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Technical Paper

What Fuel Economy Improvement Technologies Could Aid the Competitiveness of Light-Duty Natural Gas Vehicles?

The question of whether increasing the fuel economy of light-duty natural gas fueled vehicles can improve their economic competitiveness in the U.S. market, and help the US Department of Energy meet stated goals for such vehicles is explored. Key trade-offs concerning costs, exhaust emissions and other issues are presented for a number of possible advanced engine designs. Projections of fuel economy improvements for a wide range of lean-burn engine technologies have been developed. It appears that compression ignition technologies can give the best potential fuel economy, but are less competitive for light-duty vehicles due to high engine cost. Lean-burn spark ignition technologies are more applicable to light-duty vehicles due to lower overall cost. Meeting Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle standards with efficient lean-burn natural gas engines is a key challenge.
Technical Paper

What’s Ahead in Commercial Vehicle Powerplants

THIS authors sees a need, in the near future, for commercial vehicles with engines of 1000 to 1200 hp - powerplants that yield high outputs but require limited space. He sees an immediate need for more and more horsepower per cubic inch of piston displacement and per unit of space for the engine. He directs attention to six design potentials which may supply the answer: (1) the gas turbine; (2) supercharging; (3) aircooled diesels; (4) higher engine speeds; (5) 2-stroke diesel improvement; (6) compound engines. He also links the future development of the internal-combustion engine with basic improvement of components through simplification, calling for the elimination of extraneous gadgetry.
Technical Paper

Why Liquid Phase LPG Port Injection has Superior Power and Efficiency to Gas Phase Port Injection

This paper reports comparative results for liquid phase versus gaseous phase port injection in a single cylinder engine. It follows previous research in a multi-cylinder engine where liquid phase was found to have advantages over gas phase at most operating conditions. Significant variations in cylinder to cylinder mixture distribution were found for both phases and leading to uncertainty in the findings. The uncertainty was avoided in this paper as in the engine used, a high speed Waukesha ASTM CFR, identical manifold conditions could be assured and MBT spark found for each fuel supply system over a wide range of mixtures. These were extended to lean burn conditions where gaseous fuelling in the multi-cylinder engine had been reported to be at least an equal performer to liquid phase. The experimental data confirm the power and efficiency advantages of liquid phase injection over gas phase injection and carburetion in multi-cylinder engine tests.
Technical Paper

Why Not 125 BMEP in an L-Head Truck Engine?

HIGH output per cubic inch of piston displacement is desirable not alone for the purpose of being able to transport more payload faster, but more particularly for the invariably associated byproduct of lower specific fuel consumption, and especially at road-load requirements. The only way of accomplishing this purpose is through the use of higher compression ratios, and the limiting factors for this objective are fuel distribution and the operating temperatures of the component parts. A manifold is proposed which not only definitely improves distribution at both full and road loads, but has the inherent additional advantage of reducing the formation of condensate, thus still further facilitating a reduction in road-load specific fuel consumption. Hydraulic valve lifters, obviation of mechanical and thermal distortion, and controlled water flow are the essentials in improved cooling.
Technical Paper

Why are NCI Pistons Not Used in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines?

In order to meet the strict exhaust emission legislation and customer's requirements of high power, heavy-duty diesel engines have to have a higher peak firing pressure and higher thermal load recently. It causes serious influence on the reliability and durability of the engines and engine parts, pistons in particular. The pistons for the next generation heavy-duty diesel engines are required to withstand more than 20 MPa of the peak firing pressure and higher thermal load, productivity of course. Nodular cast iron (NCI) pistons are one of the answers that could satisfy the requirements mentioned above. It is well known that NCI pistons have a lot of advantages but not popular. The difficulty of the casting technology and the quality control are the major reasons. Hino P11C engine has adopted it and kept it under mass production since 1991 and approx.20000 units of total production volume without any troubles.
Technical Paper

Windage Tray Design Comparison Using Crankcase Breathing Simulation

The conflicting requirements of better fuel economy, higher performance and lower emissions from an automobile engine have brought many new challenges that require development teams to look beyond conventional test and seek answers from simulations. One of the relatively unexplored areas of development where frictional losses haven't been completely understood is the flow in the crankcase. Here computational engineering can play a significant role in analyzing flow field in a hidden and complex region where otherwise testing has serious limitations. Flow simulation in the crankcase poses significant complexity and provides an opportunity to enhance the understanding of underlying physics by using multi-physics analyses tools available commercially. In this study, air space under the piston and above the oil level in oil pan is simulated. It is known that bay-to-bay breathing and windage holes account for considerable amount of power losses in the crankcase.
Technical Paper

Work Extraction Efficiency in a Series Hybrid Opposed Piston Engine

This work investigates the development of a novel series hybrid architecture utilizing a single cylinder opposed piston engine. The opposed piston engine presents unique benefits in a hybrid architecture such as its lower heat transfer due to a favorable surface area to volume ratio and lack of a cylinder head, as well as the thermodynamic benefits of two stroke operation with uniflow scavenging. A particular focus of this effort is the work extraction efficiency of two design concepts. The first design concept utilizes a geartrain to couple the crankshafts of the engine in a conventional manner, providing a single power take-off for coupling to an electric motor/generator. In this design, the large inertia of the geartrain dampens the speed fluctuation of the single cylinder engine, reducing the peak torque required to for the electric machine. However, the friction losses caused by the geartrain limit the maximum work extraction efficiency.
Technical Paper

Zero-Dimensional Spark Ignition Combustion Modeling - A Comparison of Different Approaches

Internal combustion engines development with increased complexity due to CO2 reduction and emissions regulation, while reducing costs and duration of development projects, makes numerical simulation essential. 1D engine simulation software response for the gas exchange process is sufficiently accurate and quick. However, combustion simulation by Wiebe function is poorly predictive. The objective of this paper is to compare different approaches for 0D Spark Ignition (SI) modeling. Versions of Eddy Burn Up, Fractal and Flame Surface Density (FSD) models have been coded into GT-POWER platform, which connects thermodynamics, gas exchange and combustion sub-models. An initial flame kernel is imposed and then, the flame front propagates spherically in the combustion chamber. Flame surface is tabulated as a function of piston position and flame radius. The modeling of key features of SI combustion such as laminar flame speed and thickness and turbulence was common.
Technical Paper

Zero-dimensional Modeling of Flame Propagation During Combustion of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Mixtures

To achieve global climate goals, greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced. The energy and transportation sectors are responsible for about one third of the greenhouse gases emitted worldwide, and they often use internal combustion engines (ICE). One effective way to decarbonize ICEs may be to replace carbon-containing fossil fuels such as natural gas entirely, or at least partially, with hydrogen. Cost-effective development of sustainable combustion concepts for hydrogen and natural gas/hydrogen mixtures in ICEs requires the intensive use of fast and robust simulation tools for prediction. The key challenge is appropriate modeling of flame front propagation. This paper evaluates and applies different approaches to modeling laminar flame speeds from the literature. Both appropriate models and reaction kinetic calculations are considered.
Technical Paper

a universal means for Rating Diesel Engines for Deposits and Wear

THE NEW CRC Diesel Engine Rating Manual is intended to furnish a universal language for identification of diesel-engine deposits and wear. Diesel-engine pistons are evaluated for lacquer deposits by utilizing an area demerit basis and color gradations of brown and gray from clean to black. In studying various means for evaluating thickness and texture of deposit in oil systems, it was decided that the scratch gage developed by the CRC Engine Deposit Rating Panel of the CRC-Motor Engine Varnish and Sludge Group was suitable for diesel engines. A procedure for establishing a volume factor which furnishes a weighted interpretation of the deposit was created.*
Technical Paper

p>Thermomechanical Analysis of the Cylinder Head and Cylinder Block with the Liner of AFV Diesel Engine

This paper deals with the Coupled thermo mechanical analysis of a cylinder head, cylinder block and crank case with the liner of an uprated engine. The existing engine develops 780 hp output with mechanical driven supercharger and the engine is uprated to 1000 hp by replacing the supercharger with a turbocharger and new Fuel injection equipment. For uprating any engine, the piston and cylinder head are the most vulnerable members due to increased mechanical and thermal loadings. Mechanical loading is due to the gas pressure in the gas chamber and its magnitude can be judged in terms of peak pressure. Thermal loading is due to temperature and the heat transfer conditions in the piston surface, cylinder liner and the cylinder head. The relative importance of the various loads applied on the head and cylinder block in operation are assessed and a method of predicting their influence on the structural integrity of the components described.
Technical Paper

the identification and characterization of RUMBLE AND THUD

SIMULTANEOUS RECORDINGS of cylinder pressure, audible sound, and crankshaft motion have shown that rumble is a noise associated with bending vibrations of the crankshaft. The vibrations are caused by abnormally high rates of pressure rise near the top dead center piston position. In this study the high rates of pressure rise were obtained by inducting deposits into the the engine. Thud is a torsional vibration of the crankshaft, similar in sound to rumble but resulting from much earlier occurrence of the maximum rates of pressure rise. Rumble vibrations consisted of a fundamental frequency of 600 cps and higher harmonics in the 11/1 compression ratio V-8 laboratory engine used in the investigation. The audible noise of rumble was predominantly composed of the second harmonic or about 1200 cps.
Technical Paper

“Hot Tube Test”-Analysis of Lubricant Effect on Diesel Engine Scuffing

To prevent engine scuffing in the field a new laboratory test called the Hot Tube Test has been established in order to evaluate the high temperature stability of diesel engine oils. In a strip mining application field test using 47 bulldozers powered by the same engine type, half of the engines suffered from piston scuffing failures when operated on a variety of commercially available API CD quality SAE 30 Grade engine oils. All the field test oils have been investigated using the Hot Tube Test, and an analysis of the results indicates that it would be possible to accurately predict scuffing failures by this test method. Furthermore, the reliability of this analysis has been verified by bench engine testing on reference oils. The reasons why the Hot Tube Test predicts the anti-scuffing performance of engine oils are discussed.
Technical Paper

“Living and Mobility” - Minimization of the Overall Energy Consumption by Using Synergetic Effects and Predictive Information

Issues relating to the reduction of CO₂ emissions and energy consumption are currently more important than ever before. In the construction engineering and automotive sectors research and development efforts are focused closely on efficient buildings and automobiles. The designated target is a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions and overall energy demand. However, almost all approaches focus solely on either "buildings" or "mobility." By considering both aspects as a single holistic system, further energy saving potential arises due to synergetic effects. The goal of current research projects relating to Smart Homes and Vehicle to Building (V2B) is to smooth the electrical load profile on a household level rather than to reduce the individual-related total energy consumption and thereby the CO₂ emissions.