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Technical Paper

3 Load Cell Tumble Meter Development

2008-12-02
2008-01-3004
This paper will describe the development of the 3-load cell tumble meter. This is a new method for measuring the tumble component of in-cylinder mixture motion. In-cylinder mixture motion is an important parameter for understanding and improving combustion stability of piston engines.
Technical Paper

3-D LDV Measurement of In-Cylinder Air Flow in a 3.5L Four-Valve SI Engine

1995-02-01
950648
In-cylinder flows in a motored four-valve SI engine were examined by simultaneous three-component LDV measurement. The purpose of this study was to develop better physical understanding of in-cylinder flows and quantitative methods which correlate in-cylinder flows to engine performance. This study is believed to be the first simultaneous three-component LDV measurement of the air flow over a planar section of a four-valve piston-cylinder assembly. Special attention is paid to the tumble formation process, three-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy, and measurement of the tumble ratio. The influence of the induction system and the piston geometry are believed to have a significant effect on the in-cylinder flow characteristics. Using LDV measurement, the flows in two different piston top geometries were examined. One axial plane was selected to observe the effect of piston top geometries on the flow field in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

3-D Modeling of Heat Transfer in Diesel Engine Piston Cooling Galleries

2005-04-11
2005-01-1644
Ever increasing specific power of diesel engines has put huge demand on effective thermal management of the pistons for the desired reliability and durability. The piston temperature control is commonly achieved by injecting cooling oil into piston galleries, but the design of the cooling system as well as the boundary conditions used in FEA simulations have so far relied mostly on empirical methods. A numerical procedure using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has therefore been developed to simulate the cooling process and to estimate the cooling efficiency of gallery. The model is able to predict the detailed oil flow and heat transfer in gallery, of different designs and engine applications, under dynamic conditions. The resulted spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient from the CFD model, with better accuracy, enables improved prediction of piston temperature in finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Simulation of Transient Heat Transfer among Multi-Component Coupling System in Internal Combustion Chamber

2008-06-23
2008-01-1818
A 3-D numerical analysis model of transient heat transfer among the multi-component coupling system in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine has been developed successfully in the paper. The model includes almost all solid components in combustion chamber, such as piston assembly, cylinder liner, cylinder head gasket, cylinder head, intake valves and exhaust valves, etc. With two different coupling heat transfer modes, one is the lubricant film heat conduction between two moving components, another is the contact heat conduction between two immovable solid components, and with the direct coupled-field analysis method of FEM, the heat transfer relation among the components is established. The simulation result dedicates the transient heat transfer process among the components such as moving piston assembly and cylinder liner, moving valves and cylinder head. The effect of cylinder head gasket on heat transfer among the components is also studied.
Technical Paper

34 Experimental Analysis of Piston Slap from Small Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1803
This project is an experimental investigation and optimization of piston slap noise in small two-stroke gasoline engine. Piston slap is one of the most significant mechanical noise sources in an internal combustion engine. It is a dynamic impact phenomenon between the piston and the cylinder block caused by changes in the lateral forces acting on the piston. The change in cylinder block vibration level caused by the piston impact is considered as a measure of piston slap during this experiment. The intensity of piston slap is measured in terms of vibration level in ‘g’ units, by means of accelerometers mounted on the cylinder block with Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dead Center (BDC) marker. For the design of low noise engines, all the major parameters, which contribute to piston slap, are listed and the critical four are examined through additional experiments.
Technical Paper

35 Engine Performance of the Small Compression Ignition Engine with DME Low Pressure Injection

2002-10-29
2002-32-1804
In the research of DME compression ignition engine, there are a lot of reports on the high fuel pressure systems which are used in the common-rail fuel injector and others for the DME mixture formation promotion. However, the initial development-cost of these fuel supply systems will be increased for small compression ignition engines. On the other hand, it has been understood that excellent thermal efficiency of DME compression ignition engine was obtained at the appropriate fuel injection timing by using the electronic controlled injector with low pressure injection. In this paper, the stabilization of combustion on DME compression ignition engine with low pressure injection was investigated for the influence of the fuel pressure and the combustion assistance with homogeneous charge.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Modeling of a Biodiesel-Fueled Diesel Engine Based on a Detailed Chemical Mechanism

2012-04-16
2012-01-0151
A detailed reaction mechanism for the combustion of biodiesel fuels has recently been developed by Westbrook and co-workers. This detailed mechanism involves 5037 species and 19990 reactions, which prohibits its direct use in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) applications. In the present work, various mechanism reduction methods included in the Reaction Workbench software were used to derive a semi-detailed biodiesel combustion mechanism, while maintaining the accuracy of the master mechanism for a desired set of engine conditions. The reduced combustion mechanism for a five-component biodiesel fuel was employed in the FORTÉ CFD simulation package to take advantage of advanced chemistry solver methodologies and advanced spray models. Simulations were performed for a Volvo D12C heavy diesel engine fueled by RME fuel using a 72° sector mesh. Predictions were validated against measured in-cylinder parameters and exhaust emission concentrations.
Technical Paper

3D Modeling Applied to the Development of a DI Diesel Engine: Effect of Piston Bowl Shape

1997-05-01
971599
Multidimensional computations are carried out to aid in the development of a direct injection Diesel engine. Intake, compression, injection and combustion processes are calculated for a turbo-charged direct injection Diesel engine with a single intake valve. The effects of engine speed and engine load, as well as the influence of exhaust gas recirculation are compared to experimental measurements. The influence of piston bowl shape is investigated. Three dimensional calculations are performed using a mesh built from the complete CAD definition of the engine, intake port, cylinder and piston bowl. The injection characteristics are found to be of primary importance in the control of the combustion process. At a given injection set, piston bowl shape can be optimized for fluid dynamic and combustion.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Characterization of a Multi-Holes Injector in a Quiescent Vessel and Its Application in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine Using Ethanol

2017-11-07
2017-36-0360
The fuel injection in internal combustion engines plays a crucial role in the mixture formation, combustion process and pollutants' emission. Its correct modeling is fundamental to the prediction of an engine performance through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. In the first part of this work a tridimensional numerical simulation of a multi-hole’s injector, using ethanol as fuel, is presented. The numerical simulation results were compared to experimental data from a fuel spray injection bench test in a quiescent vessel. The break up model applied to the simulation was the combined Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor, and a sensitivity analysis of the liquid fuel penetration curve, as well on the overall spray shape was performed according to the model constants. Experimental spray images were used to aid the model tuning. The final configuration of the KH-RT model constants that showed best agreement with the measured spray was C3 equal to 0.5, B1, 7 and Cb, 0.
Technical Paper

3D Vortex Simulation of Intake Flow in a Port-Cylinder with a Valve Seat and a Moving Piston

1996-05-01
961195
A Lagrangian random vortex-boundary element method has been developed for the simulation of unsteady incompressible flow inside three-dimensional domains with time-dependent boundaries, similar to IC engines. The solution method is entirely grid-free in the fluid domain and eliminates the difficult task of volumetric meshing of the complex engine geometry. Furthermore, due to the Lagrangian evaluation of the convective processes, numerical viscosity is virtually removed; thus permitting the direct simulation of flow at high Reynolds numbers. In this paper, a brief description of the numerical methodology is given, followed by an example of induction flow in an off-centered port-cylinder assembly with a harmonically driven piston and a valve seat situated directly below the port. The predicted flow is shown to resemble the flow visualization results of a laboratory experiment, despite the crude approximation used to represent the geometry.
Technical Paper

3d-Elastohydrodynamic Simulation Model for Structure-Borne Noise Analyses of a DI Diesel Engine

2016-06-15
2016-01-1854
The present article is concerned with the investigation of the engine noise induced by the piston slap of an actual passenger car Diesel engine. The focus is put on the coherence of piston secondary movement, impact of the piston on the cylinder liner, generated structure-borne noise excitation of the engine structure and the occurring acceleration on the engine surface. Additionally, the influence of a varying piston-pin offset and piston clearance is evaluated. The analyses are conducted using an elastohydrodynamic multi-body simulation model, taking into account geometry, stiffness and mass information of the single components as well as considering elastic and hydrodynamic behavior of the piston-liner contact. A detailed description of the simulation model will be introduced in the article. The obtained results illustrate the piston secondary motion and the related structure-borne noise on the engine surface for several piston-pin offsets and piston clearances.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 10% Blend of High Quality Biodiesel (H-FAME) from Jatropha

2015-03-30
2015-01-0115
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand popular brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Spacecab, equipped with 4JK1-STD engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro III emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Jatropha-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 10% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Technical Paper

50,000km On-Road Durability Test of Common-Rail Vehicle with 20% Blend of High Quality Palm Biodiesel (H-FAME)

2016-03-27
2016-01-1736
The effects of high quality biodiesel, namely, partially Hydrogenated Fatty Acid Methyl Ester or H-FAME, on 50,000km on-road durability test of unmodified common-rail vehicle have been investigated. Thailand brand new common-rail light duty vehicle, Isuzu D-Max Extended cab, equipped with 4JK1-TCX engine (DOHC 4-cylinder 2.5L, M/T 4×2, Euro IV emission) was chosen to undergo on-road test composed of well-mixed types of mountain, suburb and urban road conditions over the entire 50,000km. Palm-derived high quality biodiesel, H-FAME, conforming to WWFC (worldwide fuel charter) specification, was blended with normal diesel (Euro IV) at 20% (v/v) as tested fuel. Engine performance (torque and power), emission (CO, NOx, HC+NOx and PM), fuel consumption and dynamic response (0-100km acceleration time and maximum velocity) were analyzed at initial, middle and final distance; whereas, used lube oil analysis was conducted every 10,000km.
Journal Article

500 Hours Endurance Test on Biodiesel Running a Euro IV Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2270
A 500 hours endurance test was performed with a heavy-duty engine (Euro IV); MAN type D 0836 LFL 51 equipped with a PM-Kat®. As fuel 100% biodiesel was used that met the European specification EN 14214. The 500 hours endurance test included both the European stationary and transient cycle (ESC and ETC) as well as longer stationary phases. During the test, regulated emissions (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter), the particle number distribution and the aldehydes emission were continuously measured. For comparison, tests with fossil diesel fuel were performed before and after the endurance test. During the endurance test, the engine was failure-free for 500 hours with the biogenic fuel. There were almost no differences in specific fuel consumption during the test, but the average exhaust gas temperature increased by about 15°C over the time. Emissions changed only slightly during the test.
Video

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-05-23
The need for light-weighting of automotive structures has spurred on a tremendous amount of interest in and development of low cost carbon fiber composite materials and manufacturing. This presentation provides a description of the commercial carbon fiber concept compared to traditional aerospace and specialty carbon fiber products. A specific update is presented on the development and commercialization of new low cost carbon fiber based on lignin / PAN precursor technology. The second focus of the presentation is on carbon fiber composite manufacturing processes, including carbon SMC, RTM, prepregs, and thermoplastic processes. Advantages and disadvantages of these processes are discussed, especially related to low cost manufacturing. Presenter George Husman, Zoltek Companies Inc.
Technical Paper

5000 Hours Aging of THERBAN® (HNBR) Elastomers in an Aggressive Biodiesel Blend

2012-04-16
2012-01-0943
TERBAN® hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) is a specialty elastomer used in demanding engineering applications such as the automotive, heavy duty, and industrial markets. It has excellent combination of heat, oil and abrasion resistance in addition to its high mechanical strength, very good dynamic and sealing properties. This paper will present data on aging HNBR for five thousand hours in an aggressive and un-stabilized B30A biodiesel fuel blend (70% ULSD, 30% SME, and an aggressive additive package) and explore the effect of HNBR polymer properties and vulcanizate composition on the performance in such fuel blends.
Technical Paper

50cc Two-Stroke Engines for Mopeds, Chainsaws and Motorcycles with Catalysts

1990-09-01
901598
4 different engine concepts with Catalyst have been developed in regard to pollutant emission, fuel efficiency and performance. Despite the wide power range from 1,2 HP to 12 HP and the different applications of these engines to Mopeds, Chainsaws and Motorcycles, the problems to solve have been similar. Internal measures such as optimized carburetion, cooling, piston shape and clearance, scavenging and tuning of the exhaust must enable the engine to run on the lean side. This is imperative to supply sufficient oxygen for the exothermal reaction and to keep the energy to be converted in the Oxidation Catalyst at a minimum. Secondary measures have been taken to shorten the Catalyst's light-off and to keep the temperature range in limits.
Technical Paper

59 The Rotating Cylinder Valve 4-Stroke Engine A Practical Alternative

2002-10-29
2002-32-1828
The Rotating Cylinder Valve (RCV) Engine is a novel 4 cycle engine that is a practical alternative to conventional 2 and 4 stroke designs, in particular for small capacity single cylinder applications. It is primarily intended to address applications where emissions legislation is forcing manufacturers to abandon the traditional carburetted 2 stroke. It has particular benefits for the moped/light motorcycle market. The engine operates on a simple principle. The cylinder liner is rotated around the piston at half engine speed via a pair of bevel gears. A port in the side of this cylinder indexes with inlet and exhaust ports in the surrounding casing. This rotary valve serves the cylinder as the engine cycles through the conventional 4 stroke cycle. The main technical issue that has been addressed is the design of a practical rotary valve seal.
Technical Paper

71 Scavenging system layout of a 25 cc two-stroke engine intended for stratified scavenging

2002-10-29
2002-32-1840
A sequentially stratified scavenged engine is characterised by the principle that the cylinder is first scavenged by pure air, followed by the air/fuel mixture. The air is introduced into the upper part of the scavenging ducts through a piston port or a reed valve. To take full advantage of the stratified scavenged principle, the scavenging ducts have to be designed in a way, so that they can accommodate all the air that is delivered into the scavenging ducts. When converting a conventional two-stroke engine into a stratified scavenging engine, it is also important that the tuning and basic scavenging characteristics of the standard engine are not deteriorated. In this paper it is shown how these two aspects can be combined. Together with a theoretical approach for dimensioning the volume and length of the scavenging ducts, it gives a guideline on how to design the basic engine layout, for a stratified scavenged two-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySEE Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck

2000-09-11
2000-01-2647
In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,000 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear; including injector, valve and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl ester) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel.
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