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Technical Paper

A Combustion Model for Homogeneous Charge Natural Gas Rotary Engines

In previous papers a complete simulation model of the combustion in a gasoline rotary engine has been described. This combustion model, developed at the University of Gent and UMIST (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology), is based on a turbulence enhancement factor for the flame in various zones of the combustion chamber. The purpose of this paper is to give a description of the modifications of the model for a homogeneous natural gas rotary engine. The real geometry of the combustion chamber is incorporated In the model. Calculations are executed for different geometries of rotary engines (especially different positions and shapes of the recess in the rotor). Different formulas of the laminar flame speed for natural gas are examined. The turbulent flame speed is calculated with a turbulence factor or with a turbulence intensity factor. A correlation between the engine conditions and the turbulence intensity is proposed.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Model with Reduced Kinetic Schemes for S.I. Engines Fuelled with Compressed Natural Gas

The paper describes the development of a reduced kinetic scheme for the evaluation of the main chemical species (particularly NO and CO) in premixed turbulent flame and its application to a quasi-dimensional combustion model for spark ignition engines. The proposed mechanism is based on the kinetic solution of three transport equations for NO, CO and H, coupled with the partial equilibrium of the so-called water-shuffle equations to derive the OH, O and H2 concentrations. The remaining species are computed applying the element conservation, while the required prompt levels were determined by a separate chemical 1D code for laminar combustion. The proposed chemical scheme was locally validated, considering a turbulent flame inside a premixed flow of air and methane, ignited by a parallel flow of hot gases, by means of a CFD simulation. Successively, it was embedded into a quasi-D thermodynamic combustion model developed by the authors for the simulation of S.I. and C.I. engines.
Technical Paper

A Compact 10 kW Electric Power Range Extender Suitable for Plug-In and Series Hybrid Vehicles

The paper discusses the concept, specification and overall performance of a 10 kW electric power range extender suitable for electric plug-in and series hybrid vehicles, based on a single cylinder, high speed, four stroke internal combustion engine, tested and developed at Istituto Motori CNR of Italy. This unit has been conceived from the beginning as a compact on board recharging system for the mentioned kind of means, and especially for city cars and small commercial vehicles. The paper starts by defining some characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of an electric city car, followed by the criteria adopted to characterize the nominal power of the range extender. Then, the ratio which leaded to the adoption of a single cylinder internal combustion engine is discussed, followed by an explanation of the main design characteristics of the whole unit.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Requirements

This paper presents results of an assessment that identifies vehicle technology and fuel distribution system changes and costs associated with providing sufficient alternative fuels to displace one million barrels/day petroleum in the transportation sector in the 1995-2005 timeframe. The paper concludes that the capital cost of developing fuel delivery systems and a sufficient number of vehicles to achieve this displacement will be $22 billion if the alternative fuel is methanol, $36 billion if natural gas, and $288 billion if electricity. The predominant component of these costs is that of the incremental cost of the vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study Between Salt Bath and Plasma Nitrocarburizing Processes for Application in Piston Rods

The quality of the nitrocarburized layer has a decisive influence in the service life of components with pistons that work together with polymeric seals, since it interferes in the abrasion and wear mechanisms of the involved materials. Thus it is necessary to select the most adequate process to apply in a given component aiming for a quality improvement and warranty costs reduction. The literature offers a great volume of information about the different nitriding processes, but there are few reports comparing them. In this paper the salt bath and plasma processes are discussed concerning the white layer metallography, roughness and the process effect on corrosion resistance of gas spring rods manufactured with SAE 1040 steel.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study of Directly Injected, Spark Ignition Engine Combustion and Energy Transfer with Natural Gas, Gasoline, and Charge Dilution

Abstract This article presents an investigation of energy transfer, flame propagation, and emissions formation mechanisms in a four-cylinder, downsized and boosted, spark ignition engine fuelled by either directly injected compressed natural gas (DI CNG) or gasoline (GDI). Three different charge preparation strategies are examined for both fuels: stoichiometric engine operation without external dilution, stoichiometric operation with external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean burn. In this work, experiments and engine modelling are first used to analyze the energy transfer throughout the engine system. This analysis shows that an early start of fuel injection (SOI) improves fuel efficiency through lower unburned fuel energy at low loads with stoichiometric DI CNG operation.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Performance and Emission Characteristics of CNG and Gasoline on a Single Cylinder S. I. Engine

In this study some experiments were carried out to evaluate fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx)) and hydrocarbons (HC) with compressed natural gas (CNG) and gasoline in a single cylinder engine. Compressed natural gas showed 3 to 5 percent higher thermal efficiency and 15 percent lower specific fuel consumption as compared to gasoline. Also CO emissions were lower by 30-80 percent in rich zone and NOx by about 12 percent at an equivalence of 1.0. At wide open throttle CNG operation resulted in 10 to 12 percent lower power output. However, thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was better with CNG as compared to gasoline. Dual spark plug operation increased power output by 3 to 5 percent.
Journal Article

A Comparative Study of a Spark Ignition Engine Running on Hydrogen, Synthesis Gas and Natural Gas

This paper presents an experimental, numerical and theoretical study of the performance of the same spark ignition engine running on four different gaseous fuels: hydrogen, two synthesis gases and natural gas. Measurements of the brake thermal efficiency, the combustion variability, the engine out emissions and the indicated, pumping and friction mean effective pressures are first presented, with particular interest placed on the lean burn performance. Combustion analysis is then undertaken, with the crank angle resolved in-cylinder turbulence and the flame propagation plotted on the so-called ‘Bradley diagram’ for turbulent premixed combustion. The loci of the combustion events on the Bradley diagram are then used to explain the observed, relative performance of the engine running on these four fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on Influence of EIVC and LIVC on Fuel Economy of A TGDI Engine Part I: Friction Torques of Intake Cams with Different Profiles and Lifts

In order to better understand how the Atkinson cycle and the Miller cycle influence the fuel consumption at different engine speeds and loads, an investigation was conducted to compare influences of early intake valve closing (EIVC) and late intake valve closing (LIVC) on the fuel consumption of a 1.5L turbo-charged gasoline direct injection (TGDI) engine. The engine was tested with three different intake cams, covering three intake durations: 251 degCA (the base engine), 196 degCA (the Miller engine), and 274 degCA (the Atkinson engine). Compression ratios are 9.5:1 for the base engine and 11.4:1 for the Atkinson and Miller engines, achieved with piston modifications. Results of this investigation will be reported in three papers focusing respectively on characteristics of the engine friction, in-cylinder charge motions for different intake events, and combustion and fuel economy without and with EGR for the naturally aspirated mode and boost mode.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Fuel Economy Improvement of a Natural Gas SI Engine at the Lean Burn and the Stoichiometric Operation both with EGR under the Premise of Meeting EU6 Emission Legislation

In order to further study the effects of air and EGR dilution on the fuel economy improvement of natural gas engines under the premise of meeting EU6 legislation, a comparison between stoichiometric operation with EGR and lean burn operation with and without EGR has been conducted at 1600rpm 50% and 75% load. The conversion efficiencies of the catalysts for both NOx and CH4 emissions are assumed at 90% for lean burn operation. Experiment results indicate that under the condition of meeting both NOx and CH4 predetermined engine-out emissions limits for EU6 legislation, lean operation with a small fraction of EGR dilution enables more advanced combustion phasing compared to pure lean operation, which results in much better fuel economy, thus further improvement compared to stoichiometric operation is achieved.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Ammonia Emission Factors from Light-Duty Vehicles Operating on Gasoline, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)

Vehicular ammonia emissions are currently unregulated, even though ammonia is harmful for a variety of reasons, and the gas is classed as toxic. Ammonia emissions represent a serious threat to air quality, particularly in urban settings; an ammonia emissions limit may be introduced in future legislation. Production of ammonia within the cylinder has long been known to be very limited. However, having reached its light-off temperature, a three-way catalyst can produce substantial quantities of ammonia through various reaction pathways. Production of ammonia is symptomatic of overly reducing conditions within the three-way catalyst (TWC), and depends somewhat upon the particular precious metals used. Emission is markedly higher during periods where demand for engine power is higher, when the engine will be operating under open-loop conditions.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Removal Strategies Applied to Natural Gas Power Plants

The present study attempts to compare two recently proposed concepts for the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the emissions of large hydrocarbon-fueled power plants. The more specific case of an existing 500 MW natural gas plant is examined. At first, previously published calculations corresponding to the pre-combustion scheme of Mori et al. (1991), based on methane reforming, are summarized. Flue gas treatment, coupled with air separation upstream of the boiler, as proposed by Golomb et al. (1989), is then applied to the same existing 500 MW plant. In this fashion, the two methods can be consistently compared. Pre-combustion fuel processing appears to result in lower power cost penalties, of the order of 30%, whereas the post-flame separation technology considered here would impose a power cost increase of nearly 50%.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Coated and Uncoated Diesel Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics Powered by Chlorella Vulgaris Biodiesel Blend with an Assistance of Alumina Nano Additive

The engine parameters of a diesel engine (using coated and uncoated pistons) operating with alumina additive chlorella vulgaris biodiesel blends were evaluated experimentally. The properties of test fuel samples were investigated using ASTM standards, and the composition of C. Vulgaris biodiesel was also examined using an FTIR report. A diesel engine’s performance and pollution characteristics were studied using different fuel samples such as diesel, CBD20, CBD20ANP with coated and uncoated pistons. The experimental results showed that the coated engine had a higher BTE (1.8-3.2 percent) and a lower BSFC (1.2-3.8 percent) than the uncoated engine. It is also identified that, exhaust emissions like as CO, HC, and smoke opacity have also been moderately reduced with the coated engine, while NOx emissions were slightly increased.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Fuel Distribution and Combustion During Engine Cold Start for Direct and Port Fuel Injection Systems

Experiments have been conducted in a firing single-cylinder spark-ignition engine employing a Ford Zetec cylinder head that has been modified to operate with either standard port-fuel-injection, air-forced port-fuel-injection or direct-injection. The engine utilizes a fused silica cylinder and therefore provides extensive optical access to the combustion chamber. Tests were conducted using a constant speed simulated cold start procedure, which is composed of an initial start-up transient and a quasi-steady-state idle period. In this procedure, the engine is briefly motored at 889 rpm and then combustion commences shortly after the start of fuel injection. Measurements which were performed include in-cylinder pressure as well as intake valve, exhaust valve, piston, cylinder, head, and intake air temperature throughout each cycle of the test period. The engine-out total hydrocarbon emissions were also measured.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time-Averaged Piston Temperatures and Surface Heat Flux Between a Direct-Fuel Injected and Carbureted Two-Stroke Engine

Time-averaged temperatures at critical locations on the piston of a direct-fuel injected, two-stroke, 388 cm3, research engine were measured using an infrared telemetry device. The piston temperatures were compared to data [7] of a carbureted version of the two-stroke engine, that was operated at comparable conditions. All temperatures were obtained at wide open throttle, and varying engine speeds (2000-4500 rpm, at 500 rpm intervals). The temperatures were measured in a configuration that allowed for axial heat flux to be determined through the piston. The heat flux was compared to carbureted data [8] obtained using measured piston temperatures as boundary conditions for a computer model, and solving for the heat flux. The direct-fuel-injected piston temperatures and heat fluxes were significantly higher than the carbureted piston. On the exhaust side of the piston, the direct-fuel injected piston temperatures ranged from 33-73 °C higher than the conventional carbureted piston.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of Combustion Chamber Surface Area and In-Cylinder Turbulence on the Evolution of Gas Temperature Distribution from IVC to SOC: A Numerical and Fundamental Study

It has previously been shown experimentally and computationally that the process of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is very dependent on the pre-combustion gas temperature field. This study looks in detail at how temperature fields can evolve by comparing results of two combustion chamber designs, a piston with a square bowl and a disk shaped piston, and relates these temperature fields to measured HCCI combustion durations. The contributions of combustion chamber surface area and turbulence levels to the gas temperature evolution are considered over the crank angle range from intake valve closure to top-dead-center. This is a CFD study, whose results were transformed into traditional analysis methods of convective heat transfer (q=h*A*ΔT) and boundary layers.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Emissions from Gasoline vs. Compressed Natural Gas for an Electronic Fuel Injected Two Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engine

Natural gas is a viable alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel because it is a clean burning fuel that is available from a large domestic reserve through a mature infrastructure. The heavy dependence of the small engine sector on oil, much of which is imported from foreign countries and the small engine sector's negative impact on the air quality in urban areas are two pervasive problems that can be helped by using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a small engine fuel. In addition, CNG is typically over 80% methane, which is produced by the decay of organic material, so while natural gas is not renewable its use enables much of the infrastructure required for a methane-based renewable energy system. In order to determine the emissions benefit of using CNG as compared to gasoline in a small engine, a 750 cc 90 degree V Twin port-fuel-injected production engine rated at 29 horsepower (HP), designed and built by Kohler Inc.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Performance of Highly Detergent Oils and Highly Dispersant Oils in Natural Gas Engines

Abandonment of the concept that gas engines can be operated economically using straight mineral oils and clay filters and the switch to detergent oils designed for specific use in natural gas engines has been handicapped by attempts to use conventional automotive or diesel metallo-organic detergent oils, and by the attempts to develop ashless oils without investigating all of the parameters and pitfalls associated with the use of ashless dispersants. At present, the weaknesses of ashless oils can be overcome only through the use of a balanced combination of the proper base stock and certain metallo-organic detergents. Careful analysis of engine operations over relatively long periods of time will demonstrate to the operator that ash from a properly designed natural gas engine oil does not adversely affect engine operations. It has been our experience that laboratory engine tests are of relatively little use in the evaluation of natural gas engine oils.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Assessment on Combined Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating and Emulsification Techniques on Engine Behavior of a Mahua Oil Based Diesel Engine

This paper presents a comprehensive study on using MO (Mahua oil) as fuel effectively in a diesel engine by adopting emulsification and TBC (Thermal Barrier Coating) techniques. A mono cylinder diesel engine was used for the study. Initially trials were made on the engine using neat diesel (ND), Neat Mahua oil (NMO) as fuels. In the second phase, NMO was converted into its stable emulsion (called as MOE) and tested in the engine. Finally thermal barrier coating of 0.2 mm was made on the piston, valves and cylinder head of the engine using the ceramic power of Al2O3 and the engine was tested using NMO and MOE as fuels in the TBC engine. Results indicated improvement in BTE (brake thermal efficiency) with MOE as compared to NMO mainly at high power outputs in the unmodified engine. The maximum BTE was found as 31.5% with ND, 27.2% with NMO and 30.4% with MOE at the peak power output.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Method for Piston Secondary Dynamics and Piston-Bore Contact

Low vibration and noise level in internal combustion engines has become an essential part of the design process. It is well known that the piston assembly can be a major source of engine mechanical friction and cold start noise, if not designed properly. The piston secondary motion and piston-bore contact pattern are critical in piston design because they affect the skirt-to-bore impact force and therefore, how the piston impact excitation energy is damped, transmitted and eventually radiated from the engine structure as noise. An analytical method is presented in this paper for simulating piston secondary dynamics and piston-bore contact for an asymmetric half piston model. The method includes several important physical attributes such as bore distortion effects due to mechanical and thermal deformation, inertia loading, piston barrelity and ovality, piston flexibility and skirt-to-bore clearance. The method accounts for piston kinematics, rigid-body dynamics and flexibility.