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Technical Paper

ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION ON OWEN CARS

1916-01-01
160041
This paper contains a brief description of the Entz electric transmission. Wiring connections are given of the several speeds, for electric braking, for starting the engine and for charging the battery. The statement is made that the electric transmission eliminates and does the work of the friction clutch, the clutch pedal, the transmission gears, the flywheel and separate starting and lighting systems.
Technical Paper

INCREASING AUTOMOBILE-ENGINE THERMAL EFFICIENCY

1916-01-01
160040
The efficiency of the automobile engine, as operated on the Otto cycle, is thought by the author to be too low, and he therefore suggests a method of improving it. He considers the various losses by which heat is dissipated in internal-combustion engines and finds that the best opportunity for increasing thermal efficiency is by an increased expansion of the charge. The author suggests that this expansion be carried 50 per cent further than is ordinarily done. In order to obtain higher efficiency at part load, the suggestion is made that instead of throttling the mixture, the admission valves be closed earlier. In case the expansion is 50 per cent longer than the induction stroke and the cut-off takes place earlier as the load becomes lighter, it will be necessary to vary the fuel opening inversely with the air induced. It is suggested that the fuel valve and cut-off lever be connected together and operated by the accelerator pedal or hand lever on the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES OF TO-DAY*

1916-01-01
160043
The paper gives the value of certain factors in engine design that are good practice and uses these values to calculate the horsepower of a four-cylinder engine. The author holds that the deciding factor in comparing four-cylinder engines with those of the same displacement but with a greater number of cylinders, is the thermal efficiency. Both the cooling medium and the mechanical losses increase in proportion to the number of cylinders. He suggests in closing, that the demand for power output beyond the possibilities of four cylinders must be met by the use of a greater number.
Technical Paper

FIELD OF FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES*

1916-01-01
160042
The author confines his discussion to engines used on pleasure cars, inasmuch as practically all commercial vehicles use the four-cylinder type. The performance expected of their cars by automobile owners is outlined, particularly as regards performance, durability and maintenance cost. In-asmuch as the horsepower required is often determined by the acceleration demanded, the argument in favor of four-cylinder engines is based mainly on a comparison of its acceleration performance with those of engines having a larger number of cylinders. A number of acceleration curves are given for these engines. The paper next considers smoothness of operation at low, medium and high running speeds, asserting that the decrease in inertia forces due to lighter reciprocating parts has made it possible to increase the speed and thus reduce remarkably the vibration of the four-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

REFINEMENTS IN TRUCK DESIGN

1916-01-01
160031
The author describes a number of detailed developments that took place during the working out of a line of worm-driven trucks. The details of front axle and steering parts are dealt with at length, the reasons for the final constructions being clearly explained and the constructions themselves well illustrated. Details concerning difficulty with the Hotchkiss type of drive on heavy trucks, troubles with drive-shafts and lubrication of the worm wheel are all covered thoroughly; spring-shackle construction and lubrication, radiator and hood mounting come in for detailed attention and the question of governors is interestingly covered. Brief reference is made to the influence of unsprung weight, the differences between truck and pleasure car practice in this respect being pointed out.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE EXPERIENCES IN THE GREAT WAR

1916-01-01
160032
The author outlines the constructions that have performed cially that four-cylinder engines carried under a hood are the most satisfactory. The defects revealed by war service are given in considerable detail, the author finding that all of the trucks used had developed some weak point. Radiators and springs are specified as a general source of trouble. The author outlines a number of operating troubles developed under the existing conditions of operation and gives examples of the way these have been remedied. Considerable attention is paid to the methods of operating trucks away from made roads. The methods of fitting chains to the wheels, and the use of caterpillar attachments are described. Dimensions are given for bodies and a number of suggestions made as to their proper construction.
Technical Paper

CARBURETER INVESTIGATIONS

1916-01-01
160035
The results are given of laboratory investigations made of a number of different types of carbureters, showing the relation between their gasoline and air consumptions over a wide range. This relation is plotted on so-called quality diagrams, on which is indicated the range between which high power and high efficiency can be expected. A description is given of a carbureter arranged in two stages, the first being used at light load and the second coming into action when the throttle is nearly open, thereby more than doubling the carbureter capacity. Engine performance curves are presented showing the result when only one or both stages of this carbureter are used.
Technical Paper

FACTORS IN UNIVERSAL JOINT DESIGN

1916-01-01
160036
The author considers the effects of velocity variation on the operation of a car and states that this variation is absorbed mainly by the flywheel. A formula is given for calculating the pressure on universal bearings. Various methods of protecting and lubricating joints are described. A number of European types of joints are illustrated. A much larger number of types of joints are used abroad in-asmuch as each maker usually makes his own design instead of purchasing it from a specialist as is the usual practice in this country. In conclusion the paper describes types of joints using flexible material, such as leather or spring steel.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS IN HIGH-SPEED ENGINE DESIGN

1916-01-01
160023
The author outlines in a general way the relation of car performance to modern engine development. He considers particularly weight reduction and torque performance of high-speed engines, giving the undesirable characteristics attending the increased torque range gained by higher speed. He next discusses the relation of torque to total car weight, to acceleration and to hill-climbing ability and suggests a method of determining the value of a car in terms of its performance ability. The author holds incorrect those systems in which the amount of lubrication is in proportion to speed only; and in which oil for crankshaft and crankpin bearings must cool as well as lubricate them. He shows a system designed to solve these oiling problems. Static, running and distortion balance of a rotating mass are defined by the author, who shows how they apply to a large number of types of crankshafts.
Technical Paper

RECENT AEROPLANE-ENGINE DEVELOPMENTS

1916-01-01
160025
The author gives a brief review of developments during the past year in the construction of aeroplanes, particularly as affected by the European War. He takes as an example the Renault twelve-cylinder engine, citing the respects in which the present differs from previous models. Such factors as the changes in cooling systems, method of drive, valve construction and starting devices are considered. The requirements of aeroplane engines, such as constant service, high speeds (of aeroplanes) and stream-line form of engines and radiators, are outlined. Propeller requirements are dealt with at length, curves being given by which the efficiency and diameter of the propeller can be obtained. In conclusion a number of different engine installations are illustrated and compared.
Technical Paper

POSSIBILITIES OF THE CONSTANT PRESSURE CYCLE

1916-01-01
160021
The authors first define the elementary conditions governing combustion efficiency, dividing these conditions into three main classes. They next compare engines operating on constant volume, constant temperature and constant pressure cycles, dealing specifically with the Otto, Diesel and semi-Diesel types. The main part of the paper is devoted to an outline of the constant pressure cycle, analyzing its advantages as compared with the merits of the constant volume cycle now used in internal-combustion engines. The paper is concluded with a detail description of a proposed constant pressure engine.
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