Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

An Application of the Linear and Time-Invariant Method for the System-Level Thermal Simulation of an EV Battery

This paper presents a system-level thermal model of a fluid-cooled Li-Ion battery module. The model is a reduced order model (ROM) identified by results from finite element analysis (FEA)/computational fluid dynamic (CFD) coupling simulation using the linear and time-invariant (LTI) method. The ROM consists of two LTI sub-systems: one of which describes the battery temperature response to a transient battery current, and the other of which takes into account of the battery temperature variation due to a heat flux induced by a varied inlet temperature of the battery cooling circuit. The thermal LTI model can be coupled to an electrical model to build a complete system-level battery ROM. Test examples show that the ROM is able to provide as accurate results as those from FEA/CFD coupling simulations.
Technical Paper

Plant Modeling for Closed Loop Combustion Control - A Thermodynamic Consistent and Real-Time Capable Approach

Direct injection Diesel engines are a propulsion technology that is continuously developed to meet emission standards. Great optimization potential lies in the combustion process itself. The application of closed loop combustion control allows reacting online to environmental conditions and stabilizing the combustion regarding performance and emissions. Dedicated real-time plant models help to develop and calibrate control algorithms in office and hardware in the loop environments. The present work describes a real-time capable, crank-angle resolved engine, cylinder and combustion model. The cylinder applies an 0D, two-zone approach and a phenomenological combustion model describes ignition delay, premixed and diffusive combustion. The latter is enhanced by a quasi-dimensional description of the injection spray. The model is validated with dedicated measurements. The plant model is applied in two use-cases for closed loop combustion control.
Technical Paper

Demands on Future Timing drives - Chain and Belt in Competition

When designing a new internal combustion engine, the choice of technology for the timing drive system is one of the key decisions that determines the overall characteristics of the engine with far reaching implications on the remaining architecture and overall packaging of the engine. For Passenger car engines there are two mainstream technologies: toothed belts and chains. Each of these offers several sub-variants, such as dry vs. wet belt, or toothed vs. roller chain. This paper examines the differences between these technologies in relation to the key engine attributes including package, cost, weight, durability, NVH and frictional losses. A quantitative evaluation is made where possible, based on data collected from recent engine development programs, backed up by literature study and data from the component supply industry.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Modeling of Fuel Injection and Mixing Controlled Combustion for Real-Time Application In Steady-State and Transient Operation

The present works presents a real-time capable engine model with physical based description of the fuel injection and the combustion process. The model uses a crank-angle resolved cylinder model and a filling and emptying approach for cylinder and gas-path interaction. A common rail injection system model is developed and implemented into the real-time engine framework. The injection model calculates injection quantity and injection rate profile from the input of the ECU signals target injection pressure and injection timing. The model accounts for pressure oscillations in the injection system. A phenomenological combustion model for Diesel engines is implemented, which is based on the mixing controlled combustion modeling approach. The combustion model calculates the rate of heat release from the injection rate given by the injection model. The injection and combustion model are validated in detail against steady-state measurement data for two different passenger car sized engines.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation Study of Cavitating Nozzle Flow and Spray Propagation with Respect to Liquid Compressibility Effects

The paper addresses aspects of modeling cavitating flows within high pressure injection equipment while considering the effects of liquid compressibility. The presented numerical study, performed using the commercial CFD code AVL FIRE®, mimics common rail conditions, where the variation in liquid density as a function of pressure may be relevant owing to very high pressure injection scenarios. The flow through the injector has been calculated and the conditions at the outlet of the nozzle orifice have been applied as inlet condition for subsequent Euler-Lagrangian spray calculations to investigate the effects of liquid compressibility treatment on spray propagation. Flows of such nature are of interest within automotive and other internal combustion (IC) related industries to obtain good spray and emissions characteristics.
Technical Paper

Investigations on the Sound Quality of Engines with Low Cylinder Numbers

Due to future directives of the European Union regarding fuel consumption and CO2 emissions the automotive industry is forced to develop new and unconventional technologies. These include for example stop-start-systems, cylinder deactivation or even reduction of the number of cylinders which however lead to unusual acoustical perceptions and customer complaints. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the sound character of engines with low numbers of cylinders (2 and 3 cylinders) and also the differences to the character of the more common 4-cylinder engines. Psychoacoustic parameters are used to describe and understand the differences. Based on the gained knowledge possible potentials for improvement can be derived in the future. The used data base consists of artificial head recordings of car interior noise according to defined driving conditions measured on the AVL test track. Naturally, there are more recordings available for 4-cylinder engines than for 2- and 3-cylinder engines.
Technical Paper

Sound Optimization for Downsized Engines

Today, the number of downsized engines with two or three cylinders is increasing due to an increase in fuel efficiency. However, downsized engines exhibit unbalanced interior sound in the range of their optimal engine speed, largely because of their dominant engine orders. In particular, the sound of two-cylinder engines yields half the perceived engine speed of an equivalent four-cylinder engine at the same engine speed. As a result when driving, the two-cylinder engine would be shifted to higher gears much later, diminishing the expected fuel savings. This contribution presents an active in-car sound generation system that makes a two-cylinder engine sound like the more familiar four-cylinder engine. This is done by active, load-dependent playback of signals extracted from the engine vibration through a shaker mounted on the firewall. A blind test with audio experts indicates a significant reduction of the engine speed when shifting to a higher gear.
Technical Paper

Battery Thermal Management Simulation - 1D+1D Electrochemical Battery and 3D Module Modeling on Vehicle System Level

Approaching engineering limits for the thermal design of battery modules requires virtual prototyping and appropriate models with respect to physical depth and computational effort. A multi-scale and multi-domain model describes the electrochemical behavior of a single battery unit cell in 1D+1D at the level of intra-cell phenomena, and it applies a 3D thermal model at module level. Both models are connected within a common vehicle simulation platform. The models are discussed with special emphasis on battery degradation such as solid electrolyte interphase layer formation, decomposition and lithium plating. The performance of the electrochemical model is assessed by discharge cycles and repeated charge/discharge simulations. The thermal module model is compared to CFD reference data and studied with respect to its grid sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender: Development for Lowest Vibrations and Compact Design Based on Existing Production Parts

The automotive trend towards increased levels of electrification is showing a clear direction for hybrid technologies. Nowadays Mild- and plug-in-hybrids open a very wide area of future developments whereas battery electric vehicles (BEV) are still evident but still perceived as niche products with limited production volumes. Nevertheless, major OEMs are working on these kinds of vehicles and have also brought such EV concepts into series production. All of these designs show a clear trend that, beside the topic of electric traction motor and energy storage systems, the internal combustion engine (ICE) is also coming into focus again. In many of these vehicles the range extender (RE) unit is foreseen as an emergency unit to recharge the batteries if the state of charge (SOC) is too low. One of the major advantages of a BEV over other designs is the very good acoustic behavior, so the NVH performance becomes the most challenging topic for RE development.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study of Injection and Combustion with Dimethyl Ether

DiMethyl Ether (DME) has been known to be an outstanding fuel for combustion in diesel cycle engines for nearly twenty years. DME has a vapour pressure of approximately 0.5MPa at ambient temperature (293K), thus it requires pressurized fuel systems to keep it in liquid state which are similar to those for Liquefied Petroleum Gas (mixtures of propane and butane). The high vapour pressure of DME permits the possibility to optimize the fuel injection characteristic of direct injection diesel engines in order to achieve a fast evaporation and mixing with the charged gas in the combustion chamber, even at moderate fuel injection pressures. To understand the interrelation between the fuel flow inside the nozzle spray holes tests were carried out using 2D optically accessed nozzles coupled with modelling approaches for the fuel flow, cavitation, evaporation and the gas dynamics of 2-phase (liquid and gas) flows.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Piston Ring Dynamics and Their Effect on Oil Consumption

The sealing effect of piston rings in reciprocating engines have a major impact on blow-by and lube oil consumption (LOC). The sealing is achieved by the gas forces acting on the top and back side of the rings. In addition, the load in the radial direction is increased by the initial ring tension. Inertia forces arising from the oscillating vertical stroke and shear forces due to the secondary piston movement influence this sealing effect by a reduction in contact pressure. Numerical simulation of the piston and ring dynamics solves this non-linear problem and predicts the interaction between piston secondary motion, axial ring motion, and 2nd land pressure. This paper describes the modeling of the cylinder kit dynamics of a six-cylinder truck diesel engine for several operating conditions and ring modifications. The influence of boundary conditions and adjustment parameters on piston ring motion and gas penetration was investigated.
Technical Paper

New Fuel Mass Flow Meter - A Modern and Reliable Approach to Continuous and Accurate Fuel Consumption Measurement

Over the past few years, the fuel mass measurement gained in importance to record the consumed fuel mass and the specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] with high accuracy. Measuring instruments, such as positive displacement meters, methods based on the burette or the Wheatstone bridge mass flow meter measure either the volumetric flow and a temperature-dependant fuel density correction is necessary or they have old technology and therefore poor accuracy and repeatability. A new-generation Coriolis sensor featuring an ideal measurement range for engine test beds but still with flow depending pressure drop has been integrated in a fuel meter to ensure that no influence is given to the engine behaviour for example after engine load change. The new Coriolis meter offers better accuracy and repeatability, gas bubble venting and easy test bed integration. For returnless fuel injection systems the fuel system supplies the fuel pressure.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine and EAS Modelling and Validation for a Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation System

Faced with the need to reduce development time and cost in view of additional system complexity driven by ever more stringent emission regulations, the Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) simulation increasingly proves itself to be an advantageous tool not only in automotive companies but also in the off-road engine industry. The approach offers the possibility to analyze new engine control systems with fewer expensive engine dynamometer experiments and test drives. Thus, development cycles can be shortened and development costs reduced. This paper presents the development of an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the correspondent Exhaust Aftertreatment System (EAS) model, its deployment on a HiL system and its application to pre-calibrate the engine for different vehicle cycles. A zero-dimensional mean value approach was chosen to guarantee adequate real-time factors for the coupling between the models and the Engine Control Unit (ECU).
Technical Paper

Key Steps and Methods in the Design and Development of Low Noise Engines

The next generation of automotive engines has to meet 2004 emission limits, ideally with improved fuel economy and with noise emission which is at least 3 dBA below the current status. Using both simulation and experimental analysis these challenging requirements can only be fulfilled by clearly defining all key steps in NVH development and by applying suitable technological methods. The development procedure discussed in this paper is characterised by several aspects: two stage prediction procedure fully integrated in the design process, combustion development with a definite focus on noise, a closed loop between simulation and test bed development and consideration of noise in the calibration of engine and drivetrain management systems. Apart from meeting target noise levels, noise quality is the reference parameter which is continuously evaluated by means of the AVL Annoyance Index.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen ICE Combustion Challenges

Hydrogen promises to provide some highly desired features for clean and efficient combustion, but harvesting efficiency and emission potentials as well as meeting engine durability requirements needs careful adaption of both, combustion system components and engine operation strategies. Key points for H2-ICE combustion are some specific and unique features of H2/air mixtures, among which – to name only a few – excellent dilutability, lean burn capability, low ignition energy and high molecular diffusivity and their consequences on ICE operation do play prominent roles. H2 admission via port or direct injection, compression ratio selection and injection timing provide a set of parameters to control combustion features.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network-based emission control for future ICE concepts

The internal combustion engine contains several actuators to control the engine performance and emissions. These are controlled within the engine control unit and follow a certain operation strategy to achieve targets such as reduction of NOx emissions and fuel consumption. However, these two targets are contradictory, and a compromise is required. The operation state is depending on the system boundaries, such as engine speed, load, temperature levels and exhaust aftertreatment system efficiency. This leads to constantly changing target values to remain within the defined boundaries, in particular the legal emission limits. The conventional approach is using several operating modes. Each mode represents a specific compromise and is activated accordingly. To fulfil the emissions legislation, multiple modes are required, which increases the calibration efforts. This new control approach uses an artificial neural network that replaces the conventional multiple operation mode approach.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Combustion Process in the Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine

Fully flexible dual fuel (DF) internal combustion (IC) engines, that can burn diesel and gas simultaneously, have become established among heavy-duty engines as they contribute significantly to lower the environmental impact of the transport sector. In order to gain better understanding of the DF combustion process and establish an effective design methodology for DFIC engines, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools are needed. The DF strategy poses new challenges for numerical modelling of the combustion process since all combustion regimes have to be modelled simultaneously. Furthermore, DF engines exhibit higher cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) compared to the pure diesel engines. This issue can be addressed by employing large eddy simulation coupled with appropriate DF detailed chemistry mechanism. However, such an approach is computationally too expensive for today’s industry-related engine calculations.