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Leadership - Powertrains, Fuels & Lubricants Meeting

2024-07-17
PF&L is priority event for mobility professionals that specialize in powertrain, fuels, lubricants technology, including OEM and Tier 1 component suppliers Light medium and heavy-duty vehicle system and product design engineers

2024-07-17

2024-07-17
Journal Article

Optimizing Power Consumption in Machining Nickel-Based Superalloys: Strategies for Energy Efficiency

2024-07-11
Abstract In the face of the world’s population growth and ensuing demands, the industrial sector assumes a crucial role in the management of limited energy supplies. Superalloys based on nickel, which are well-known for their remarkable mechanical qualities and resilience to corrosion, are now essential in vital applications like rocket engines, gas turbines, and aviation. However, these metals’ toughness presents a number of difficulties during machining operations, especially with regard to power consumption. This abstract explores the variables that affect power consumption during the machining of superalloys based on nickel in great detail and suggests ways to improve energy efficiency in this area. The effects of important variables on power consumption are extensively investigated, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, tool geometry, and cooling/lubrication techniques.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Flow-Induced Noise in Refrigeration Cycles

2024-07-02
2024-01-2972
In electrified vehicles, auxiliary units can be a dominant source of noise, one of which is the refrigerant scroll compressor. Compared to vehicles with combustion engines, e-vehicles require larger refrigerant compressors, as in addition to the interior, also the battery and the electric motors have to be cooled. Currently, scroll compressors are widely used in the automotive industry, which generate one pressure pulse per revolution due to their discontinuous compression principle. This results in speed-dependent pressure fluctuations as well as higher-harmonic pulsations that arise from reflections. These fluctuations spread through the refrigeration cycle and cause the vibration excitation of refrigerant lines and heat exchangers. The sound transmission path in the air conditioning heat exchanger integrated in the dashboard is particularly critical. Various silencer configurations can be used to dampen these pulsations.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty Applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
The fast acceleration of GHG (CO2 in particular) emitted by human activities into the atmosphere is accelerating the average temperature increase of our globe causing heavy climate change. This phenomenon has triggered a strong pressure on GHG emission reduction in all the human activities including the transportation sector which contributes for the 29% to the total emissions in EU [1]. A mitigation to this tendency can come from synthetic fuels: when produced by using clean energy, they can be considered CO2 neutral. H2 is the building block of synthetic fuels and can be used in spark ignited engines where releases the energy accumulated during its production. This solution is particularly attractive for HD applications thanks to the high energy density. H2 can be burned in a quite wide range of λ, but staying on 2,2 the amount of engine out NOx will be low enough for the use on a 13L engine with a relatively simple aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Neural Network Modeling of Black Box Controls for Internal Combustion Engine Calibration

2024-07-02
2024-01-2995
The calibration of Engine Control Units (ECUs) for road vehicles is challenged by stringent legal and environmental regulations, coupled with short development cycles. The growing number of vehicle variants, although sharing similar engines and control algorithms, requires different calibrations. Additionally, modern engines feature increasingly number of adjustment variables, along with complex parallel and nested conditions within the software, demanding a significant amount of measurement data during development. The current state-of-the-art (White Box) model-based ECU calibration proves effective but involves considerable effort for model construction and validation. This is often hindered by limited function documentation, available measurements, and hardware representation capabilities. This article introduces a model-based calibration approach using Neural Networks (Black Box) for two distinct ECU functional structures with minimal software documentation.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging System Selection for a Hydrogen-Fuelled Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favored by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero pollutant emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high airflow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims at investigating the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-litre heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting the limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE Classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known Schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle and Internal EGR in Diesel Engines Using Alternative Fuels

2024-07-02
2024-01-3020
The Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems is equipped with a variable valve train that allows to switch between regular intake valve lift and early intake valve closing (Miller). On the exhaust side, a secondary exhaust valve lift (SEVL) on each valve is possible with adjustable back pressure and thus the possibility of realizing internal EGR. In combination with alternative fuels, even if they are Drop-In capable as HVO, properties differ and can influence the emission and efficiency behavior. The investigations of this paper are focusing on regenerative Drop-In fuel (HVO), fossil fuel (B7), and an oxygenate (OME), that needs adaptions at the engine control unit, but offers further emission potential. By commissioning a 2-stage boost system, it is possible to fully equalize the air mass in Miller mode compared to the normal valve lift.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study of Hydrogen Direct Injection Using a Pre-Chamber in an Opposed-Piston Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Combustion characteristics of a hydrogen (H2) direct-injected (DI) pre-chamber (PC)-assisted opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) engine are investigated by 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The architecture of the OP2S engine has potential features for reducing wall heat losses, as the DI H2 jets are not directed towards the piston face. To overcome the high resistance to autoignition of H2, a PC technology was implemented in order to enhance the ignition of the mixture by the multiple hot reactive jets. To further investigate the interaction between the H2 plume and the chamber walls, three different piston bowl designs were evaluated and ranked based on a merit function. For the cases under study, the flat piston design was found to be most favorable (compared to the narrow and wide pistons) due to its reduced surface area for lower wall heat losses.
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