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Technical Paper

3D Immersed Boundary Methods for the Calculations of Droplet Trajectories towards Icing Application

The in-flight ice accretion simulations are typically performed using a quasi-steady formulation through a multi-step approach. As the ice grows, the geometry changes, and an adaptation of the fluid volume mesh used by the airflow and droplet-trajectory solver is required. Re-meshing or mesh deformation are generally employed to do that. The geometries formed are often complex ice shapes increasing the difficulty of the re-meshing process, especially in three-dimensional simulations. Consequently, difficulties are encountered when trying to automate the process. Contrary to the usual body-fitted mesh approach, the use of immersed boundary methods (IBMs) allows solving, or greatly reducing, this problem by removing the mesh update, facilitating the global automation of the simulation. In the following paper, an approach to perform the airflow and droplet trajectory calculations for three-dimensional simulations is presented. This framework utilizes only immersed boundary methods.
Technical Paper

3D Modeling Applied to the Development of a DI Diesel Engine: Effect of Piston Bowl Shape

Multidimensional computations are carried out to aid in the development of a direct injection Diesel engine. Intake, compression, injection and combustion processes are calculated for a turbo-charged direct injection Diesel engine with a single intake valve. The effects of engine speed and engine load, as well as the influence of exhaust gas recirculation are compared to experimental measurements. The influence of piston bowl shape is investigated. Three dimensional calculations are performed using a mesh built from the complete CAD definition of the engine, intake port, cylinder and piston bowl. The injection characteristics are found to be of primary importance in the control of the combustion process. At a given injection set, piston bowl shape can be optimized for fluid dynamic and combustion.
Technical Paper

3D Simulations by a Detailed Chemistry Combustion Model and Comparison With Experiments of a Light-Duty, Common-Rail D.I. Diesel Engine

The present paper reports the results of the numerical simulations carried out by means of a modified version of the KIVA-3V code and of the comparison with experimental results obtained by using different optical techniques in a single-cylinder optically accessible diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a commercial four valves cylinder head and a second-generation, Common-Rail injection system. A detailed kinetic model consisting of 283 reactions involving 69 species is applied to simulate the combustion process and the soot and NOx formation. The fuel surrogate model consisting of two constituent components, n-heptane and toluene, approximating the physical and ignition properties of the diesel oil, is considered. The Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) assumption is adopted to maintain the computational cost within acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

3D Simulationson Premixed Laminar Flame Propagation of iso-Octane/Air Mixture at Elevated Pressure and Temperature

This paper aims to validate chemical kinetic mechanisms of surrogate gasoline three components fuel by calculating one-dimensional laminar burning velocity of iso-octane/air mixture. Next, the application of level-set method on premixed combustion without consideration the effect of turbulence eddies on flame front is also studied in three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (3D-CFD) simulation. In the 3D CFD simulation, there is an option to calculate laminar burning velocity by using empirical correlations, however it is applicable only for particular initial pressure and temperature in spark ignition engine cases. One-dimensional burning velocities from lean to rich of iso-octane/air mixture are calculated by using CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemistry and transport phenomena as a function of different equivalence ratios, different unburnt temperature and pressure ranges.
Technical Paper

3D Spray Measurement System for High Density Fields Using Laser Holography

To develop injection nozzles and to improve the numerical simulation technology of fuel spray, a measuring technology to analyze the process of disintegration into droplets accurately is required. Performances required by a spray droplets measuring device are: “ability to measure in the combustion condition inside the engine cylinder”, “ability to measure the diameter of spray droplets in high-density fields”, “ability to measure the structure of spray droplets in 3D”, and an improved measuring accuracy of non-spherical droplets. These elements are required in order to analyze the spray droplets structure of gasoline direct injection engines. As a promising method to satisfy these requirements, the laser holography method has been already suggested. However, it has some drawbacks, such as a difficulty in measuring spray droplets in high-density fields and over a long analysis period.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Flow Structures in Journal Bearings

Hydrodynamic radial journal bearings under unsteady load, which are common for automotive applications, are exposed to cavitation, e.g. flow, suction, shock and exit cavitation. The fluid mechanic description of the flow in journal bearings takes advantage of the small bearing clearance, which allows the reduction of the Navier-Stokes equations and leads to the Reynolds equation. The Reynolds equation is two-dimensional, the radial pressure gradient and the radial velocity component are neglected. However, the equation includes the surface velocities, oil density and viscosity and describes the relation between hydrodynamic pressure and local clearance. With the introduction of a cavitation index or a mass flow coefficient a powerful method to carry out numerical studies can be created, which allows the calculation of flow properties and the prediction of regions where the lubrication film disintegrates.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Methodologies for a Fast and Reliable Design of Ultra-Lean SI Engines

The continuous pursuit of higher combustion efficiencies, as well as the possible usage of synthetic fuels with different properties than fossil-ones, require reliable and low-cost numerical approaches to support and speed-up engines industrial design. In this context, SI engines operated with homogeneous ultra-lean mixtures both characterized by a classical ignition configuration or equipped with an active prechamber represent the most promising solutions. In this work, for the classical ignition arrangement, a 3DCFD strategy to model the impact of the ignition system type on the CCV is developed using the RANS approach for turbulence modelling. The spark-discharge is modelled through a set of Lagrangian particles, whose velocity is modified with a zero-divergence perturbation at each discharge event, then evolved according to the Simplified Langevin Model (SLM) to simulate stochastic interactions with the surrounding gas flow.
Journal Article

3D-CFD-Study of Aerodynamic Losses in Compressor Impellers

Abstract Due to the increasing requirements for efficiency, the wide range of characteristics and the improved possibilities of modern development and production processes, compressors in turbochargers have become more individualized in order to adapt to the requirements of internal combustion engines. An understanding of the working mechanisms as well as an understanding of the way that losses occur in the flow allows a reduced development effort during the optimization process. This article presents three-dimensional (3D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) investigations of the loss mechanisms and quantitative calculations of individual losses. The 3D-CFD method used in this article will reduce the drawbacks of one-dimensional calculation as far as possible. For example, the twist of the blades is taken into account and the “discrete” method is used for loss calculation instead of the “average” method.
Technical Paper

3DCFD-Modeling of a Hydrogen Combustion-Process with Regard to Simulation Stability and Emissions

In the context of the energy transition, CO2-neutral solutions are of enormous importance for all sectors, but especially for the mobility sector. Hydrogen as an energy carrier has therefore been the focus of research and development for some time. However, the development of hydrogen combustion engines is in many respects still in the conception phase. Automotive system providers and engineering companies in the field of software development and simulation are showing great interest in the topic. In a joint project with the industrial partners Robert Bosch GmbH and AVL Germany, combustion in a H2-DI-engine for use in light-duty vehicles was methodically investigated using the CFD tool AVL FIRE®. The collaboration between Robert Bosch GmbH and the Institute for Mobile Systems (IMS) at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg has produced a model study in which model approaches for the combustion of hydrogen can be analyzed.
Technical Paper

3d-Elastohydrodynamic Simulation Model for Structure-Borne Noise Analyses of a DI Diesel Engine

The present article is concerned with the investigation of the engine noise induced by the piston slap of an actual passenger car Diesel engine. The focus is put on the coherence of piston secondary movement, impact of the piston on the cylinder liner, generated structure-borne noise excitation of the engine structure and the occurring acceleration on the engine surface. Additionally, the influence of a varying piston-pin offset and piston clearance is evaluated. The analyses are conducted using an elastohydrodynamic multi-body simulation model, taking into account geometry, stiffness and mass information of the single components as well as considering elastic and hydrodynamic behavior of the piston-liner contact. A detailed description of the simulation model will be introduced in the article. The obtained results illustrate the piston secondary motion and the related structure-borne noise on the engine surface for several piston-pin offsets and piston clearances.
Technical Paper

4 Versus 8 Counterweights for an I4 Gasoline Engine Crankshaft - Analytical Comparison

This paper presents results of an analytical comparison between two alternative versions of a crankshaft for a 2.2L gasoline engine. The first version had 8 counterweights and a bay balance factor of 80.3%. The second had 4 (larger) counterweights giving a bay balance factor of 56.6% and a crankshaft mass reduction of 1.42 kg. The results presented in this paper relate to the main bearings in terms of specific loads, oil film thickness and shaft tilt angle under full load and no load conditions across the speed range. Torsional vibration analysis and crankshaft stress analysis were also performed but the results are not presented here. The differences in bearing force and oil film thickness were very small and the only major difference in terms of shaft tilt angle occurred at Mains 2 and 4 (increase of ∼ 20% compared with 8 counterweight version).
Journal Article

4 Versus 8 Counterweights for an I4 Gasoline Engine Crankshaft - Measurements of Vibration and Bearing Wear

The authors have published SAE paper 2008-01-0088 on the analytical comparison between 4 and 8 counterweight crankshafts for an I4 gasoline engine. This paper showed that for a particular design of a 4 counterweight crankshaft, the differences in bearing force and oil film thickness were very small and the only major difference in terms of bearing shaft tilt angle occurred at mains 2 and 4 (increase of ∼20% compared with 8 counterweight version). The 4 counterweight crankshaft has a significant mass advantage as it was 1.42kg lighter than the 8 counterweight crankshaft. This new paper addresses the testing performed to validate the analysis results in bearing durability by subjecting the engine to a mixture of high speed and general durability cycles. A comparison was made on the bearing conditions after running a total of 100 hours through prescribed durability cycles on a gasoline engine with both 4 and 8 counterweight crankshafts.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.
Technical Paper

42V Integrated Starter/Alternator Systems

The increasing power demand in vehicles has resulted in a need for a higher onboard generation capacity. With the increasing generation requirement, the torque levels of the generator are found to closely converge with that of the starter motor. Hence, integrating the two machines and using a single machine for the two purposes would be technically viable and economically advantageous. This results in a more compact design solution as well. The Integrated Starter/Alternator (ISA) will be integrated directly to the crankshaft of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and deliver 5 kW average and 12-15 kW peak power at 42V.
Technical Paper

42V Power Control System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle (MHV)

In the 42V Mild Hybrid System introduced into market by Toyota for the first time in the world, the crankshaft using belt(s) drives the motor/generator (MG). The set-up employs an inverter unit to control the MG electronically. This paper describes the system configuration, operations, characteristic features and development results of the new power control system. The focus is on the MG, the inverter-for-MG-control and energy regeneration, as well as DC/DC converter for the power supply to the 14V devices.
Technical Paper

430LNb - A New Ferritic Wire for Automotive Exhaust Applications

The increasing use of ferritic stainless steels (AISI 409, 439, 436 and 441) in automotive exhaust systems, especially for manifolds and catalytic converter canning, has led the authors to develop a new ferritic welding wire, designated 430LNb. This new material is recommended for the GMAW and GTAW processes and provides better metallurgical compatibility with the ferritic base metals, in terms of both thermal expansion and microstructure. The composition of the new welding wire has been adjusted in order to guarantee an entirely ferritic structure in the welds of ferritic sheet materials, together with good resistance of the welds to both wet corrosion and high temperature oxidation, corresponding to the conditions encountered respectively in the colder and hotter parts of the exhaust line. This is achieved by limitation of the C (<0.02%) and N (<0.02%) contents, stabilisation with Nb, such that Nb > 0.05 + 7 (C + N) and Nb < 0.5%, and a Cr content of 17.8-18.8%.
Technical Paper

48 V Diesel Hybrid - Advanced Powertrain Solution for Meeting Future Indian BS 6 Emission and CO2 Legislations

The legislations on emission reduction is getting stringent everywhere in the world. India is following the same trend, with Government of India (GOI) declaring the nationwide implementation of BS 6 legislation by April 2020 and Real Driving Emission (RDE) Cycle relevant legislation by 2023. Additionally GOI is focusing on reduction of CO2 emissions by introduction of stringent fleet CO2 targets through CAFE regulation, making it mandatory for vehicle manufacturers to simultaneously work on gaseous emissions and CO2 emissions. Simultaneous NOx emission reduction and CO2 reduction measures are divergent in nature, but with a 48 V Diesel hybrid, this goal can be achieved. The study presented here involves arriving at the right future hybrid-powertrain layout for a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) in the Indian scenario to meet the future BS 6 and CAFÉ legislations. Diesel engines dominate the current LCV and SUV segments in India and the same trend can be expected to continue in future.
Journal Article

48V Exhaust Gas Recirculation Pump: Reducing Carbon Dioxide with High-Efficiency Turbochargers without Increasing Engine-Out NOx

Abstract Regulations limiting GreenHouse Gases (GHG) from Heavy-Duty (HD) commercial vehicles in the United States (US) and European Union will phase in between the 2024 and 2030 model years. These mandates require efficiency improvements at both the engine and vehicle levels, with the most stringent reductions required in the heaviest vehicles used for long-haul applications. At the same time, a 90% reduction in oxides of nitrogen (NOx) will be required as part of new regulations from the California Air Resources Board. Any technologies applied to improve engine efficiency must therefore not come at the expense of increased NOx emissions. Research into advanced engine architectures and components has identified improved turbomachine efficiency as one of the largest potential contributors to engine efficiency improvement. However this comes at the cost of a reduced capability to drive high-pressure Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.