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Technical Paper

USE OF HEAVY FUEL IN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1920-01-01
200049
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds.
Technical Paper

AIRCRAFT RADIATORS

1919-01-01
190028
THIS paper describes the various types of radiator installations in use. Tabulated data on several makes of radiation and on successful airplane radiator installations are given. A brief review of laboratory tests is made and the features to be considered in design and manufacture are discussed. The author concludes by cautioning engineers against attempting to base new designs entirely upon experimental data, without comparing the tentative design with existing successful installations.
Technical Paper

FUEL ECONOMY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1919-01-01
190014
THE approaching exhaustion of the petroleum supply, from which nearly all of the available internal-combustion engine fuel is produced, raises two vital questions, upon the answers to which will depend the future of the automotive industry. These are (a) what fuels are to be available, from the point of view of the engine designer and (b) how much transportation can be secured from the fuel used. It is not certain that satisfactory engines can be developed to handle a wider range of fuels than those used at present. It is therefore not clear whether the trend of development will be toward two or more different grades of fuel, or toward a single mixed fuel to be used in all engines ultimately designed to burn it.
Technical Paper

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE ENGINE-FUEL SITUATION

1919-01-01
190013
THE automotive industry is developing without due regard to the fuel situation. This situation is an integral part of the automotive field and should not be left out of account. Owing to the pressure of automotive demand, the supply of engine fuel is changing in character and price, with danger of precipitant alterations; there arises in consequence a fuel problem which cannot be adequately solved without the active participation of the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

THE HIGH-COMPRESSION OIL ENGINE

1919-01-01
190039
THE ever-increasing demand for highly volatile fuels and constantly decreasing volatility, constitute a serious problem. Synthetic fuels have been suggested as a remedy, but these require a change in carburetion methods. It is the author's conviction that, if any redesigning is necessary, this should embody a combustion method by which any of the existing liquid hydrocarbons can be utilized and further change of method obviated, if a new fuel should later be developed. The high-compression engine is presented as a solution. Proof is offered that by its adoption any liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be utilized under any temperature condition and a real saving in fuel accomplished through increased thermal efficiency. Sustained effort should be made along these lines to increase thermal efficiency and provide an engine of adequate power, flexibility, ease of control and ability to operate on any of the fuels obtainable now or later.
Technical Paper

RADIATOR COOLING FANS

1919-01-01
190041
IN the cooling system for an automobile engine, the water-jacket must be designed to give ample capacity and free flow of the water. It is essential that water-pump capacities and speeds be figured to equal the radiator capacity so as not to retard the flow of water through the radiator and cause hot water to back up into the cylinder; the radiator must always be kept full and still handle the water as fast as the pump carries it. Fan locations are necessarily considered with relation to the radiator and radiator shroud. Fan diameters, blade path and fan speeds should be given thought, in order that the proper volume of air can be handled to carry heat from the engine. The frontal area of the radiator core in square feet per horsepower developed by the engine and several other details which can be worked out by the fan and radiator manufacturers should receive attention. The best possible fan bearings must be used, giving special attention to radial and thrust loads, fan speeds, etc.
Technical Paper

RELATION OF MOTOR-TRUCK ABILITY TO TREND OF DESIGN

1919-01-01
190044
The paper treats the subject of ability from the point of view of its relation to the present trend in motor-truck design, setting forth some of the fundamental considerations involved. An ability formula when applied to automotive vehicles is to determine a “factor of experience” from which engine sizes and gear ratios can be calculated. While passenger-car performance is measured in terms of speed and acceleration, the latter are not the most important considerations in motor trucks, the speed of which is limited by the use of a governor. Wind resistance also is negligible at truck speeds. Practically the only resistances to be overcome by a motor truck are road friction and the force of gravity. Both road and grade resistance are in direct proportion to weight carried and are usually expressed in terms of pounds per pound.
Technical Paper

PROGRESSIVE AND RETROGRESSIVE DESIGNING

1919-01-01
190032
SOME practical examples of correct as well as of incorrect methods of designing are studied, using a motor vehicle for illustration. The mechanism of such a vehicle should be very simple, and the elimination of certain links and members here and there may become more or less desirable. It is essential to know how much this will burden other members, and what strengthening or even redesigning may become necessary. It has been proposed to eliminate the torque and radius-rods. By formulas and drawings the author shows how complex the problem is and the various changes that must follow such an attempt. A vehicle must have much stiffer springs if the torque rod is to be eliminated. This inevitably leads to a study of springs and of the influences of brakes. A vehicle can be operated at somewhat higher speed with a torque-rod.
Technical Paper

A MODIFIED DESIGN OF CLASS B TRUCK ENGINE

1919-01-01
190031
THE design of a modification of the Class B Government standardized truck engine is presented, the principal object being a saving in weight without sacrificing either durability or safety factors. The crankcase design is rigid, but the metal is distributed so that the weight will be a minimum. The crankshafts are made of chrome-nickel steel of an elastic limit of 120,000 lb. per sq. in., which further carries out the idea of durability with low weight. The connecting-rod length is slightly more than twice that of the stroke, and this, with light-weight pistons, obviates vibration, without adding weight to the engine on account of increased cylinder height. The flywheel and bell-housing diameters were selected with a view to securing enough flywheel weight for smooth running without increasing the engine weight materially. All-steel supports reduce breakage of arms to a minimum. The manifolds are carefully designed to give economical performance, even with low-grade fuels.
Technical Paper

ENGINE PERFORMANCE

1919-01-01
190030
EVERY plow in use should have 10 b.-hp. available. Every tractor engine should deliver continuously at least 33 hp. If the 330-cu. in. engine mentioned were as good as a Liberty airplane engine, it could deliver 57 hp. at 1000 r.p.m. The horsepower actually obtained is as follows: 41.5 in the laboratory 33.0 at the factory 29.0 when burning gasoline 23.0 when burning kerosene 21.0 with poor piston-rings 19.0 with poor spark-plugs 9.5 available at the drawbar The great engineering problem of the future lies between the 57 and the 23 hp. From 19 to 9.5 hp. is the manufacturer's problem. The main difficulties, as outlined by the figures given, lie in the combustion chamber and its ability to dissipate the surplus heat, and in the limitations of fuel. There will be no need for refiners to continue to break up the heavier fuels by processes already so successful, if by ingenuity and good understanding of thermodynamics these can be made to burn in present-day engines.
Technical Paper

HOT SURFACE OIL ENGINES FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES

1919-01-01
190036
THE oil engines described are for stationary or land installations and are of the “hot-surface” design with combustion at constant volume. Progress in the design is referred to and the thermal efficiency of modern designs is compared with that found in engines twenty-five years ago. Three important features are reviewed, namely: (a) Reliability, (b) first cost and (c) economy. Improvements in the design of spraying devices, and other details of construction which have brought about greater reliability, are referred to. Dimensions of large two and four-cycle oil engines are given, and the first costs of each type are contrasted. The greater economy of the modern oil engine as compared with the earlier type is explained. Indicator cards, test data, speed, weights and other details of interest are enumerated concerning the De La Vergne SI type of oil engine, this being an example of the results obtained in a modern hot-surface-type oil engine.
Technical Paper

TORQUE RECOIL AND CAR WEIGHT

1919-01-01
190053
Few points have aroused such discussion among users and engineers as that of the desirable number of cylinders in an engine. A large part of the work of the author has been in the direction of attaining the same ends as those achieved by the multi-cylinder engine but by different means. He discusses the relations between torque at clutch and number of cylinders and multicylinder engines and uniform torque, the factors governing torque recoil, torque recoil as a function of car weight and engine balance. His conclusion is that the multi-cylinder engine now so widely used exceeds the real requirements and obtains its smoothness of operation at the expense of more desirable qualities. A reduction in car weight would in his opinion enable existing standards of performance to be maintained and even improved by the use of four cylinders for the heavier type, with all that this means in tremendous advantages to the automotive industry and to the user.
Technical Paper

WORKING PROCESSES OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES

1919-01-01
190058
A new type of automotive engine should be the quest of all designing engineers. Investigation has revealed the fact that 68 per cent of all tractor engine troubles occur in magnetos, spark-plugs and carbureters, the accessories of the present-day automotive engine. Four-fifths of the fuel energy supplied is regularly wasted, yet the fuel is a liquid meeting severe requirements of volatility, etc., and is already becoming scarce and costly. In an airplane, fuel is carried by engine power. In ocean-going cargo vessels it increases available revenue space. It is at once clear that for purely practical reasons the question of fuel economy, no less than the question of the nature of the fuel, becomes momentous. What fuel will do is entirely a question of what process it is put through in the engine; in what way combustion is turned into power.
Technical Paper

RELATION OF THE TRACTOR TO THE IMPLEMENT

1919-01-01
190059
The author considers the adaptation of farming implements to the farm tractor the most important engineering problem confronting tractor manufacturers. The problems are intricate in their ramifications, all-inclusive in their scope and fundamental. They can never be solved by theoretical discussion and laboratory tests alone. Extensive field experiments are needed with the machines operated by the farmers themselves. It is the implement which does the work. The mold-board plow and the disk harrow are standard for soil preparation; the oscillating sickle, the reel and the knotter-head for harvesting; the revolving toothed cylinder and the oscillating rack for threshing. Power must be transmitted to these fundamental devices. The automotive tractor fills a place in the farm power field not successfully covered heretofore by any single prime mover.
Technical Paper

THE FUTURE PASSENGER CAR

1919-01-01
190049
Efficiency, appearance and comfort will be the catchwords of the car of the future. Extreme simplicity of chassis will be needed to reduce weight and permit the use of substantial sheet-metal fenders, mud-guards and bodies. The center of gravity should be as low as possible consistent with good appearance. For comfort the width and angle of seats will be studied more carefully and the doors will be wider. A new type of spring suspension is coming to the fore, known as the three-point cantilever. Cars adopting it will have a certain wheelbase and a longer spring base. A car equipped with this new mechanism has been driven at 60 m.p.h. in safety and comfort without the use of shock absorbers or snubbers. It is the opinion of the author that this new spring suspension will revolutionize passenger-car construction.
Technical Paper

THE PASSENGER CAR OF THE FUTURE

1919-01-01
190051
The limit of acceleration has been reached. What may well be considered a maximum for practical service has been secured. The present seven-passenger body is as roomy as could be desired. There should be no need for further increase in size. The author believes the total weight of this large car will be reduced to between 3500 to 4000 lb. To make this reduction without sacrifice of durability greater use must be made of alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The tendency in body design and style is toward smoother lines, fewer breaks and a more graceful contour. The number of closed cars is increasing. There will be a general simplification of detail throughout, better wiring, better lubrication, an increased use of oilless bushings and fewer grease-cups. Brakes and wearing parts will be made more accessible and easier of adjustment. The take-up points for the various adjustments will be placed so that they can be reached with ease.
Technical Paper

HEAVY-FUEL CARBURETER-TYPE ENGINES FOR VEHICLES

1919-01-01
190069
Manufacturers of carbureters and ignition devices are called upon to assist in overcoming troubles caused by the inclusion of too many heavy fractions in automobile fuels. So far as completely satisfactory running is concerned, the difficulty of the problem with straight petroleum distillates is caused by the heaviest fraction present in appreciable quantity. The problems are involved in the starting, carburetion, distribution and combustion. An engine is really started only when all its parts have the same temperatures as exist in normal running, and when it accelerates in a normal manner. Two available methods, (a) installing a two-fuel carbureter, using a very volatile fuel to start and warm-up the engine, and (b) heating the engine before cranking by a burner designed to use the heavier fuel, are described and discussed.
Technical Paper

TRACTOR ENGINES AND FUEL LIMITATIONS

1919-01-01
190067
Whatever may be the conclusion of business men and engineers as to the fuel problem, dealing with it from the point of view of the engineer as a service man nothing further is needed than that the problem is before us. The paper deals with engine troubles that have been found to demand the greatest amount of attention from farmers. Tractors are not built for or operated by engineers. No quantity production is likely to be attained for some time to come with anything but the commonest forms of cylinder and other features. This judgment is based entirely on the limitations in upkeep knowledge of the average user. The four-cylinder tractor engine seems to be rapidly becoming standard, due to its simplicity and the familiarity of most farmers with this type. Consideration is given, topic by topic, to important parts of the tractor engine and the relation of fuel to difficulties discussed.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MARINE ENGINES IN THE WAR

1919-01-01
190004
THE application of the marine internal-combustion engine to the British ML class of 80-footers and to the American 110-ft. class of submarine chasers, undoubtedly constituted the most important development along this line of automotive work. With a hull form similar to that of an enlarged runabout, driven by a pair of six-cylinder Standard marine engines rated at 220 b.-hp. at 460 r.p.m., the boats of the ML class averaged about 20 knots. A total of 720 boats of this type were built and the class as a whole proved very satisfactory. In the development of the 110-ft. SC class, the requirement of seaworthiness was made of greater importance than speed. Each boat carried three six-cylinder Standard engines identical with those used in the British boats, driving them at about 17 knots. Although rather uncomfortable, as in the case of any small vessel, the 110-ft. boats proved wonderfully successful in heavy weather; about 450 of this class were built. The 220-b.
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