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Technical Paper

3D-CFD Full Engine Simulation Application for Post-Oxidation Description

The introduction of real driving emissions cycles and increasingly restrictive emissions regulations force the automotive industry to develop new and more efficient solutions for emission reductions. In particular, the cold start and catalyst heating conditions are crucial for modern cars because is when most of the emissions are produced. One interesting strategy to reduce the time required for catalyst heating is post-oxidation. It consists in operating the engine with a rich in-cylinder mixture and completing the oxidation of fuel inside the exhaust manifold. The result is an increase in temperature and enthalpy of the gases in the exhaust, therefore heating the three-way-catalyst. The following investigation focuses on the implementation of post-oxidation by means of scavenging in a four-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection spark ignition engine. The investigation is based on detailed measurements that are carried out at the test-bench.
Technical Paper

3D-CFD Methodologies for a Fast and Reliable Design of Ultra-Lean SI Engines

The continuous pursuit of higher combustion efficiencies, as well as the possible usage of synthetic fuels with different properties than fossil-ones, require reliable and low-cost numerical approaches to support and speed-up engines industrial design. In this context, SI engines operated with homogeneous ultra-lean mixtures both characterized by a classical ignition configuration or equipped with an active prechamber represent the most promising solutions. In this work, for the classical ignition arrangement, a 3DCFD strategy to model the impact of the ignition system type on the CCV is developed using the RANS approach for turbulence modelling. The spark-discharge is modelled through a set of Lagrangian particles, whose velocity is modified with a zero-divergence perturbation at each discharge event, then evolved according to the Simplified Langevin Model (SLM) to simulate stochastic interactions with the surrounding gas flow.
Technical Paper

4-Stroke Multi-Cylinder Gasoline Engine with Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) Combustion: a comparison between Naturally Aspirated and Turbocharged Operation

Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is increasingly seen as a very effective way of lowering both fuel consumption and emissions. Hence, it is regarded as one of the best ways to meet stringent future emissions legislation. It has however, still many problems to overcome, such as limited operating range. This combustion concept was achieved in a production type, 4-cylinder gasoline engine, in two separated tests: naturally aspirated and turbocharged. Very few modifications to the original engine were needed. These consisted basically of a new set of camshafts for the naturally aspirated test and new camshafts plus turbocharger for the test with forced induction. After previous experiments with naturally aspirated CAI operation, it was decided to investigate the capability of turbocharging for extended CAI load and speed range.
Technical Paper

72 Investigation of low emission two-stroke cycle engine chainsaw

This paper presents some experimental and theoretical results of a low emission two-stroke cycle spark ignition engine for chainsaws, applied a stratified scavenging method to reduce Total Hydrocarbon (THC) emission caused by air/fuel mixture short-circuiting during the scavenging process. Stratified scavenging methods are applied reed valves to control air sucked into transfer ports for stratified scavenging during sucking process. The new chainsaw engine, however, is applied piston valves instead of the reed valves to keep the same size and to be simple structure as conventional Schnurle scavenging engine chainsaws. The piston has grooves built with both sides. The grooves connect an air inlet to transfer ports to suck air into the transfer ports during the sucking process. The new chainsaw, having the same power as conventional chainsaws, is reduced THC emission to about 1/3 of conventional one and can meet to EPA Phase II regulation on and after 2005 without catalyst.
Technical Paper

A 1-D Platform to Simulate the Effects of Dedicated EGR on SI Engine Combustion

The thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engines can be enhanced by increasing the rate of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) such that the low temperature combustion regime could be achieved. However, there is an upper limit on the amount of EGR rate, beyond which flame speed becomes slow and unstable, and local quenching starts to hurt the combustion stability, efficiency, and emission. To resolve this issue, the concept of dedicated EGR has been proposed previously to be an effective way to enhance flame propagation under lean burn condition with even higher levels of EGR with reformate hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In this study, the effects of thermochemical fuel reforming on the reformate composition under rich conditions (1.0 < ϕ < 2.0) have been studied using detailed chemistry for iso-octane, as the representative component for gasoline.
Journal Article

A 3D CFD Simulation of GDI Sprays Accounting for Heat Transfer Effects on Wallfilm Formation

During gasoline direct injection (GDI) in spark ignition engines, droplets may hit piston or liner surfaces and be rebounded or deposit in the liquid phase as wallfilm. This may determine slower secondary atomization and local enrichments of the mixture, hence be the reason of increased unburned hydrocarbons and particulate matter emissions at the exhaust. Complex phenomena indeed characterize the in-cylinder turbulent multi-phase system, where heat transfer involves the gaseous mixture (made of air and gasoline vapor), the liquid phase (droplets not yet evaporated and wallfilm) and the solid walls. A reliable 3D CFD modelling of the in-cylinder processes, therefore, necessarily requires also the correct simulation of the cooling effect due to the subtraction of the latent heat of vaporization of gasoline needed for secondary evaporation in the zone where droplets hit the wall. The related conductive heat transfer within the solid is to be taken into account.
Technical Paper

A 3D-CFD Methodology for Combustion Modeling in Active Prechamber SI Engines Operating with Natural Gas

Active prechamber combustion systems for SI engines represent a feasible and effective solution in reducing fuel consumption and pollutant emissions for both marine and ground heavy-duty engines. However, reliable and low-cost numerical approaches need to be developed to support and speed-up their industrial design considering their geometry complexity and the involved multiple flow length scales. This work presents a CFD methodology based on the RANS approach for the simulation of active prechamber spark-ignition engines. To reduce the computational time, the gas exchange process is computed only in the prechamber region to correctly describe the flow and mixture distributions, while the whole cylinder geometry is considered only for the power-cycle (compression, combustion and expansion). Outside the prechamber the in-cylinder flow field at IVC is estimated from the measured swirl ratio.
Technical Paper

A 3D-CFD Numerical Approach for Combustion Simulations of Spark Ignition Engines Fuelled with Hydrogen: A Preliminary Analysis

With growing concern about global warming, alternatives to fossil fuels in internal combustion engines are searched. In this context, hydrogen is one of the most interesting fuels as it shows excellent combustion properties such as laminar flame speed and energy density. In this work a CFD methodology for 3D-CFD in-cylinder simulations of engine combustion is proposed and its predictive capabilities are validated against test-bench data from a direct injection spark-ignition (DISI) prototype. The original engine is a naturally aspirated, single cylinder compression ignition (Diesel fueled) unit. It is modified substituting the Diesel injector with a spark plug, adding two direct gas injectors, and lowering the compression ratio to run with hydrogen fuel. A 3D-CFD model is built, embedding in-house developed ignition and heat transfer models besides G-equation one for combustion.
Technical Paper

A 400HP Truck Engine Operating on Natural Gas

A 14 litre turbo charged intercooled diesel engine has been re-engineered to operate as a spark ignition engine fuelled with natural gas. The design targets were for an efficient engine with low emissions using the lean burn capability of natural gas but without sacrificing power output. The resulting ultra lean burn spark ignition engine achieves diesel engine thermal efficiency, with a much reduced NOx emissions though higher NMHC emissions. The engine changes included revised compression ratio, and combustion chamber shape, inlet system modifications to increase turbulence during combustion, i.e., a “smart burn” system, and a new engine management strategy using a “drive by wire” computer control of fuel and throttle and spark timing. The engine has begun duty in an articulated truck in a short haul parts delivery operation, and monitoring of the in service performance has begun.
Technical Paper

A Bench Test Study of Port Fuel Injection Fouling

ASTM method D 6421, “Standard Test Method for Evaluating Automotive Spark-Ignition Engine Fuel for Electric Port Fuel Injectors Fouling by Bench Procedure”, was developed by South West Research Institute (SWRI) and the procedure standardized by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) in 1999. The method has the potential to be a cost-effective tool for evaluating additive and fuel effects on port fuel injector performance. However, the Bosch injectors specified in the test procedure are no longer commercially available and in practice, obtaining repeatable and reproducible results using Bosch injectors can be difficult. This paper reports on bench test apparatus and test procedure modifications directed at obtaining better repeatability and responsiveness to fuels and additive chemistry. These modifications allow for better control of test-to-test injector tip temperature and keep the temperature closer to the injector soak temperature.
Technical Paper

A Bifurcation Analysis of an Open Loop Internal Combustion Engine

The process of engine mapping in the automotive industry identifies steady-state engine responses by running an engine at a given operating point (speed and load) until its output has settled. While the time simulating this process with a computational model for one set of parameters is relatively short, the cumulative time to map all possible combinations becomes computationally inefficient. This work presents an alternative method for mapping out the steady-state response of an engine in simulation by applying bifurcation theory. The bifurcation approach used in this work allows the engine’s steady-state response to be traced through the model’s state-parameter space under the simultaneous variation of one or more model parameters. To demonstrate this approach, a bifurcation analysis of a simplified nonlinear engine model is presented.
Technical Paper

A CNG Two Stroke Cycle S.I. Engine Using Intermittent Low Pressure Fuel Injection from Scavenging Ports

Performance of a CNG (Compressed natural gas) two stroke cycle S.I. engine using intermittent low pressure fuel injection from scavenging ports is investigated experimentally. The test engine is a two cylinder, 398 cm3, two stroke cycle spark ignition engine. Gaseous fuel injectors are attached at the engine block, and a CNG is injected into the scavenging passage through a fuel injection pipe. The fuel injection pressure is set at 0.255 MPa, and the fuel is injected intermittently during the scavenging process. The length and tip geometry of the fuel injection pipe are varied, and the effect on the engine performance is investigated. Using the scavenging port fuel injection, the BSFC is reduced by 25 %, and the lean burn limit extends from λ = 1.2 to 1.46, at the maximum. The peak of the NOx emission shifts to leaner side, and the THC emission is reduced by 47 % at the maximum.
Technical Paper

A Chemical-Kinetic Approach to the Definition of the Laminar Flame Speed for the Simulation of the Combustion of Spark-Ignition Engines

The laminar burning speed is an important intrinsic property of an air-fuel mixture determining key combustion characteristics such as turbulent flame propagation. It is a function of the mixture composition (mixture fraction and residual gas mass fraction) and of the thermodynamic conditions. Experimental measurements of Laminar Flame Speeds (LFS) are common in literature, but initial pressure and temperature are limited to low values due to the test conditions: typical pressure values for LFS detection are lower than 25 bar, and temperature rarely exceeds 550 K. Actual trends in spark ignition engines are to increase specific power output by downsizing and supercharging, thus the flame front involves even more higher pressure and temperature since the beginning of combustion.
Technical Paper

A Closed Cycle Simulation Model with Particular Reference to Two-Stroke Cycle Engines

A quasi-dimensional computer simulation model is presented to simulate the thermodynamic and chemical processes occurring within a spark ignition engine during compression, combustion and expansion based upon the laws of thermodynamics and the theory of equilibrium. A two-zone combustion model, with a spherically expanding flame front originating from the spark location, is applied. The flame speed is calculated by the application of a turbulent entrainment propagation model. A simplified theory for the prediction of in-cylinder charge motion is proposed which calculates the mean turbulence intensity and scale at any time during the closed cycle. It is then used to describe both heat transfer and turbulent flame propagation. The model has been designed specifically for the two-stroke cycle engine and facilitates seven of the most common combustion chamber geometries. The fundamental theory is nevertheless applicable to any four-stroke cycle engine.
Technical Paper

A Cold-Start Emissions Model of an Engine and Aftertreatment System for Optimisation Studies

The minimisation of tail-pipe emissions and fuel consumption during cold-start can be viewed as a constrained optimisation problem involving many parameters. Examining this problem mathematically first requires an accurate and computationally practical model of the engine and exhaust system. This paper proposes such a model for use during the cold-start of a conventional spark ignition engine. This model uses as much physics-based modelling as is computationally practical for optimisation and control studies. It takes a given set of engine control inputs to simulate tailpipe CO , HC and NO emissions, and is both calibrated and validated using detailed measurements obtained on a transient engine dynamometer following the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC).
Technical Paper

A Combustion Chamber Designed for Minimum Engine Exhaust Emissions

Experimental work has demonstrated that spark ignition engine exhaust emissions can be controlled through basic modification of the combustion process, and that such control can be achieved without serious compromise of the efficiency of fuel utilization. The combustion process investigated in this work is designed to exploit the finite time dependence of nitric oxide formation in high temperature combustion products. Through use of a divided combustion chamber it has been possible to quench nitric oxide formation reactions so that little nitric oxide formation occurs. Further it has been possible to simultaneously promote complete oxidation of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in combustion products. The combustion process, therefore, results in total control of exhaust emissions.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Correlation for Spark-Ignition Engine Simulation Under Steady and Transient Conditions

A Spark-ignition combustion correlation is presented that links the fuel burning rate with in-cylinder vaules of temperature, pressure, fuel-air equivalance ratio, speed, ignition timing and residual gas-fraction. The correlation is designed to be used in a multi-cylinder engine simulation to study the influence of manifold, valve, supercharging and turbocharging systems design on performance. It is shown how the correlation permits transient performance predictions for a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Model for Analyzing the Effects of Natural Gas Composition on the Operation of a Spark Ignition Engine

The combustion of natural gas under lean premixed conditions is of current interest because it has properties that can lead to a potential decrease in pollutant formation and a high efficiency. The composition of the fuel mixture can vary depending upon its origin and can bring about significant changes in the combustion characteristics. This paper presents the experimental results of a single cylinder spark ignition engine fuelled with various natural gas compositions in lean mixture, and describes a numerical model that accounts for variations in concentrations of the fuel components. The diagnostic combustion model is based on the conventional one-zone approach. This thermodynamic analysis is coupled with a numerical resolution of energy and species conservation equations, which incorporates a detailed chemical kinetics. The numerical results demonstrate the influence of the fuel mixture composition on mass burn rates and burning velocities.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Model with Reduced Kinetic Schemes for S.I. Engines Fuelled with Compressed Natural Gas

The paper describes the development of a reduced kinetic scheme for the evaluation of the main chemical species (particularly NO and CO) in premixed turbulent flame and its application to a quasi-dimensional combustion model for spark ignition engines. The proposed mechanism is based on the kinetic solution of three transport equations for NO, CO and H, coupled with the partial equilibrium of the so-called water-shuffle equations to derive the OH, O and H2 concentrations. The remaining species are computed applying the element conservation, while the required prompt levels were determined by a separate chemical 1D code for laminar combustion. The proposed chemical scheme was locally validated, considering a turbulent flame inside a premixed flow of air and methane, ignited by a parallel flow of hot gases, by means of a CFD simulation. Successively, it was embedded into a quasi-D thermodynamic combustion model developed by the authors for the simulation of S.I. and C.I. engines.
Technical Paper

A Compact Dual CAM Variable Valve Operation System to Improve Volumetric Efficiency of Small Engines

Setting the correct valve timing and lift based on the operating speed will be the key to achieving good volumetric efficiency and torque. Continuously variable valve timing systems are the best choice but are too expensive. In this work a novel two stage variable valve actuation system was conceived and developed for a small single cylinder three wheeler spark ignition engine. The constraints were space, cost and complexity. The developed system uses one cam for low speeds and another cam that has a higher lift and duration for high speeds. The shift between the cams occurs through the mechanism even as the engine runs by the operation of a stepper motor which can be connected to the engine controller. A one dimensional simulation model validated with experimental data was used to predict the suitable valve timings and lifts in low and high speed ranges. Two profiles were then selected.