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Technical Paper

Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”.
Technical Paper

A Versatile Approach for an ISO26262 Compliant Hardware-Software Interface Definition with Model-Based Development

Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) in Automotive Software Quality Management

A steady increasing share and complexity of automotive software is a huge challenge for quality management during software development and in-use phases. In cases of faults occurring in customer’s use, warranty leads to product recalls which are typically associated with high costs. To avoid software faults efficiently, quality management and enhanced development processes have to be realized by the introduction of specific analysis methods and Key Process/Performance Indicators (KPIs) to enable objective quality evaluations as soon as possible during product development process. The paper introduces an application of specific analysis methods by using KPIs and discusses their potential for automotive software quality improvement. Target is to support quality evaluation and risk-analysis for the release process of automotive software.
Technical Paper

Identification and Verification of Attack-Tree Threat Models in Connected Vehicles

As a result of the ever-increasing application of cyber-physical components in the automotive industry, cybersecurity has become an urgent topic. Adapting technologies and communication protocols like Ethernet and WiFi in connected vehicles yields many attack scenarios. Consequently, ISO/SAE 21434 and UN R155 (2021) define a standard and regulatory framework for automotive cybersecurity, Both documents follow a risk management-based approach and require a threat modeling methodology for risk analysis and identification. Such a threat modeling methodology must conform to the Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment (TARA) framework of ISO/SAE 21434. Conversely, existing threat modeling methods enumerate isolated threats disregarding the vehicle’s design and connections. Consequently, they neglect the role of attack paths from a vehicle’s interfaces to its assets.
Technical Paper

High Mileage Emission Deterioration Factors from Euro 6 Positive and Compression Ignition Vehicles

The current European fleet of vehicles is ageing and lifetime mileages are rising proportionally. Consequently, a substantial fraction of the vehicle fleet is currently operating at mileages well beyond current durability legislation (≤ 160,000 km). Emissions inventories and models show substantial increases in emissions with increasing mileage, but knowledge of the effect of emissions control system deterioration at very high mileages is sparse. Emissions testing has been conducted on matched pairs (or more) of diesel and gasoline (and CNG) vehicles, of low and high mileage, supplementing the results with in-house data, in order to explore high mileage emission deterioration factors (DF). The study isolated, as far as possible, the effect of emissions deterioration with mileage, by using nominally identical vehicle models and controlling other variables.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands for connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X). Due to this connectivity, it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks.
Technical Paper

Concept Study of Range Extender Applications in Electric Scooters

Nowadays, politicians are forced by air pollution prevention to demand zero emission vehicles (ZEV) in the form of pure electric vehicles. The poor capacity to weight factor of actual batteries compared to any kind of liquid or gaseous hydro-carbon fuel is the main reason for the retarded implementation of ZEV. Solutions offered by automobile manufacturers are mild to full hybrid powertrains based on the well established ICE platform. The difficulty of those approaches of electrification is to compete with the performance and benefit costumers expect from standard automobiles. Pure electric vehicles are rare and often disappointing regarding range and/or performance. Additionally the costs for such vehicles, which are mainly driven by the battery prices, are comparatively high, impeding their market entrance and acceptance. Low price electric city scooters are actually offered as pure electric vehicles in a wide variety of different models.
Technical Paper

Real World Operation of a Standard Lawn Mower Engine from a Scientific Perspective

This paper introduces a research project on a spark ignition engine used in non-road applications. The aim is to illustrate the present situation as basis for comparison and to identify possible improvement potential in terms of performance, efficiency or exhaust and noise emissions. The study is carried out in two steps. First a standard walk-behind lawn mower is equipped with measuring instrumentation for recording the cutting forces and the engine variables during real world operation. The tests are carried out on three different lawn types and two different blade types are investigated. Consequently, in a second step the engine is analysed on the engine test bench in stationary and transient operating mode. A complete engine mapping is done regarding all relevant variables. Additionally to the outdoor tests, fuel consumption and engine out emissions are measured on the engine dynamometer. The recorded data enables a detailed analysis of the engine behaviour.
Technical Paper

Development of a Virtual Sensor to Predict Cylinder Pressure Signal Based on a Knock Sensor Signal

Virtual sensing refers to the processing of desired physical data based on measured values. Virtual sensors can be applied not only to obtain physical quantities which cannot be measured or can only be measured at an unreasonable expense but also to reduce the number of physical sensors and thus lower costs. In the field of spark ignited internal combustion engines, the virtual sensing approach may be used to predict the cylinder pressure signal (or characteristic pressure values) based on the acceleration signal of a knock sensor. This paper presents a method for obtaining the cylinder pressure signal in the high-pressure phase of an internal combustion engine based on the measured acceleration signal of a knock sensor. The approach employs a partial differential equation to represent the physical transfer function between the measured signal and the desired pressure. A procedure to fit the modeling constants is described using the example of a large gas engine.
Technical Paper

Virtual Sensors in Small Engines – Previous Successes and Promising Future Use Cases

Virtual sensing, i.e., the method of estimating quantities of interest indirectly via measurements of other quantities, has received a lot of attention in various fields: Virtual sensors have successfully been deployed in intelligent building systems, the process industry, water quality control, and combustion process monitoring. In most of these scenarios, measuring the quantities of interest is either impossible or difficult, or requires extensive modifications of the equipment under consideration – which in turn is associated with additional costs. At the same time, comprehensive data about equipment operation is collected by ever increasing deployment of inexpensive sensors that measure easily accessible quantities. Using this data to infer values of quantities which themselves are impossible to measure – i.e., virtual sensing – enables monitoring and control applications that would not be possible otherwise.
Journal Article

Investigation on transient behavior and SoC balancing of a hybrid powertrain hand-held tool

A transient behavior investigation of a hybrid hand-held tool is carried out on near real load conditions, through a hybrid experimental and simulative study. As this study focuses on handheld tools with a varied or transient load operation like chainsaws and brush cutters, a use of a blower tool as a test-carrier and a throttle body implementation on its blower air pipe adds a controllable braking mechanism. This allows for driving varied load cycles without the need of a testbench. Experimental investigation takes place at both start-up, shut-down and load conditions and for different drive control and commutation modes of electric motor. The controller characterization and parameter selection are done. After the load cycles are driven on the test-carrier, the characterizing data are transferred to the MATLAB and Simulink simulation model to correct and calibrate its transient behavior.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Virtual Sensors for Combustion Parameter Prediction of Gas Engines Based on Knock Sensor Signals

Precise prediction of combustion parameters such as peak firing pressure (PFP) or crank angle of 50% burned mass fraction (MFB50) is essential for optimal engine control. These quantities are commonly determined from in-cylinder pressure sensor signals and are crucial to reach high efficiencies and low emissions. Highly accurate in-cylinder pressure sensors are only applied to test rig engines due to their high cost, limited durability and special installation conditions. Therefore, alternative approaches which employ virtual sensing based on signals from non-intrusive sensors retrieved from common knock sensors are of great interest. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of selected approaches from literature, as well as adjusted or further developed methods to determine engine combustion parameters based on knock sensor signals. All methods are evaluated on three different engines and two different sensor positions.
Technical Paper

Insides to Trustworthy AI-Based Embedded Systems

In an era characterized by the rapid proliferation and advancement of AI-based technologies across various domains, the spotlight is placed on the integration of these technologies into trustworthy autonomous systems. The integration into embedded systems necessitates a heightened focus on dependability. This paper combines the findings from the TEACHING project, which delves into the foundations of humanistic AI concepts, with insights derived from an expert workshop in the field of dependability engineering. We establish the body of knowledge and key findings deliberated upon during an expert workshop held at an international conference focused on computer safety, reliability and security. The dialogue makes it evident that despite advancements, the assurance of dependability in AI-driven systems remains an unresolved challenge, lacking a one-size-fits-all solution.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Training Approach for Automotive Cybersecurity Engineering

Cybersecurity assumes a major role in the context of the automotive domain, where both existing and forthcoming regulations are heightening the need for robust security engineering. A significant milestone in advancing cybersecurity within the automotive industry is the release of the first international standard for automotive cybersecurity ISO/SAE 21434:2021 ‘Road Vehicles — Cybersecurity Engineering’. A recently published type approval regulation for automotive cybersecurity (UN R155) is also tailored for member countries of the UNECE WP.29 alliance. Thus, the challenges for embedded automotive systems engineers are increasing while frameworks, tools and shared concepts for cybersecurity engineering and training are scarce.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Methods for Identification of Driving Styles and Simulation-Based Analysis of their Influence on Energy Consumption on the Example of a Hybrid Drive Train

Due to current progresses in the field of driver assistance systems and the continuously growing electrification of vehicle drive trains, the evaluation of driver behavior has become an important part in the development process of modern cars. Findings from driver analyses are used for the creation of individual profiles, which can be permanently adapted due to ongoing data processing. A benefit of data-based dynamic control systems lies in the possibility to individually configure the vehicle behavior for a specific driver, which can contribute to increasing customer acceptance and satisfaction. In this way, an optimization of the control behavior between driver and vehicle and the resulting mutual system learning and -adjustment hold great potential for improvements in driving behavior, safety and energy consumption.
Journal Article

Evaporation and Cold Start Behavior of Bio-Fuels in Non-Automotive Applications

Worldwide increasing energy consumption, decreasing energy resources and continuous restriction of emission legislation cause a rethinking in the development of internal combustion engines and fuels. Alternative renewable fuels, so called bio-fuels, have the potential to contribute to environmentally friendly propulsion systems. This study concentrates on the usage of alcohol fuels like ethanol, methanol and butanol in non-automotive high power engines, handheld power tools and garden equipment with the focus on mixture formation and cold start capability. Although bio-fuels have been investigated intensely for the use in automotive applications yet, the different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of nonautomotive applications raise the need for specific research. A zero dimensional vaporization model has been set up to calculate the connections between physical properties and mixture formation.
Journal Article

A ‘Microscopic’ Structural Mechanics FE Model of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell for Quasi-Static Load Cases

This study deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of a lithium-ion pouch cell and its modelling in an explicit finite element simulation code. One can distinguish between ‘macroscopic’ and ‘microscopic’ modelling approaches. In the ‘macroscopic’ approach, one material model approximates the behaviour of multiple inner cell layers. In the ‘microscopic’ approach, which is used in the present study, all layers and their interactions are modelled separately. The cell under study is a pouch-type lithium-ion cell with a liquid electrolyte. With its cell chemistry, design, size and capacity it is usable for automotive applications and can be assembled into traction batteries. One cell sample was fully discharged and disassembled, and its components (anode, cathode, separator and pouch) were examined and measured by electron microscopy. Components were also tensile tested.
Journal Article

State of the Art and Future Trends of Electric Drives and Power Electronics for Automotive Engineering

Discussions about the optimal technology of propulsion systems for future ground vehicles have been raising over the last few years. Several options include different types of technologies. However, those who are advocating conventional internal combustion engines are faced with the fact that fossil fuels are limited. Others favor hydrogen fuel as the solution for the future, either in combination with combustion engines or as an energy carrier for fuel cells. In any case, the production and storage of hydrogen is an ongoing challenge of numerous research works. Finally, there are battery-electric or hybrid propulsion systems in use, gaining more and more popularity worldwide. Ongoing advances in power electronics help to improve control systems within automotive applications. New developed or designed components enable more efficient system architectures and control.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Journal Article

Elaborate Measuring System for Sensitivity Analyses and In-Depth Investigations of a Squealing Brake System

Brake squeal is an elusive problem which has been the subject of investigation for many decades, but there is still a lack of knowledge regarding the excitation mechanisms. New vehicle solutions, for instance the electrical vehicle, will have a lower general noise level. Thus, silent brake systems will gain in importance. To obtain such systems, in-depth investigations of the brake disc/pad contact are required. For these investigations a new sensor has been developed. The guide pins of the caliper are replaced by modified ones which measure the friction force. Additionally, eddy current sensors are installed for contact-free measurement of the pad movement. Furthermore, triaxial acceleration sensors are mounted in the disc vents. Thus, it is possible to evaluate the operational deflection shapes of the disc. Next, an extensive sensibility analysis is performed. Parameters such as environmental conditions, friction coefficient and many others are thereby changed.