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Technical Paper

LPG and Prechamber as Enabler for Highly Performant and Efficient Combustion Processes Under Stoichiometric Conditions

2021-09-05
2021-24-0032
The European Union has defined legally binding CO2-fleet targets for new cars until 2030. Therefore, improvement of fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission reduction is becoming one of the most important issues for the car manufacturers. Today’s conventional car powertrain systems are reaching their technical limits and will not be able to meet future CO2 targets without further improvement in combustion efficiency, using low carbon fuels (LCF), and at least mild electrification. This paper demonstrates a highly efficient and performant combustion engine concept with a passive pre-chamber spark plug, operating at stoichiometric conditions and powered with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Even from fossil origin, LPG features many advantages such as low carbon/hydrogen ratio, low price and broad availability. In future, it can be produced from renewables and it is in liquid state under relatively low pressures, allowing the use of conventional injection and fuel supply components.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Speciation Data for Hydrocarbons using Data Science

2021-09-05
2021-24-0081
Strict regulations on air pollution motivates clean combustion research for fossil fuels. To numerically mimic real gasoline fuel reactivity, surrogates are proposed to facilitate advanced engine design and predict emissions by chemical kinetic modelling. However, chemical kinetic models could not accurately predict non-regular emissions, e.g. aldehydes, ketones and unsaturated hydrocarbons, which are important air pollutants. In this work, we propose to use machine-learning algorithms to achieve better predictions. Combustion chemistry of fuels constituting of 10 neat fuels, 6 primary reference fuels (PRF) and 6 FGX surrogates were tested in a jet stirred reactor. Experimental data were collected in the same setup to maintain data uniformity and consistency under following conditions: residence time at 1.0 second, fuel concentration at 0.25%, equivalence ratio at 1.0, and temperature range from 750 to 1100K.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Steady-State and Stop-Start Emissions in a Wankel Rotary Engine with a Novel Rotor Cooling Arrangement

2021-09-05
2021-24-0097
The present work investigates a means of controlling engine hydrocarbon startup and shutdown emissions in a Wankel engine which uses a novel rotor cooling method. Mechanically the engine employs a self-pressurizing air-cooled rotor system (SPARCS) configured to provide improved cooling versus a simple air-cooled rotor arrangement. The novelty of the SPARCS system is that it uses the fact that blowby past the sealing grid is inevitable in a Wankel engine as a means of increasing the density of the medium used for cooling the rotor. Unfortunately, the design also means that when the engine is shutdown, due to the overpressure within the engine core and the fact that fuel vapour and lubricating oil are to be found within it, unburned hydrocarbons can leak into the combustion chambers, and thence to the atmosphere via either or both of the intake and exhaust ports.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Energy Management and Control for a Hybridized Through-The-Road Car

2021-09-05
2021-24-0107
The deployment of electric and hybrid electric vehicle is accounted to be the most feasible solution for lowering the transportation sector pollution emissions and energy consumption. However, the transition to electrified mobility is not behind the corner and many challenges, such as battery recharging issues, free-carbon electricity and grid sustainability, remain unsolved. A sustainable solution, also from a Life-Cycle Assessment perspective, is the conversion of existing vehicles into hybrid solar cars. In this study, the latest updates of the LIFE-SAVE project for the development of an aftermarket kit for vehicles hybridization are presented. In particular, the application of the Pontryagin’s Minimum Principles for the optimal control of a transformed vehicle is presented. Results show that fuel economy on the vehicle both in charge sustaining and in charge depleting operations are improved by about 1% and 13%, respectively.
Technical Paper

3D Simulation Methodology to Predict Passenger Thermal Comfort Inside a Cabin

2021-09-15
2021-28-0132
The vehicle Heating, Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) system is designed to meet both the safety and thermal comfort requirements of the passengers inside the cabin. The thermal comfort requirement, however, is highly subjective and is usually met objectively by carrying out time dependent mapping of parameters like the velocity and temperature at various in-cabin locations. These target parameters are simulated for the vehicle interior for a case of hot soaking and its subsequent cool-down to test the efficacy of the AC system. Typically, AC performance is judged by air temperature at passenger locations, thermal comfort estimation along with time to reach comfortable condition for human. Simulating long transient vehicle cabin for thermal comfort evaluation is computationally expensive and involves complex cabin material modelling.
Technical Paper

Methodology to Simulate Adsorption and Desorption Phenomena of Gasoline Fuel Vapour in Activated-Carbon Canister to Meet Post-EU6 and US EPA Global Emission Norms

2021-09-15
2021-28-0131
This paper covers the mathematical modeling of governing equations for the coupled heat and mass transfer phenomena during adsorption and desorption. Also the main focus is given on the methodology for numerical simulation for solving these partial differential equations for carbon canister. A comprehensive literature review is presented to summarize the target requirements of allowed evaporative emission level of gasoline vapour in grams per day based on global standards like, EU6, EPA stage II enhanced, CARB LEVII, PZEV and SULEV. In order to meet these stringent emission norms, presence of carbon canister is mandatory. The simulation results are compared for the gasoline vehicle application at various climatic temperature conditions in India, in which the canister sizing vs allowable emission targets are summarized.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Natural Based Additives on Single-Cylinder Di Diesel Engine

2021-09-15
2021-28-0130
In this experimental study, an attempt is made to enhance the performance characteristics of diesel fuel with two different natural additives (NA). Borassus Flabelifer (NB1) and Oryza Sativa straws (NB2) were chosen as natural additives. The selected natural additives were milled for 150 hours using a planetary ball mill and their particle sizes ranging from 120 to 125 nm. The milled natural additives were doped into neat diesel using a magnetic stirrer followed by ultrasonication and their stability was ascertained. The presence of high carbon and oxygen content was noted on EDS results of milled powder. The properties of fuel were analyzed as per ASTM standards and it was observed that there was a marginal decrease in calorific value, flash point, and fire point of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Thermal Characterization of Li-Ion Phosphate (LiFePO4) HEV Battery Using HPPC Test

2021-09-15
2021-28-0121
Recently, Hybrid electric vehicles have become significant. Electric vehicle is still in its infancy while grappling with multiple solutions to its problem of range anxiety and heavy weight. It makes HEV the viable and intermediate solution which can facilitate the transition. The battery behaviour is grossly defined by its dependence on variation due to temperature change. Hence, this present work focuses on understanding thermal characterization & pure behaviour of the Li-Ion Phosphate (LiFePO4) P1-HEV battery using the HPPC test. This becomes imperative because of the varying driver demands and ambient temperatures over the use during the day. Thus, the current drawn from battery varies (different C rate) leading to heat generation (I2R heating) within the pack/individual cell. Cyclically, impacting the cell performance and battery cycle life.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effect of HVAC Power Consumption in Electric Vehicle Integrated with Thin Film Solar PV Panels

2021-09-15
2021-28-0122
Air conditioning systems are one of the significant auxiliary loads on the vehicle powertrain. In an Electric Vehicle (EV) where the available energy is limited, it becomes crucial to optimize the overall energy consumption of the auxiliary loads. The major power consuming components in an automotive HVAC system (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) are: Compressor, Cabin blower, Condenser cooling fan and the Control devices. Significant progress is already made in enhancing the energy efficiency of the above-mentioned power consuming components part of vehicle HVAC system. Alternate energy sources are being explored recently, to reduce the energy demand from vehicle. One such proposal is to harness the abundant solar energy available, through solar panels and consume this energy to supplement the power required for HVAC system components. Solar panels convert solar energy to electrical energy by the principle of the photovoltaic effect.
Technical Paper

Solar Powered Incabin Evaporative Cooling System

2021-09-15
2021-28-0144
During hot ambient, the cabin temperature of vehicle undergoing soaking may rise up to 70oC. Warm temperature and seats often turn uncomfortable to the passenger. The high temperature may result in thermal degradation of various plastic components, which in turn may release hazardous gases [2]. Usual practice to improve air quality inside the cabin includes switching on the air conditioning while keeping the window panes open. Such a practice minimizes the stabilization time to achieve comfortable cabin temperature. However, significant power requirement by the air-conditioning system during cool down cycle results in excess fuel consumption [7]. To eliminate these problems, the SOLAR POWERED INCABIN EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM can be installed in the car. This system uses a solar panel which converts the Solar energy into the Electrical energy. This energy can be used to recharge small battery or can be directly used to give necessary power for the cooling system.
Technical Paper

Optimizing an Automotive HVAC System for Enhancement of Acoustic Comfort

2021-09-15
2021-28-0147
The Indian automotive industry is going through a rapid transformation phase. Regulatory emission norms such as, migration from BSIV to BSVI engine, increased adoption of μ-hybrid, full electric and autonomous cars are examples of such rapid transformation. The upgradation of internal combustion engines for compliance with new regulatory norms (e.g., from BSIV to BSVI) has caused a significant change in the automotive acoustic performance. As the powertrain system are being upgraded and getting quieter, the on-board Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning system (HVAC) system emerges as one of the prominent noise sources which strongly influences overall refinement levels inside the cabin. This in turns is affecting overall feeling of passenger’s comfort. The HVAC system of an automobile is a compact and yet a complex system designed to provide thermal comfort inside the car cabin.
Technical Paper

Parked Car Thermal Management and Air Quality System

2021-09-15
2021-28-0150
The motivation of this work is to respond to high cabin temperatures within a parked/stationary vehicle which may cause discomfort and lead to vehicular heatstroke. The system also intends to ensure sufficient limits of oxygen within the vehicle cabin to prevent asphyxiation to the cabin occupants. The rise in global temperature is affecting the quality of air and comfort of occupants inside a parked car. There have been several cases reported of pets and children being left unattended or unsupervised in a parked car for a long period of time which have led to their deaths due to asphyxiation. The use of cost-effective materials like high density plastics for interior cabin trim have also been proven to contribute to cancer because of the emission of benzene a carcinogen by these plastics when exposed to extreme temperatures for long periods of time.
Technical Paper

Method of Improvement of Air Flow Uniformity to Reduce the Evaporator Frosting of a Passenger Car

2021-09-15
2021-28-0148
For an efficient automotive AC system it is very essential to ensure uninterrupted and consistent airflow and temperature at the vent exit to help achieve the comfortable cabin space. This certainly requires temperature sensor to position at lowest possible temperature on heat exchanger and uniform flow distribution over it. However the uneven distribution of airflow on evaporator entry face leads to lowest temperature and sometimes goes undetected. This causes the condensate to get freezed and then frosting occurs at the core surface. Eventually a substantial portion of evaporator face gets choked and gradually airflow reduces and evaporator exit air temperature shoots up. Hence it is very important to prevent the frosting on evaporator core so to have uninterrupted airflow and adequate cooling in the passenger compartment. The present paper investigates the reasons for frosting occurring in one of the hatchback vehicle in bench test.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance and Ambient Airside Pressure Drop Prediction for Automotive Charge Air Cooler Using 1-D Simulation

2021-09-15
2021-28-0135
The present work discusses the developed simulation model aimed to predict the heat rejection (HR) performance and external pressure drop characteristics of automotive charge air cooler (CAC). Heat rejection and airside pressure drop characteristics of CAC were predicted for the conditions of different charge air mass flow rates and different cooling air velocities. The lack of detailed research on CAC performance prediction has motivated the development of the proposed simulation model. The present 1-D simulation has been developed based on the signal library of AMESIM application tool. Input parameters for this simulation such as core size, tube pitch, tube height, number of tubes, fin density, louver angle, louver pitch, charge air mass flow rate, cooling air velocity, charge air inlet temperature, and ambient temperature. Heat rejection curve and airside pressure drop of CAC were the output of the present simulation.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Two-Wheeler Radiator with the Base Design Using the Mathematical Modelling Tools & Testing Data

2021-09-15
2021-28-0136
Radiators are types of heat exchangers, which are used to transfer the heat from one fluid to another fluid. It is mainly used in automobile engine cooling systems and the radiators are the major source of heat rejection from the system by cooling the working fluid (generally water or glycol mixture). The application of radiators in the two-wheeler vehicle segment plays a vital role in increasing engine efficiency by maintaining the optimum temperature inside the engine assembly. As the technology advances with higher power requirements for the two-wheeler vehicle segment, thermal management of combustion engine becomes a critical part of it, resulting in the advancement of radiator technology in terms of compactness and thermal performance. In order to cater to the increasing demand for high-powered engines, performance optimization of two-wheeler radiators becomes an important aspect of design.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation-Based Methodology for Automotive Grill Opening Area Optimization

2021-09-15
2021-28-0133
This paper discusses the methodology setup for grill opening area prediction at the early development phase of the product development lifecycle, using a commercially available 1D simulation tool- AMESIM. Representative under hood has been modeled using Grill, Condenser, Radiator, intercooler, fan, and engine components. Vehicle velocity is used as an input to derive the airflow passing through the grill and other under-hood components based on ram air coefficient, pressure drop through different components (Grill, Heat exchanger, Fan & Engine). This airflow is used to predict the top tank temperature of the radiator. Derived airflow is correlated with airflow obtained from CFD simulation. A balance has been achieved between cooling drag & fan power consumption at different grill opening areas for target top tank temperature. Top tank temperature has been predicted at two different extreme engine heat rejection operating points.
Technical Paper

Under-Hood CRFM and CAC Air Flow Management of Vehicle to Improve Thermal Performance by 1D Method Using Amesim

2021-09-15
2021-28-0140
Currently the Automotive industry demands highly competitive product to survive in the global tough competition. The engine cooling system plays a vital role in meeting the stringent emission norms and improving the vehicle fuel economy apart from maintaining the operating temperature of engine. The airflow through vehicle subsystems like the grille, bumper, the heat exchangers, the fan and shroud and engine bay are called as front-end flow. Front end flow is crucial factor in engine cooling system as well as in determining the aerodynamic drag of vehicle. The airflow through the engine compartment is determined by the front-end vehicle geometry, the CRFM and CAC package, the engine back restriction and the engine compartment geometry including the inlet and outlet sections. This paper discusses the 1D modelling method for front-end airflow rate prediction and thermal performance by 1D method. The underbody components are stacked using heat stack and simulated in pressure mode.
Technical Paper

Advanced Developments in Solid Desiccant Coated Heat Exchangers and their Potential Applications

2021-09-15
2021-28-0142
To meet the increasing thermal comfort requirements in recent times, applying a solid desiccant coated heat exchanger (SDCHE) air-conditioning system is one of the thrust areas of focus due to its energy efficiency benefits. Fixed stationary bed and rotary wheel desiccant systems are being used widely for dehumidification. In these systems, the increase in the relative humidity of intake process air increases the adsorption heat release from the desiccant, and the desiccant’s temperature increases due to the lower heat transfer efficiency. This effect reduces the COP of these systems since the desiccant adsorption capacity is inversely proportional to the desiccant’s temperature. To overcome the limitations of the fixed stationary beds and rotary wheel desiccant dehumidifiers, SDCHE is a suitable technology for standard vapor-compression air conditioners. These heat exchangers can deliver combined heat and mass transfer between the process air and the working fluid.
Technical Paper

Attaining Thermal Comfort by Utilizing Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Embedded Wind Shield and Roof of a Passenger Car

2021-09-15
2021-28-0151
Despite the advances in the field of vehicle thermal management, certain challenges still exists which are yet necessary to be addressed. One of among those challenges is maintaining the vehicle cabin temperature at a comfortable level and reducing the losses incurred by the vehicle. Vehicle cabin temperature is an important factor in deciding the reliability, longevity and fuel economy of a vehicle. Also, for the safety and comfort of the driver and passengers, the comfort conditions are to be maintained in all climatic conditions. The cabin temperature is increased due to thermal soaking from direct sunlight and this increases the vehicle cabin temperature up to a range of 50 0C to 70 0C. The amount of solar radiation entering into the vehicle cabin is a major factor which is a contribution of transmissivity of light radiation through the windows including the windshield.
Technical Paper

Virtual Platform Development for New Control Logic Concept Test and Validation

2021-09-21
2021-01-1143
As computer-aided engineering software tools advance, more simulation-based processes are utilized to reduce development time and cost. Traditionally, during the development of a new control algorithm dyno or on-road testing is necessary to validate a new function, however, physical testing is both costly and time consuming. This study introduces a co-simulation platform and discusses its use as an improved method of powertrain control logic development. The simulation platform consists of a dynamic vehicle model, virtual road network and simulated traffic objects. Engineers can utilize Matlab/Simulink along with other programs such as PTV Vissim, Tass Prescan, and AVL Cruise to create an integrated platform capable of testing and validating new control strategies. The structure and configuration of this virtual platform is explained in this paper, and an example use case is demonstrated. A driver model was developed to simulate realistic vehicle inputs.
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