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Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1147
Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation-Based Methodology for Automotive Grill Opening Area Optimization

2021-09-15
2021-28-0133
This paper discusses the methodology setup for grill opening area prediction at the early development phase of the product development lifecycle, using a commercially available 1D simulation tool- AMESIM. Representative under hood has been modeled using Grill, Condenser, Radiator, intercooler, fan, and engine components. Vehicle velocity is used as an input to derive the airflow passing through the grill and other under-hood components based on ram air coefficient, pressure drop through different components (Grill, Heat exchanger, Fan & Engine). This airflow is used to predict the top tank temperature of the radiator. Derived airflow is correlated with airflow obtained from CFD simulation. A balance has been achieved between cooling drag & fan power consumption at different grill opening areas for target top tank temperature. Top tank temperature has been predicted at two different extreme engine heat rejection operating points.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0692
This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
Technical Paper

1D Transient Thermal Model of an Automotive Electric Engine Cooling Fan Motor

2016-04-05
2016-01-0214
For the thermal management of an automobile, the induced airflow becomes necessary to enable the sufficient heat transfer with ambient. In this way, the components work within the designed temperature limit. It is the engine-cooling fan that enables the induced airflow. There are two types of engine-cooling fan, one that is driven by engine itself and the other one is electrically driven. Due to ease in handling, reduced power consumption, improved emission condition, electrically operated fan is becoming increasingly popular compared to engine driven fan. The prime mover for electric engine cooling fan is DC motor. Malfunction of DC motor due to overheating will lead to engine over heat, Poor HVAC performance, overheating of other critical components in engine bay. Based upon the real world driving condition, 1D transient thermal model of engine cooling fan motor is developed. This transient model is able to predict the temperature of rotor and casing with and without holes.
Technical Paper

1D and 3D CFD Investigation of Burning Process and Knock Occurrence in a Gasoline or CNG fuelled Two-Stroke SI Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0526
The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical investigation of a small unit displacement two-stroke SI engine operated with gasoline and Natural Gas (CNG). A detailed multi-cycle 3D-CFD analysis of the scavenging process is at first performed in order to accurately characterize the engine behavior in terms of scavenging patterns and efficiency. Detailed CFD analyses are used to accurately model the complex set of physical and chemical processes and to properly estimate the fluid-dynamic behavior of the engine, where boundary conditions are provided by a in-house developed 1D model of the whole engine. It is in fact widely recognized that for two-stroke crankcase scavenged, carbureted engines the scavenging patterns (fuel short-circuiting, residual gas distribution, pointwise lambda field, etc.) plays a fundamental role on both of engine performance and tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Analysis of the Scavenging and Combustion Process in a Gasoline and Natural-Gas Fuelled Two-Stroke Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1087
The paper presents a 1D-3D numerical model to simulate the scavenging and combustion processes in a small-size spark-ignition two-stroke engine. The engine is crankcase scavenged and can be operated with both gasoline and Natural Gas (NG). The analysis is performed with a modified version of the KIVA3V code, coupled to an in-house developed 1D model. A time-step based, two-way coupled procedure is fully described and validated against a reference test. Then, a 1D-3D simulation of the whole two-stroke engine is carried out in different operating conditions, for both gasoline and NG fuelling. Results are compared with experimental data including instantaneous pressure signals in the crankcase, in the cylinder and in the exhaust pipe. The procedure allows to characterize the scavenging process and quantify the fresh mixture short-circuiting, as well as to analyze the development of the NG combustion process for a diluted mixture, typically occurring in a two-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Coupled Analysis for Motor Thermal Management in an Electric Vehicle

2022-03-29
2022-01-0214
Motor thermal management of electric vehicles (EVs) is becoming more significant due to its close relations to vehicle aerodynamic performance and power consumption, while computer aided engineering (CAE) plays an important role in its development. A 1D-3D coupled model is established to characterize transient thermal performance of the motor in an electric vehicle on a high performance computer (HPC) platform. The 1D motor thermal management model is integrated with the 1D powertrain model, and a 3D thermal model is established for the motor, while online data exchange is realized between the 1D and 3D models. The 1D model gives boundaries such as inlet coolant temperature, mass flowrate and motor heat generation to the 3D model, while the 3D model gives back boundaries such as heat transfer to coolant simultaneously. Transient simulations are performed for the 140kph(20°C) driving cycle, and the model is calibrated with experimental data.
Technical Paper

2-Cycle Methanol LHR Engine and It's Characteristics

1994-10-01
941910
Methanol fuel was tested in a prototype 2-cycle ceramic heat insulated engine with a swirl chamber. It was found that the 2-cycle ceramic heat insulated engine with a compression ratio of 18:1 could ignite methanol without an auxiliary ignition system and emissions were substantially reduced in the whole load range.
Journal Article

2-D Internal EGR Distribution Measurements in an Engine by Laser-Induced Fluorescence

2013-04-08
2013-01-0556
A novel diagnostic technique named a “Tracer-Producing LIF technique” which enables 2-dimensional measurement of an internal EGR within an engine cylinder, has been developed. The main feature of this technique is the utilization of a fuel additive that does not itself emit an LIF signal by irradiation of UV-light but whose combustion products radiate strong LIF emissions by UV-light irradiation. Internal EGR behaviors can be measured by observing LIF images that are excited by a UV-laser sheet. Firstly, principles of this technique were confirmed and fuel additives were selected. Then, the “Tracer-Producing LIF technique” was applied to an optically accessible single-cylinder gasoline engine in which the entire pent-roof area can be observed from the side of the engine. The internal EGR behaviors were measured through the entire engine cycle, from intake to exhaust.
Technical Paper

2-D Temperature Measurements of Unburned Gas Mixture in an Engine by Two-line Excitation LIF Technique

2006-10-16
2006-01-3336
Two-line excitation LIF (Laser-Induced Fluorescence) technique for 2-dimensional temperature measurements in an engine cylinder before ignition is presented. From the fundamental examinations, the combination of toluene tracer with a pair of excitation lines of 248nm and 266nm has been selected because of the high LIF intensity ratio and closer excitation wavelengths. In-cylinder thermometry is conducted using a visualized single cylinder spark ignition engine both in PFI (port-fuel-injection) and DI (direct-injection) operation. The accuracy of this technique is determined through the homogeneous PFI experiment. Temperature and fuel distribution in unburned mixture are measured simultaneously in DI operation. It exists a strong correlation between equivalence ratio and temperature inside the mixture. Temperature in the fuel rich region is lower than in the fuel lean region.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of Liquid Fuel injection in an Internal Combustion Engine

1987-11-01
872074
A sheet of laser light from a frequency-doubled Nd-YAG laser (λ = 532 nm) approximately 150 μm thick is shone through the cylinder of a single cylinder internal combustion engine. The light scattered by the fuel spray is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder and is imaged on a 100 × 100 diode array camera. The signal from the diode array is then sent to a microcomputer for background subtraction and image enhancement. The laser pulse is synchronized with the crank shaft of the engine so that a picture of the spray distribution within the engine at different times during injection and the penetration and development of the spray may be observed. The extent of the spray at different positions within the chamber is determined by varying the position and angle of the laser sheet with respect to the piston and the injector.
Technical Paper

2-D Visualization of liquid and Vapor Fuel in an I.C. Engine

1988-02-01
880521
A sheet of laser light from a frequency tripled Nd-YAG laser approximately 200μm thick is shone through the combustion chamber of a single cylinder, direct injection internal combustion engine. The injected decane contains exciplex—forming dopants which produce spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phases. The fluorescence signal is collected through a quartz window in the cylinder head and is imaged onto a diode array camera. The camera is interfaced to a microcomputer for data acquisition and processing. The laser and camera are synchronized with the crankshaft of the engine so that 2—D images of the liquid and vapor phase fuel distributions can be obtained at different times during the engine cycle. Results are presented at 600, 1200 and 1800 rpm, and from the beginning to just after the end of injection. The liquid fuel traverses the cylinder in a straight line in the form of a narrow cone, but does not reach the far wall in the plane of the laser sheet.
Video

2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

2012-06-18
In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system. Presenter Yan Zhang, Brunel University
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Combustion Operation in a GDI Engine with Poppet Valves

2012-04-16
2012-01-1118
In order to extend the CAI operation range in 4-stroke mode and maximize the benefit of low fuel consumption and emissions in CAI mode, 2-stroke CAI combustion is revived operating in a GDI engine with poppet valves, where the conventional crankcase scavenging is replaced by boosted scavenging. The CAI combustion is achieved through the inherence of the 2-Stroke operation, which is retaining residual gas. A set of flexible hydraulic valve train was installed on the engine to vary the residual gas fraction under the boosting condition. The effects of spark timing, intake pressure and short-circuiting on 2-stroke CAI combustion and its emissions are investigated and discussed in this paper. Results show the engine could be controlled to achieve CAI operation over a wide range of engine speed and load in the 2-stroke mode because of the flexibility of the electro-hydraulic valvetrain system.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Engine Options for Automotive Use: A Fundamental Comparison of Different Potential Scavenging Arrangements for Medium-Duty Truck Applications

2019-01-15
2019-01-0071
The work presented here seeks to compare different means of providing scavenging systems for an automotive 2-stroke engine. It follows on from previous work solely investigating uniflow scavenging systems, and aims to provide context for the results discovered there as well as to assess the benefits of a new scavenging system: the reverse-uniflow sleeve-valve. For the study the general performance of the engine was taken to be suitable to power a medium-duty truck, and all of the concepts discussed here were compared in terms of indicated fuel consumption for the same cylinder swept volume using a one-dimensional engine simulation package. In order to investigate the sleeve-valve designs layout drawings and analysis of the Rolls-Royce Crecy-type sleeve had to be undertaken.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke Externally Scavenged Engines for Range Extender Applications

2012-04-16
2012-01-1022
In this work, the authors assess the potential of the 2-stroke concept applied to Range Extender engines, proposing 3 different configurations: 1) Supercharged, Compression Ignition; 2) Turbocharged, Compression Ignition; 3) Supercharged, Gasoline Direct Injection. All the engines feature a single power cylinder of 0.49l, external air feed by piston pump and an innovative induction system. The scavenging is of the Loop type, without poppet valves, and with a 4-stroke like lubrication system (no crankcase pump). Engine design has been supported by CFD simulations, both 1D (engine cycle analysis) and 3D (scavenging, injection and combustion calculations). All the numerical models used in the study are calibrated against experiments, carried out on engines as similar as possible to the proposed ones.
Journal Article

2-Stroke High Speed Diesel Engines for Light Aircraft

2011-09-11
2011-24-0089
The paper describes a numerical study, supported by experiments, on light aircraft 2-Stroke Direct Injected Diesel engines, typically rated up to 110 kW (corresponding to about 150 imperial HP). The engines must be as light as possible and they are to be directly coupled to the propeller, without reduction drive. The ensuing main design constraints are: i) in-cylinder peak pressure as low as possible (typically, no more than 120 bar); ii) maximum rotational speed limited to 2600 rpm. As far as exhaust emissions are concerned, piston aircraft engines remain unregulated but lack of visible smoke is a customer requirement, so that a value of 1 is assumed as maximum Smoke number. For the reasons clarified in the paper, only three cylinder in line engines are investigated. Reference is made to two types of scavenging and combustion systems, designed by the authors with the assistance of state-of-the-art CFD tools and described in detail in a parallel paper.
Technical Paper

2-step Variable Valve Actuation: System Optimization and Integration on an SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0040
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

2004-03-08
2004-01-1257
An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
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