03-29
2022-01-0711
A large amount of heat is generated in electric vehicle battery packs during high rate charging, resulting in the need for effective cooling methods. In this paper, a prototype liquid cooled large format Lithium-ion battery module is modeled and tested. Experiments are conducted on the module, which includes 31Ah NMC/Graphite pouch battery cells sandwiched by a foam thermal pad and heat sinks on both sides. The module is instrumented with twenty T-type thermocouples to measure thermal characteristics including the cell and foam surface temperature, heat flux distribution, and the heat generation from batteries under up to 5C rate ultra-fast charging. Constant power loss tests are also performed in which battery loss can be directly measured.
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