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Technical Paper

a universal means for Rating Diesel Engines for Deposits and Wear

THE NEW CRC Diesel Engine Rating Manual is intended to furnish a universal language for identification of diesel-engine deposits and wear. Diesel-engine pistons are evaluated for lacquer deposits by utilizing an area demerit basis and color gradations of brown and gray from clean to black. In studying various means for evaluating thickness and texture of deposit in oil systems, it was decided that the scratch gage developed by the CRC Engine Deposit Rating Panel of the CRC-Motor Engine Varnish and Sludge Group was suitable for diesel engines. A procedure for establishing a volume factor which furnishes a weighted interpretation of the deposit was created.*
Technical Paper

an evaluation of AFTERCOOLING in Turbocharged Diesel Engine Performance

AFTERCOOLING, coupled with higher pressure turbocharging can increase vehicle engine output. The author thinks that it is possible to anticipate diesel engines being run with compressors supplying air at pressure ratios higher than 2/1. Density ratio is the most important consideration in increasing pressure ratio, since the engine's output is dependent upon weight rather than volume of air supplied. Because the density of the compressed air is dependent upon its temperature at any pressure level, cooling the air after compression results in density increases. This paper describes various methods of after-cooling which increase engine output and fuel economy.
Technical Paper

and Repeatability of Transient Heat Release Analysis for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Reduced emissions, improved fuel economy, and improved performance are a priority for manufacturers of internal combustion engines. However, these three goals are normally interrelated and difficult to optimize simultaneously. Studying the experimental heat release provides a useful tool for combustion optimization. Heavy-duty diesel engines are inherently transient, even during steady state operation engine controls can vary due to exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) or aftertreatment requirements. This paper examines the heat release and the derived combustion characteristics during steady state and transient operation for a 1992 DDC series 60 engine and a 2004 Cummins ISM 370 engine. In-cylinder pressure was collected during repeat steady state SET and the heavy-duty transient FTP test cycles.
Technical Paper

basic design of Turbochargers for diesel engines

ALTHOUGH turbocharging of low-speed diesel engines has been used world-wide for a long time, it is only during recent years that it has been applied to high-speed diesels. This is the result of considerable engineering efforts from both the turbocharger and the diesel side that were put into the turbocharger, which appears to be a so utterly simple device. This paper de­scribes some of these engineering efforts. The basic design characteristics are developed with the point of view in mind that the turbo­charger has become much more than just an ad­ditional accessory. It is a vital component of the basic engine itself, contributing actively to the advancement of this prime mover. The basic de­sign characteristics center heavily around aero­dynamical and thermodynamical performance cri­teria which are so important in any advanced high-speed turbomachine.
Technical Paper

considerations of some JET-DEFLECTION PRINCIPLES for - - directional control - - lift

THE performance characteristics of various devices applicable for jet directional control, lift augmentation, and VTOL-STOL studied at the NACA Lewis Laboratory are discussed, including jet deflection devices applicable to the conventonal round nozzle and novel nozzle configurations. The results indicate that many of the deflection devices applicable to conventional nozzles can readily be used for directional control or lift augmentation. Other deflection devices, such as movable plug, internal flap, cylindrical thrust reverser, swiveled primary with fixed shroud, and 90 deg side-bleed nozzle, are limited in application to jet directional control or aircraft trim because the loss in axial thrust for a given deflection force is prohibitive or the maximum deflected force obtainable is limited.
Technical Paper

e-Fuel Production via Renewables and the Impact on the In-Use CO2 Performance

The trend towards renewable energy sources will continue under the pre-amble of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets. The main question is how to harvest and store renewable energy properly. The challenge of intermittency of the renewable energy resources make the supply less predictable compared to the traditional energy sources. Chemical energy carriers like hydrogen and synthetic fuels (e-Fuels) seem to be at least a part of the solution for storing renewable energy. The usage of e-Fuels in the existing ICE-powered vehicle fleet has a big lever arm to reduce the GHG emissions of the transport sector in the short- and medium term. The paper covers the whole well-to-wheel (WtW) pathway by discussing the e-Fuel production from renewable sources, the storage and the usage in the vehicle. It will be summarized by scenarios on the impact of e-Fuel to the WtW CO2 fleet emissions.
Technical Paper

e-Sys Electric Axle: Electrification Solution for Commercial Vehicles

With the increase in demand for energy sustainability projects over the last few years, the Brazilian commercial vehicle industry was guided to develop projects based on ESG policies. Aligned with this need, an initiative that ended up becoming a reality was the “e-Sys” electrification solution, by the company Suspensys. This solution includes a power source (battery), an e-powertrain (motors, inverters and drive axle) and an intelligent control system (VCU with embedded code and sensors). The main motivational drive was the hybridization of semi-trailers, in order to generate a reduction in fuel consumption in cargo transport in Brazil, in addition to the consequent reduction in the emission of particles into the environment and promoting the safety of the operation. It was also adopted, as a premise of the project, that the electrification system was totally independent of the truck’s electronic system (stand alone system), in order to facilitate the operation of the fleet owner.
Technical Paper

eFMI (FMI for Embedded Systems) in AUTOSAR for Next Generation Automotive Software Development

Nowadays automobiles are getting smart and there is a growing need for the physical behavior to become part of its software. This behavior can be described in a compact form by differential equations obtained from modeling and simulation tools. In the offline simulation domain the Functional Mockup Interface (FMI) [3], a popular standard today supported by many tools, allows to integrate a model with solver (Co-Simulation FMU) into another simulation environment. These models cannot be directly integrated into embedded automotive software due to special restrictions with respect to hard real-time constraints and MISRA compliance. Another architectural restriction is organizing software components according to the AUTOSAR standard which is typically not supported by the physical modeling tools. On the other hand AUTOSAR generating tools do not have the required advanced symbolic and numerical features to process differential equations.
Technical Paper

eFlite Dedicated Hybrid Transmission for Chrysler Pacifica

Electrified powertrains will play a growing role in meeting global fuel consumption and CO2 requirements. In support of this, FCA US has developed its first dedicated hybrid transmission (the eFlite® transmission), used in the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. The Chrysler Pacifica is the industry’s first electrified minivan. [2] The new eFlite hybrid transmission architecture optimizes performance, fuel economy, mass, packaging and NVH. The transmission is an electrically variable FWD transaxle with an input split configuration and incorporates two electric motors, both capable of driving in EV mode. The lubrication and cooling system makes use of two pumps, one electrically operated and one mechanically driven. The Chrysler Pacifica has a 16kWh lithium ion battery and a 3.6-liter Pentastar® engine which offers total system power of 260 hp with 84 MPGe, 33 miles of all electric range and 566 miles total driving range. [2] This paper’s focus is on the eFlite transmission.
Technical Paper

eROSITA Camera Low Temperature Thermal Control

eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is a powerful X-ray telescope under development by the Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany. eROSITA is the core instrument on the Russian SRG1 mission which is planned for launch in 2011. It comprises seven nested Wolter-I grazing incidence telescopes, each equipped with its own CCD camera. The mirror modules have to be maintained at 20°C while the cameras are operated at -80°C. Both, mirrors and CCDs have to be kept within tight limits. The CCD cooling system consists of passive thermal control components only: two radiators, variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP) and two special thermal storage units. The orbit scenario imposes severe challenges on the thermal control system and also on the attitude control system.
Technical Paper

if you squeeze them, must them SCREAM?

TODAY'S high-compression engines present new problems of engine noise to automotive engineers. This paper deals with some of the factors which contribute to rumble, knock, and surface ignition. The work was primarily concerned with the influence of fuel composition on the equilibrium octane number requirement and surface ignition tendency of high-compression engines. Both the effect of the combustion-chamber deposits formed by the fuel and the effect of the combustion characteristics of the fuel itself were considered. The results indicate that a reduction in gasoline tail-end volatility or the use of an effective ignition control additive can reduce knock, surface ignition, and rumble; while use of gasolines containing high concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons can increase these combustion difficulties.
Technical Paper

knock-knock: Spark Knock, Wild Ping, or Rumble?

ENGINE noise has become an increasing problem with the higher and higher compression ratios of present-day automotive engines. Because fuel octane number cannot be raised indefinitely, the problem is one of engine design and selection of crankcase lubricating oils and gasoline formulations, the authors think. This paper describes investigations into the cause of spark knock, wild ping, rumble, and the added problem of hot-spot surface ignition (which also intensifies as compression ratios increase). The authors have found gasolines with phosphorous additives, used with properly formulated multiviscosity lubricating oils, provide a partial answer to the problem of engine rumble. The authors conclude that very exact tailoring of fuels, lubricants, additives, and engines will be necessary to prevent engine noise if compression ratios continue to rise.
Technical Paper

mDSF: Improved Fuel Efficiency, Drivability and Vibrations via Dynamic Skip Fire and Miller Cycle Synergies

mDSF is a novel cylinder deactivation technology developed at Tula Technology, which combines the torque control of Dynamic Skip Fire (DSF) with Miller cycle engines to optimize fuel efficiency at minimal cost. mDSF employs a valvetrain with variable valve lift plus deactivation and novel control algorithms founded on Tula’s proven DSF technology. This allows cylinders to dynamically alternate among 3 potential states: high-charge fire, low-charge fire, and skip (deactivation). The low-charge fire state is achieved through an aggressive Miller cycle with Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC). The three operating states in mDSF can be used to simultaneously optimize engine efficiency and driveline vibrations. Acceleration performance is retained using the all-cylinder, high-charge firing mode.
Technical Paper

p>Thermomechanical Analysis of the Cylinder Head and Cylinder Block with the Liner of AFV Diesel Engine

This paper deals with the Coupled thermo mechanical analysis of a cylinder head, cylinder block and crank case with the liner of an uprated engine. The existing engine develops 780 hp output with mechanical driven supercharger and the engine is uprated to 1000 hp by replacing the supercharger with a turbocharger and new Fuel injection equipment. For uprating any engine, the piston and cylinder head are the most vulnerable members due to increased mechanical and thermal loadings. Mechanical loading is due to the gas pressure in the gas chamber and its magnitude can be judged in terms of peak pressure. Thermal loading is due to temperature and the heat transfer conditions in the piston surface, cylinder liner and the cylinder head. The relative importance of the various loads applied on the head and cylinder block in operation are assessed and a method of predicting their influence on the structural integrity of the components described.
Technical Paper

some development problems with Large Cryogenic Propellant Systems

HEAT TRANSFER causes loading and starting design problems in large missile systems powered by cryogenic propellants. This manifests itself during loading as effective density variation, violent surface conditions, boiloff, and ice formation — problems which may be solved by insulating the tank. During starting it causes overheating and caviation — effects which may be reduced by recirculators and subcooled charge injections. The study described in this paper centers around liquid oxygen and its variations in heat flux rate, which affect liquid density, surface condition, and replenishing requirements. The problem areas are made apparent by consideration of a hypothetical missile system.*
Technical Paper

some metallurgical aspects of … Pontiac V-8 Engine Pearlitic Malleable Iron Crankshaft

PEARLITIC malleable iron crankshafts are being used in the new Pontiac engine as a result of recent developments. This paper discusses the physical properties of pearlitic malleable iron such as elastic modulus, fatigue endurance, and tensile strength. According to the author, definite machining economies result from using pearlitic malleable iron crankshafts.
Technical Paper

the economics of HIGH-OCTANE GASOLINES

FUEL of 97 + octane number gives the most miles for the dollar, present calculations show. At this point, increased efficiency from high compression ratios equals the rising cost of high-octane fuel. For town driving about 95 octane is inherently the least expensive, and over-the-road cars can benefit from gasolines up to almost 99 octane number. This paper describes an analysis made by California Research Corp. of the costs and the value of high-octane gasolines. The economics of octane numbers was based on current commercial practices regarding improved efficiencies of higher compression ratio cars and higher manufacturing costs of higher octane gasolines. The authors believe that if compression ratio and octane number stay in proper relation to each other, the consumer will benefit.
Technical Paper

the identification and characterization of RUMBLE AND THUD

SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS of cylinder pressure, audible sound, and crankshaft motion have shown that rumble is a noise associated with bending vibrations of the crankshaft. The vibrations are caused by abnormally high rates of pressure rise near the top dead center piston position. In this study the high rates of pressure rise were obtained by inducting deposits into the the engine. Thud is a torsional vibration of the crankshaft, similar in sound to rumble but resulting from much earlier occurrence of the maximum rates of pressure rise. Rumble vibrations consisted of a fundamental frequency of 600 cps and higher harmonics in the 11/1 compression ratio V-8 laboratory engine used in the investigation. The audible noise of rumble was predominantly composed of the second harmonic or about 1200 cps.
Technical Paper

the use of Radioactive Tracer Techniques to determine the effect of operating variables on Eng ine Wear

RADIOTRACERS were used to study the wear effects of engine speed, load, jacket water temperature, fuel temperature, and chromium-plated rings in a medium-speed diesel engine. One distillate fuel and two residual fuels were tested. This paper describes the tests and their results. Some of the conclusions are: The brake thermal efficiency with high viscosity residual fuel was essentially equal to distillate diesel fuel over a wide range of loads, providing the residual fuel was heated to the proper temperature. Engine speed did not affect the wear rate of cast-iron rings when distillate fuel was used, while with residual fuel wear decreased with increased speed. With distillate fuel, engine load had essentially no effect on cast-iron ring wear. With residual fuel, decreasing engine load produced a marked increase in ring wear*