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Journal Article

Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units for Heavy Duty Truck Anti-Idling

2013-09-24
2013-01-2470
The DESTA project, funded by the European Commission under the FCH JU program, is a collaborative effort of AVL List GmbH, Eberspächer Climate Control Systems, Topsoe Fuel Cell (TOFC), Volvo and Forschungszentrum Jülich to bring fuel cell based auxiliary power units (APU) for heavy duty truck idling elimination closer to the market. Within this project Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology is used, which enables the use of conventional diesel fuel. During the project the technology is significantly optimized and around 10 APU systems are thoroughly tested. In 2014 a vehicle demonstration on board of a US type Volvo class 8 truck will be performed.
Journal Article

Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control

2014-06-30
2014-01-2046
When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique.
Journal Article

Dual Fuel Engine Simulation - A Thermodynamic Consistent HiL Compatible Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-1094
This works presents a real-time capable simulation model for dual fuel operated engines. The computational performance is reached by an optimized filling and emptying modeling approach applying tailored models for in-cylinder combustion and species transport in the gas path. The highly complex phenomena taking place during Diesel and gasoline type combustion are covered by explicit approaches supported by testbed data. The impact of the thermodynamic characteristics induced by the different fuels is described by an appropriate set of transport equations in combination with specifically prepared property databases. A thermodynamic highly accurate 6-species approach is presented. Additionally, a 3-species and a 1-species transport approach relying on the assumption of a lumped fuel are investigated regarding accuracy and computational performance. The comparison of measured and simulated pressure and temperature traces shows very good agreement.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Valve Train Variability in Diesel Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2532
The continuously decreasing emission limits lead to a growing importance of exhaust aftertreatment in Diesel engines. Hence, methods for achieving a rapid catalyst light-off after engine cold start and for maintaining the catalyst temperature during low load operation will become more and more necessary. The present work evaluates several valve timing strategies concerning their ability for doing so. For this purpose, simulations as well as experimental investigations were conducted. A special focus of simulation was on pointing out the relevance of exhaust temperature, mass flow and enthalpy for these thermomanagement tasks. An increase of exhaust temperature is beneficial for both catalyst heat-up and maintaining catalyst temperature. In case of the exhaust mass flow, high values are advantageous only in case of a catalyst heat-up process, while maintaining catalyst temperature is supported by a low mass flow.
Journal Article

Predicted Roughness Perception for Simulated Vehicle Interior Noise

2012-06-13
2012-01-1561
In the past the exterior and interior noise level of vehicles has been largely reduced to follow stricter legislation and due to the demand of the customers. As a consequence, the noise quality and no longer the noise level inside the vehicle plays a crucial role. For an economic development of new powertrains it is important to assess noise quality already in early development stages by the use of simulation. Recent progress in NVH simulation methods of powertrain and vehicle in time and frequency domain provides the basis to pre-calculated sound pressure signals at arbitrary positions in the car interior. Advanced simulation tools for elastic multi-body simulation and novel strategies to measure acoustical transfer paths are combined to achieve this goal. In order to evaluate the obtained sound impression a roughness prediction model has been developed. The proposed roughness model is a continuation of the model published by Hoeldrich and Pflueger.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid Engine - Challenge between GHG-Legislation, Efficiency Targets, Product Cost and Production Boundaries

2022-03-29
2022-01-0593
Upcoming, increasingly stringent greenhouse gas (GHG) as well as emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Increasing complexity of electrified powertrain architectures require an overall system approach combining component technology with integration and industrialization requirements when heading for further significant efficiency optimization of the subsystem internal combustion engine. The requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are quite different to those in a conventional powertrain solution. Next-generation hybrid engines, with brake thermal efficiency (BTE) targets starting from 42-43% and aiming for 45% and above within the product lifecycle, require a re-thinking of the base engine architecture of current modular engine platforms. At the same time focus on the product cost and minimized additional investment demand reuse of current production, machining and assembly facilities as far as possible.
Technical Paper

The Hybrid IC Engine – Challenges of Hydrogen and E-Fuel Compatibility within Current Production Boundaries

2023-04-11
2023-01-0397
Increasingly stringent greenhouse gas and emission limits demand for powertrain electrification throughout all vehicle applications. Beside fully electric powertrains different configurations of hybrid powertrains will have an important role in upcoming and future vehicle generations. As already discussed in previous papers, the requirements on the combustion engine in hybrid powertrains are different to those in a conventional powertrain solution, heading for brake thermal efficiency targets of 45% and above within the product lifecycle for conventional fuels. Focus on product cost and production and assembly facility investment drives reuse of technology packages within modular powertrain technology platforms, with different combinations of internal combustion engines (ICE), transmissions, and e-drive-layouts. The goal of zero carbon operation requires compatibility of ICE for sustainable fuels.
Technical Paper

Metrics Based Design of Electromechanical Coupled Reduced Order Model of an Electric Powertrain for NVH Assessment

2024-06-12
2024-01-2913
Electric vehicles offer cleaner transportation with lower emissions, thus their increased popularity. Although, electric powertrains contribute to quieter vehicles, the shift from internal combustion engines to electric powertrains presents new Noise, Vibration, and Harshness challenges. Unlike traditional engines, electric powertrains produce distinctive tonal noise, notably from motor whistles and gear whine. These tonal components have frequency content, sometimes above 10 kHz. Furthermore, the housing of the powertrain is the interface between the excitation from the driveline via the bearings and the radiated noise (NVH). Acoustic features of the radiated noise can be predicted by utilising the transmitted forces from the bearings. Due to tonal components at higher frequencies and dense modal content, full flexible multibody dynamics simulations are computationally expensive.
Technical Paper

Synergizing Efficiency and Silence: A Novel Approach to E-Machine Development

2024-06-12
2024-01-2914
In recent years, the automotive industry has dedicated significant attention to the evolution of electric vehicles (EVs). The Electric-machine (as motor and generator, here and onward called E-machine as more general term) as the heart of the EDU (Electric Drive Unit) is very important component of powertrain and is the one of the main focuses of development. Traditionally, E-machine design has primarily focused on factors like efficiency, packaging, and cost, often neglecting the critical aspects of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) specially at the early decision-making stages. This disconnect between E-machine design teams and NVH teams has consistently posed a challenge, which is the experience seen in many OEMs. This paper introduces an innovative workflow that unifies these previously separate domains, facilitating comprehensive optimization by integrating NVH considerations with other E-machine objectives, efficiency, weight, packaging and cost.
Technical Paper

A Transient Numerical Analysis of a Dissipative Expansion Chamber Muffler

2024-06-12
2024-01-2935
Expansion chamber mufflers are commonly applied to reduce noise in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) or exhaust systems. In dissipative mufflers, sound-absorptive materials, such as microperforated plates (MPP), are applied to achieve an enhanced and more broadband mitigation effect. Computational acoustics (CA) analyses of mufflers are usually carried out in the frequency domain, assuming time-harmonic excitation. However, certain applications require time-domain simulations. From a computational point of view, such transient analyses are more challenging. A transformation of the governing equations involving frequency-dependent material parameters into the time domain induces convolution integrals. We apply the recently proposed finite element (FE) formulation of a time-domain equivalent fluid (TDEF) model to simulate the transient response of dissipative acoustic media to arbitrary unsteady excitation.
Technical Paper

A New Evaluation Approach for NVH Efficiency of E-Drive Encapsulations

2024-06-12
2024-01-2955
Encapsulations of E-drive systems are gaining importance in electric mobility, since they are a simple measure to improve the noise behavior of the drive. Current experimental evaluation methods, however, pose substantial challenges for the test personnel and are associated with considerable effort in both time and cost. Evaluating the encapsulation on an e-drive test bed, for example, requires a functional e-drive and test bed resources. Evaluations in the vehicle on the other hand make objective assessments difficult and are subject to increasingly limited availability of prototype vehicles fit for NVH testing. To overcome these challenges, AVL has developed a new experimental evaluation method for the NVH efficiency of e-drive encapsulations. In this method, the e-drive is freely suspended in a semi-anechoic chamber and its structure is excited using shakers while the radiated noise with and without encapsulation is measured.
Technical Paper

How Can a Sustainable Energy Infrastructure based on Renewable Fuels Contribute to Global Carbon Neutrality?

2024-07-02
2024-01-3023
Abstract. With the COP28 decisions the world is thriving for a future net-zero-CO2 society and the and current regulation acts, the energy infrastructure is changing in direction of renewables in energy production. All industry sectors will extend their share of direct or indirect electrification. The question might arise if the build-up of the renewables in energy production is fast enough. Demand and supply might not match in the short- and mid-term. The paper will discuss the roadmaps, directions and legislative boundary parameter in the regenerative energy landscape and their regional differences. National funding on renewables will gain an increasing importance to accelerate the energy transformation. The are often competing in attracting the same know-how on a global scale. In addition the paper includes details about energy conversion, efficiency as well as potential transport scenarios from production to the end consumer.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Mechanical Abuse Testing of High-Voltage Batteries

2012-04-16
2012-01-0124
Currently lithium-batteries are the most promising electrical-energy storage technology in fully-electric and hybrid vehicles. A crashworthy battery-design is among the numerous challenges development of electric-vehicles has to face. Besides of safe normal operation, the battery-design shall provide marginal threat to human health and environment in case of mechanical damage. Numerous mechanical abuse-tests were performed to identify load limits and the battery's response to damage. Cost-efficient testing is provided by taking into account that the battery-system's response to abuse might already be observed at a lower integration-level, not requiring testing of the entire pack. The most feasible tests and configurations were compiled and discussed. Adaptions of and additions to existing requirements and test-procedures as defined in standards are pointed out. Critical conditions that can occur during and after testing set new requirements to labs and test-rigs.
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