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Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulations Combined with the Immersed Boundary Method for Predicting Car Aerodynamics

2023-04-11
2023-01-0561
This paper presents calculations of external car aerodynamics by using the Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) variable resolution model in conjunction with the finite volume (FV) immersed-boundary method. The work presented here is the continuation of the study reported in Basara et al. [1]. In that work, it was shown that the same accuracy of predicted aerodynamic forces can be achieved by using Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) k-ζ-f model on both types of meshes, the standard body-fitted (BF), and on the immersed boundary (IB) mesh. Due to all well-known shortcomings of the steady state approach, in this work we deal with the Partially Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS), which belongs to the hybrid RANS-LES (scale resolving / high fidelity) methods. This approach was developed to resolve a part of the turbulence spectrum adjusting seamlessly from RANS to DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation).
Technical Paper

Verification and Validation for Modular Development Platforms

2023-04-11
2023-01-0476
As electrified powertrains trends towards the new norm in development, the need to consider modular development approaches becomes more prevalent. Modular system developments seek to offer an adaptable product range by considering each system component (transmission, e-motor, inverter, battery, etc.) and system element (park-lock, disconnect, differential, etc.) as interchangeable. This can result in a lower cost development process overall to increase the returns for tier1 suppliers by expanding the marketability of the platform. Such an approach has hitherto held relatively low commercial interest as the rate of technological advancement negated the benefits of a modular development due to the lack of long-term competitivity. Previously large technological advances between successive productions and the relatively limited EV market, centred around SUV and small car applications, reduced the value in committing to a platform development.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid IC Engine – Challenges of Hydrogen and E-Fuel Compatibility within Current Production Boundaries

2023-04-11
2023-01-0397
Increasingly stringent greenhouse gas and emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Beside fully electric powertrains different configurations of hybrid powertrains will have an important role in upcoming and future vehicle generations. As already discussed in previous papers, the requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are different to those in a conventional powertrain solution, heading for brake thermal efficiency targets of 45% and above within the product lifecycle for conventional fuels. Focus on product cost and production and assembly facility investment drives reuse of technology packages within modular powertrain technology platforms, with different combinations of internal combustion engines (ICE), transmissions, and e-drive-layouts. The goal of zero carbon operation requires compatibility of ICE for sustainable fuels.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of Combustion Process in the Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine

2023-04-11
2023-01-0206
Fully flexible dual fuel (DF) internal combustion (IC) engines, that can burn diesel and gas simultaneously, have become established among heavy-duty engines as they contribute significantly to lower the environmental impact of the transport sector. In order to gain better understanding of the DF combustion process and establish an effective design methodology for DFIC engines, high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation tools are needed. The DF strategy poses new challenges for numerical modelling of the combustion process since all combustion regimes have to be modelled simultaneously. Furthermore, DF engines exhibit higher cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) compared to the pure diesel engines. This issue can be addressed by employing large eddy simulation coupled with appropriate DF detailed chemistry mechanism. However, such an approach is computationally too expensive for today’s industry-related engine calculations.
Technical Paper

Wet Clutch Drag Loss Simulation for Different Clutch Patterns

2022-08-30
2022-01-1118
Wet clutches drag loss simulation is essentially linked to the clutch friction surface patterns in addition to the main geometry and conditions of the interface (relative speed, separation, inner and outer radius, viscosity and boundary pressures). The clutch patterns promote cooling flow and micro-hydrodynamic effects to aid clutch separation but greatly complicate the simulation of drag loss during separation. These drag losses are important in understanding the system losses as well as finding the most effective clutch cooling strategy. Typical clutch models either only consider simple patterns, such as radial grooves, or require significant simulation efforts to evaluate. Additionally, many simple models require calibration to measurement of the actual clutch they try to model before they provide a useful model.
Technical Paper

Lubrication Testing Methodology for Vehicle Class and Usage Based Validation

2022-08-30
2022-01-1101
System lubrication in automotive powertrains is a growing topic for development engineers. Hybrid and pure combustion system complexity increases in search of improved efficiency and better control strategy, increasing the number of components with lubrication demand and the interplay between them, while fully electric systems drive for higher input speeds to increase e-motor efficiency, increasing bearing and gear feed rate demands. Added to this, many e-axle and hybrid systems are in development with a shared medium and circuit for e-motor cooling and transmission lubrication. Through all this, the lubricant forms a common thread and is a fundamental component in the system, but no standardized tests can provide a suitable methodology to investigate the adequate lubrication of components at powertrain level, to support the final planned vehicle usage.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation of High-Speed EV Transmission Bearings for Minimum Lubricant Volume

2022-08-30
2022-01-1120
Minimizing the lubricant volume in a transmission system reduces the churning losses and overall unit costs. However, lubricant volume reduction is also detrimental to the thermal stability of the system. Transmission overheating can result in significant issues in the region of loaded contacts, risking severe surface/sub-surface damage in bearings and gears, as well as reduction in the lubricant quality through advanced oxidation and shear degradation. The increasing trend of electrified transmission input speeds raises the importance of understanding the thermal limits of the system at the envelope of the performance to ensure quality and reliability can be maintained, as well as being a key factor in the development, effecting internal housing features for the promotion of lubrication. A nodal bearing thermal model will be shown which utilizes thermal resistances and smooth particle based CFD for determining bearing lubricant feed rates during operation.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for Investigation and Optimization of Engine Starts in a HEV Powertrain

2022-03-29
2022-01-0484
The shift toward electrification and limitations in battery electric vehicle technology have led to high demand for hybrid vehicles (HEVs) that utilize a battery and an internal combustion engine (ICE) for propulsion. Although HEVs enable lower fuel consumption and emissions compared to conventional vehicles, they still require combustion of fuels for ICE operation. Thus, emissions from hybrid vehicles are still a major concern. Engine starts are a major source of emissions during any driving event, especially before the three-way catalyst (TWC) reaches its light-off temperature. Since the engine is subjected to multiple starts during most driving events, it is important to mitigate and better understand the impact of these emissions. In this study, experiments were conducted to analyze engine starts in a hybrid powertrain on different experimental setup.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of a 48V-Hybrid-Powertrain for L-Category Vehicles with Longitudinal Dynamic Simulation and Design of Experiments

2022-03-29
2022-01-0672
The demand for high efficiency powertrains in automotive engineering is further increasing, with hybrid powertrains being a feasible option to cope with new legislations. So far hybridization has only played a minor role for L-category vehicles. Focusing on an exemplary high-power L-category on-road vehicle, this research aims to show a new development approach, which combines longitudinal dynamic simulation (LDS) with “Design of Experiments” (DoE) in course of hybrid electric powertrain development. Furthermore, addressing the technological aspect, this paper points out how such a vehicle can benefit from 48V-hybridization of its already existing internal combustion powertrain. A fully parametric LDS model is built in Matlab/Simulink, with exchangeable powertrain components and an adaptable hybrid operation strategy. Beforehand, characterizing decisions as to focus on 48V and on parallel hybrid architecture are made.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Immersed Boundary Method for Predicting External Car Aerodynamics

2022-03-29
2022-01-0889
This paper presents calculations of external car aerodynamics by using the finite volume (FV) immersed-boundary method. The FV numerical codes primarily employ Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models. In recent years, and due to possibility to run very large computational meshes, these models are usually used in conjunction with the advanced near-wall models. Moreover, it has been often demonstrated that the accuracy of RANS near-wall models relies on the mesh quality near the wall so by the rule, larger number of wall body-fitted cell-layers are employed. An immersed boundary (IB) method becomes an attractive alternative to the ‘standard’ FV approaches especially when applied to low quality CAD data. In general, the IB method is less investigated and validated for the car aerodynamics, particularly in conjunction with advanced near-wall turbulence models and an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR).
Technical Paper

Fast Charging at Cold Conditions—Model-Based Control Enabled by Multi-Scale Multi-Domain Plant Model

2022-03-29
2022-01-0702
Fast charging of batteries at cold conditions faces the challenge of promoting undesired cell degradation phenomena such as lithium plating. The occurrence of lithium plating is strongly related to local surface potentials and temperatures involving the scales of the electrode surface, the unit cell and the entire module or pack. A multi-scale, multi-domain model is presented, enhancing a Newman based unit cell model with consistent models for heat generation and lithium plating and integrating this 1D+1D approach into a thermal 3D model on module level. The basic equations are presented and three different plating models from literature are discussed. The thermal model is assessed in open-loop simulations and the different plating approaches are compared in charge/discharge simulations at different operating conditions. The full multi-scale, multi-domain model is applied as a virtual sensor for model-based control of fast charging at cold conditions.
Journal Article

Towards Brand-Independent Architectures, Components and Systems for Next Generation Electrified Vehicles Optimised for the Infrastructure

2022-03-29
2022-01-0918
E-mobility is a game changer for the automotive domain. It promises significant reduction in terms of complexity and in terms of local emissions. With falling prices and recent technological advances, the second generation of electric vehicles (EVs) that is now in production makes electromobility an affordable and viable option for more and more transport mission (people, freight). Still, major challenges for large scale deployment remain. They include higher maturity with respect to performance (e.g., range, interaction with the grid), development efficiency (e.g., time-to-market), or production costs. Additionally, an important market transformation currently occurs with the co-development of automated driving functions, connectivity, mobility-as-a-service. New opportunities arise to customize road transportation systems toward application-driven, user-centric smart mobility solutions.
Journal Article

Measurement of Piston Friction with a Floating Liner Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2022-03-29
2022-01-0601
The further increase in the efficiency of heavy-duty engines is essential in order to reduce CO2 emissions in the transport sector. This is also valid for the future use of alternative fuels, which can be CO2-neutral, but can cause higher total costs of ownership due to higher prices and limited availability. In addition to thermodynamic optimization, the reduction of mechanical losses is of great importance. In particular, there is a high potential in the piston bore interface, since continuously increasing cylinder pressures have a strong influence on the frictional and lateral piston forces. To meet these future challenges of increasing heavy-duty engine efficiency, AVL has developed a floating liner engine for heavy-duty applications based on its tried and tested passenger car floating liner concept.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

2022-03-29
2022-01-0593
Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Technical Paper

Modular Transmission Family for Fuel Consumption Reduction Tailored for Indian Market Needs

2021-09-22
2021-26-0049
Global warming is the driver for introduction of CO2 and fuel consumption legislation worldwide. Indian truck manufacturers are facing the introduction of Indian fuel efficiency norms. In the European Union the CO2 emission monitoring phase of the most relevant truck classes was completed in June 2020 by usage of the Vehicle Energy Consumption Calculation TOol VECTO. Indian rule makers are currently considering an adaptation of VECTO for the usage in India, too. Indian truck market has always been very cost sensitive. Introduction of Bharat Stage VI Phase I has already led to a significant cost increase for emission compliance. Therefore, it will be of vital importance to keep the additional product costs for achievement of future fuel consumption legislation as low as possible as long as the real-world operation will not be promoted by the government.
Technical Paper

21SIAT-0638 - Fleet Analytics - A Data-Driven and Synergetic Fleet Validation Approach

2021-09-22
2021-26-0499
Current developments in automotive industry such as hybrid powertrains and the continuously increasing demands on emission control systems, are pushing complexity still further. Validation of such systems lead to a huge amount of test cases and hence extreme testing efforts on the road. At the same time the pressure to reduce costs and minimize development time is creating challenging boundaries on development teams. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to utilize testing and validation prototypes in the most efficient way. It is necessary to apply high levels of instrumentation and collect as much data as possible. And a streamlined data pipeline allows the fleet managers to get new insights from the raw data and control the validation vehicles as well as the development team in the most efficient way. In this paper we will demonstrate a data-driven approach for validation testing.
Technical Paper

Hybrid-Powertrain Development Approach to Reduce Number of Prototype Vehicles by Taking Right Decision in Early Development Phases on Engine Testbeds

2021-09-22
2021-26-0449
Today’s automotive industry is changing rapidly towards environmentally friendly vehicle propulsion systems. All over the globe, legislative CO2 consumption targets are under discussion and partly already in force. Hybrid powertrain configurations are capable to lower fuel consumption and limit pollutant emissions compared to pure IC-Engine driven powertrains. Depending on boundary conditions a numerous of different hybrid topologies- and its control strategies are thinkable. Typical approach is to find the optimum hybrid layout and strategy, by performing certain technical design tasks in office simulation directly followed by vehicle prototype tests on the chassis dyno and road. This leads to a high number of prototype vehicles, overload on chassis dynos, time consuming road test and finally to tremendous costs. Our developed approach is using the engine testbed with simulation capabilities as bridging element between office and vehicle development environment.
Journal Article

Tailored ADAS Functions Fulfilling Local Market Expectations - Time Saving Approach without Compromising the Performance Quality

2021-09-22
2021-26-0038
Modern safety and comfort features must behave country specific to the local environment and traffic conditions in order to gain end consumers’ trust and strengthening OEMs market success respectively. In order to achieve this, a new methodology was developed. In this paper, the approach for designing advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) with a tailored controller behavior optimized for country specific market expectations like in India is described. Furthermore, the definition of objective performance and calibration targets with automated evaluation of target fulfillment will be deeply discussed. The method is focused on saving time at calibration and validation without compromising the quality of ADAS features. Local market specific driving behavior is investigated and measurement data from real-world driving collected. Data clustering via maneuver detection is performed automatically, which is saving time and effort.
Technical Paper

Calibrating BEV and HEV Powertrains for Dynamic Performance Targets

2021-09-05
2021-24-0100
Calibrating a vehicle’s powertrain for dynamic operation needs to focus on efforts to mitigate the risks of thermal overload which may arise in the stator or rotor components of an e-motor. Risks also may arise for expected NVH or durability targets, with torque and torque “oscillations” acting as primary sources for the vehicles’ NVH behavior. Both topics, temperature measurement of stator and rotor as well as dynamic torque measurements of the powertrain’s drive shaft are addressed with examples demonstrating the sensors applications in normal test bed and vehicle configurations.
Technical Paper

Automated Test Case Generation and Virtual Assessment Framework for UN Regulation on Automated Lane Keeping Systems

2021-04-06
2021-01-0870
Validation of highly automated or autonomous vehicles is nowadays still a major challenge for the automotive industry. Furthermore, the homologation of ADAS/AD vehicles according to global regulations is getting more essential for their safe development and deployment around the world. In order to assure that the autonomous driving function is able to cope with the huge number of possible situations during operation, comprehensive testing of the functions is required. However, conventional testing approaches such as driving distance-based validation approach in the real world, can be time- and cost-consuming. Therefore, a scenario-based virtual validation and testing method is considered to be a proper solution. In this paper, we propose a virtual assessment framework using a fully automated test case generation method. This framework is embedded into the continuous development and validation process.
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