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Technical Paper

3-D LDV Measurement of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine

1995-02-01
950648
In-cylinder flows in a motored four-valve SI engine were examined by simultaneous three-component LDV measurement. The purpose of this study was to develop better physical understanding of in-cylinder flows and quantitative methods which correlate in-cylinder flows to engine performance. This study is believed to be the first simultaneous three-component LDV measurement of the air flow over a planar section of a four-valve piston-cylinder assembly. Special attention is paid to the tumble formation process, three-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy, and measurement of the tumble ratio. The influence of the induction system and the piston geometry are believed to have a significant effect on the in-cylinder flow characteristics. Using LDV measurement, the flows in two different piston top geometries were examined. One axial plane was selected to observe the effect of piston top geometries on the flow field in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Conventional and HCCI Combustion Diesel Engines

2004-10-25
2004-01-2964
An investigation of the possibility to extend the 3-dimensional modeling capabilities from conventional diesel to the HCCI combustion mode simulation was carried out. Experimental data was taken from a single cylinder engine operating with early injections for the HCCI and a split-injection (early pilot+main) for the high speed Diesel engine operation. To properly phase the HCCI mode in the experiments, high amounts of cooled EGR and a decreased compression ratio were used. In numerical simulation performed using KIVA3-V code, modified to incorporate the Detailed Chemistry Approach the same conditions were reproduced. Special attention is paid on the analysis of the events leading up to the auto-ignition, which was reasonably well predicted.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Heat Transfer in Diesel Engine Piston Cooling Galleries

2005-04-11
2005-01-1644
Ever increasing specific power of diesel engines has put huge demand on effective thermal management of the pistons for the desired reliability and durability. The piston temperature control is commonly achieved by injecting cooling oil into piston galleries, but the design of the cooling system as well as the boundary conditions used in FEA simulations have so far relied mostly on empirical methods. A numerical procedure using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has therefore been developed to simulate the cooling process and to estimate the cooling efficiency of gallery. The model is able to predict the detailed oil flow and heat transfer in gallery, of different designs and engine applications, under dynamic conditions. The resulted spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient from the CFD model, with better accuracy, enables improved prediction of piston temperature in finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer among Multi-Component Coupling System in Internal Combustion Chamber

2008-06-23
2008-01-1818
A 3-D numerical analysis model of transient heat transfer among the multi-component coupling system in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine has been developed successfully in the paper. The model includes almost all solid components in combustion chamber, such as piston assembly, cylinder liner, cylinder head gasket, cylinder head, intake valves and exhaust valves, etc. With two different coupling heat transfer modes, one is the lubricant film heat conduction between two moving components, another is the contact heat conduction between two immovable solid components, and with the direct coupled-field analysis method of FEM, the heat transfer relation among the components is established. The simulation result dedicates the transient heat transfer process among the components such as moving piston assembly and cylinder liner, moving valves and cylinder head. The effect of cylinder head gasket on heat transfer among the components is also studied.
Technical Paper

3-Dimentional Numerical Transient Simulation and Research on Flow Distribution Unevenness in Intake Manifold for a Turbocharged Diesel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2420
The design of engine intake system affects the intake uniformity of each cylinder of the engine, which in turn has an important impact on the engine performance, the uniform distribution of EGR exhaust gas and the combustion process of each cylinder. In this paper, the constant-pressure supercharged diesel engine intake pipe is used as the research model to study the intake air flow unevenness of the intake pipe of the supercharged diesel engine. The pressure boundary condition at the outlet of each intake manifold is set as the dynamic pressure change condition. The three-dimensional numerical simulation of the transient flow process in the intake manifold of diesel engine is simulated and analyzed by using numerical method, and the change of the Intake air flow field in the intake manifold under different working conditions during the intake overlapping period is discussed.
Technical Paper

34 Experimental Analysis of Piston Slap from Small Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1803
This project is an experimental investigation and optimization of piston slap noise in small two-stroke gasoline engine. Piston slap is one of the most significant mechanical noise sources in an internal combustion engine. It is a dynamic impact phenomenon between the piston and the cylinder block caused by changes in the lateral forces acting on the piston. The change in cylinder block vibration level caused by the piston impact is considered as a measure of piston slap during this experiment. The intensity of piston slap is measured in terms of vibration level in ‘g’ units, by means of accelerometers mounted on the cylinder block with Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dead Center (BDC) marker. For the design of low noise engines, all the major parameters, which contribute to piston slap, are listed and the critical four are examined through additional experiments.
Technical Paper

36 Development of a High Performance Small Gas Engine for a Gas Engine Heat Pump

2002-10-29
2002-32-1805
GHP which, is the heat pump system for an air conditioning, is directly driven the compressor by a small gas engine. The NOx was reduced 70% less than a conventional gas engine with improvement of thermal efficiency. The combustion chamber shape using strong squish flow is improved in order that the pattern of a heat release is changed to be suitable. Because the relation between NOx and the thermal efficiency is the trade off relation, the air fuel ratio and the ignition timing must be precisely controlled. Detecting the change of the Pi variation calculated from the engine speed variation can control the air fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Analyses of Intake Duct Geometry Impact on Tumble Motion and Turbulence Production in SI Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2199
In recent years, engine manufacturers have been continuously involved in the research of proper technical solutions to meet more and more stringent CO2 emission targets, defined by international regulations. Many strategies have been already developed, or are currently under study, to attain the above objective. A tendency is however emerging towards more innovative combustion concepts, able to efficiently burn lean or highly diluted mixtures. To this aim, the enhancement of turbulence intensity inside the combustion chamber has a significant importance, contributing to improve the burning rate, to increase the thermal efficiency, and to reduce the cyclic variability. It is well-known that turbulence production is mainly achieved during the intake stroke. Moreover, it is strictly affected by the intake port geometry and orientation.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

3D Engine Analysis and MLS Cylinder Head Gaskets Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0663
Multi-layer steel (MLS) cylinder head gaskets are becoming more widely used to seal an engine. Therefore, it is important to understand the interaction between the engine head, block and head gasket. While experimental methods for determining necessary gasket tightening loads and experimental data relating some gasket design parameters to failure are available, it is very costly and time consuming. A numerical method, such as the finite element (FE) method, has proven to be very useful and efficient in aiding gasket design. A 3D engine FE analysis can predict a number of parameters. Of particular interest are the motion as well as the contact profile of the head, block and gasket. This information, usually difficult or impossible to obtain from a 2D FE analysis, can be used to predict the two most common failure modes of a gasket, fatigue crack and leakage.
Technical Paper

3D Modeling Applied to the Development of a DI Diesel Engine: Effect of Piston Bowl Shape

1997-05-01
971599
Multidimensional computations are carried out to aid in the development of a direct injection Diesel engine. Intake, compression, injection and combustion processes are calculated for a turbo-charged direct injection Diesel engine with a single intake valve. The effects of engine speed and engine load, as well as the influence of exhaust gas recirculation are compared to experimental measurements. The influence of piston bowl shape is investigated. Three dimensional calculations are performed using a mesh built from the complete CAD definition of the engine, intake port, cylinder and piston bowl. The injection characteristics are found to be of primary importance in the control of the combustion process. At a given injection set, piston bowl shape can be optimized for fluid dynamic and combustion.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Simulation of Fuel injection and Combustion Phenomena in DI Diesel Engines

1989-02-01
890668
Recently the analysis of air-fuel mixing and combustion has become important under the stringent emissions regulations of diesel engines. In the case of gasoline engines, the KIVA computer program has been developed and used for the analysis of combustion. In this paper, the calculations of combustion phenomena in DI diesel engines are performed by modifying the KIVA program so as to be applicable to multi-hole nozzles and arbitrary patterns of injection rate. The thermophysical and ther-mochemical properties of gasoline are altered to those diesel fuel. In order to investigate the ability of this modified program, the calculations are compared with the experiments on single cylinder engines concerning the pressure, flame temperature and mass change of chemical species in cylinders. Furthermore, the calculation for the heavy duty DI diesel engine is performed with this diesel combustion program.
Technical Paper

3D Simulations by a Detailed Chemistry Combustion Model and Comparison With Experiments of a Light-Duty, Common-Rail D.I. Diesel Engine

2005-09-11
2005-24-057
The present paper reports the results of the numerical simulations carried out by means of a modified version of the KIVA-3V code and of the comparison with experimental results obtained by using different optical techniques in a single-cylinder optically accessible diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a commercial four valves cylinder head and a second-generation, Common-Rail injection system. A detailed kinetic model consisting of 283 reactions involving 69 species is applied to simulate the combustion process and the soot and NOx formation. The fuel surrogate model consisting of two constituent components, n-heptane and toluene, approximating the physical and ignition properties of the diesel oil, is considered. The Partially Stirred Reactor (PaSR) assumption is adopted to maintain the computational cost within acceptable limits.
Technical Paper

3D Simulationson Premixed Laminar Flame Propagation of iso-Octane/Air Mixture at Elevated Pressure and Temperature

2015-03-10
2015-01-0015
This paper aims to validate chemical kinetic mechanisms of surrogate gasoline three components fuel by calculating one-dimensional laminar burning velocity of iso-octane/air mixture. Next, the application of level-set method on premixed combustion without consideration the effect of turbulence eddies on flame front is also studied in three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (3D-CFD) simulation. In the 3D CFD simulation, there is an option to calculate laminar burning velocity by using empirical correlations, however it is applicable only for particular initial pressure and temperature in spark ignition engine cases. One-dimensional burning velocities from lean to rich of iso-octane/air mixture are calculated by using CHEMKIN-PRO with detailed chemistry and transport phenomena as a function of different equivalence ratios, different unburnt temperature and pressure ranges.
Technical Paper

3D Spray Measurement System for High Density Fields Using Laser Holography

2002-03-04
2002-01-0739
To develop injection nozzles and to improve the numerical simulation technology of fuel spray, a measuring technology to analyze the process of disintegration into droplets accurately is required. Performances required by a spray droplets measuring device are: “ability to measure in the combustion condition inside the engine cylinder”, “ability to measure the diameter of spray droplets in high-density fields”, “ability to measure the structure of spray droplets in 3D”, and an improved measuring accuracy of non-spherical droplets. These elements are required in order to analyze the spray droplets structure of gasoline direct injection engines. As a promising method to satisfy these requirements, the laser holography method has been already suggested. However, it has some drawbacks, such as a difficulty in measuring spray droplets in high-density fields and over a long analysis period.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Flow Structures in Journal Bearings

2009-11-02
2009-01-2688
Hydrodynamic radial journal bearings under unsteady load, which are common for automotive applications, are exposed to cavitation, e.g. flow, suction, shock and exit cavitation. The fluid mechanic description of the flow in journal bearings takes advantage of the small bearing clearance, which allows the reduction of the Navier-Stokes equations and leads to the Reynolds equation. The Reynolds equation is two-dimensional, the radial pressure gradient and the radial velocity component are neglected. However, the equation includes the surface velocities, oil density and viscosity and describes the relation between hydrodynamic pressure and local clearance. With the introduction of a cavitation index or a mass flow coefficient a powerful method to carry out numerical studies can be created, which allows the calculation of flow properties and the prediction of regions where the lubrication film disintegrates.
Journal Article

3D-CFD RANS Methodology to Predict Engine-Out Emissions with Gasoline-Like Fuel and Methanol for a DISI Engine

2022-09-16
2022-24-0038
Renewable fuels, such as bio- and e-fuels, are of great interest for the defossilization of the transport sector. Among these fuels, methanol represents a promising candidate for emission reduction and efficiency increase due to its very high knock resistance and its production pathway as e-fuel. In general, reliable simulation tools are mandatory for evaluating a specific fuel potential and optimizing combustion systems. In this work, a previously presented methodology (Esposito et al., Energies, 2020) has been refined and applied to a different engine and different fuels. Experimental data measured with a single cylinder engine (SCE) are used to validate RANS 3D-CFD simulations of gaseous engine-out emissions. The RANS 3D-CFD model has been used for operation with a toluene reference fuel (TRF) gasoline surrogate and methanol. Varying operating conditions with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and air dilution are considered for the two fuels.
Technical Paper

3DCFD-Modeling of a Hydrogen Combustion-Process with Regard to Simulation Stability and Emissions

2023-06-26
2023-01-1209
In the context of the energy transition, CO2-neutral solutions are of enormous importance for all sectors, but especially for the mobility sector. Hydrogen as an energy carrier has therefore been the focus of research and development for some time. However, the development of hydrogen combustion engines is in many respects still in the conception phase. Automotive system providers and engineering companies in the field of software development and simulation are showing great interest in the topic. In a joint project with the industrial partners Robert Bosch GmbH and AVL Germany, combustion in a H2-DI-engine for use in light-duty vehicles was methodically investigated using the CFD tool AVL FIRE®. The collaboration between Robert Bosch GmbH and the Institute for Mobile Systems (IMS) at Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg has produced a model study in which model approaches for the combustion of hydrogen can be analyzed.
Technical Paper

3d-Elastohydrodynamic Simulation Model for Structure-Borne Noise Analyses of a DI Diesel Engine

2016-06-15
2016-01-1854
The present article is concerned with the investigation of the engine noise induced by the piston slap of an actual passenger car Diesel engine. The focus is put on the coherence of piston secondary movement, impact of the piston on the cylinder liner, generated structure-borne noise excitation of the engine structure and the occurring acceleration on the engine surface. Additionally, the influence of a varying piston-pin offset and piston clearance is evaluated. The analyses are conducted using an elastohydrodynamic multi-body simulation model, taking into account geometry, stiffness and mass information of the single components as well as considering elastic and hydrodynamic behavior of the piston-liner contact. A detailed description of the simulation model will be introduced in the article. The obtained results illustrate the piston secondary motion and the related structure-borne noise on the engine surface for several piston-pin offsets and piston clearances.
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