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Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTALS OF A SUCCESSFUL KEROSENE-BURNING TRACTOR ENGINE

1917-01-01
170029
After noting that the early development of the automobile industry took place at a time when gasoline was a drug on the market, this paper reviews the cycle of operations of a standard gasoline engine in order to point out its limitations and the possibilities of utilizing a less volatile fuel than gasoline and of securing lower consumptions of fuels of all kinds. Compression and expansion limitations and the reduction of mean effective pressures at light loads are considered. Disadvantages of throttling control are pointed out, citing as a parallel example the trend of steam engine design away from this means of control. The author then outlines the advantageous features of the improved Diesel engine design, and by means of curves shows the great fuel economy of this type as compared with gasoline engines. He concludes by defining “the ideal tractor engine.”
Technical Paper

HEAT-BALANCE TESTS OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINES

1917-01-01
170003
The authors outline some of the problems that confront the automobile engineer today, showing how the demand for better performance and economy and the ever-increasing cost of volatile fuels has emphasized the necessity for thorough engineering work in the successful automobile manufacturing plant. Believing that the accurate analysis of the heat distribution in a modern automobile engine will be of great value, the authors describe a comprehensive test, made under their direction, of such an engine. This test includes measurements of the brake horsepower, friction horsepower, fuel consumption and heat losses to jackets, exhaust and cooling air. The engine tested was inclosed in a hood, similar to that used on the car in normal service and an air blast was directed through this hood at speeds approximating those at which the engine would drive a car with a given gear ratio.
Technical Paper

SOME ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF HIGH SPEED ENGINES

1917-01-01
170004
The author outlines methods for producing high-speed engines with high mean effective pressure and gives data resulting from several years' experimental work. He discusses the desirable stroke-bore ratios; valve area, weight, dimensions, location and timing; compression ratios; ignition requirements; and the location and means for operating camshafts and other valve-actuating mechanism. Data are given regarding the best material and dimensions for pistons and the desirable number of rings. The physical characteristics of alloy steel desirable for use in connecting-rods are mentioned. Similar data, including dimensions and factors controlling the construction of the crankshaft and its bearings are included. The relation of the inertia stresses set up by reciprocating parts to those due to the explosion and compression pressure on the piston head is indicated, and the maximum total stress deduced.
Technical Paper

DYNAMIC BALANCING OF ROTATING PARTS

1917-01-01
170005
The author points out the necessity of obtaining dynamic or running balance of rotating parts, especially in automobile-engine construction. He discusses the manifestations of the lack of static and running balance, such as vibration and high bearing pressures. Formulas are supplied for calculating bending moments and centrifugal forces in a crankshaft that is out of balance. Methods for obtaining static balance are described and the possible conditions existing after static balance is obtained are treated, with especial reference to the existence of one or more couples. Descriptions are given of two representative machines that are used to locate couples and correct for them. The principles of operation are made clear and advantages and disadvantages of each type are brought out fully.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS IN IGNITION DEVELOPMENT

1917-01-01
170053
The author discusses in this paper a few of the problems involved in the design of ignition equipment. Some of these problems have been solved and some remain to be solved. The early history of the development of ignition apparatus is traced, reference being made to the vibrating coil type of ignition operated by dry cells or storage batteries, various types of magneto and dual-magneto systems, and combined generator and storage battery systems. The balance of the paper refers more particularly to batteries and ignition proper. The two types of battery ignition, open-circuit and closed-circuit, are described and the current characteristics of each are shown graphically by means of curves. Some of the problems encountered in the development of present battery systems are next considered and such topics as reduction of inertia in the contact-arm, overcoming harmonic vibration, advantages of one-piece cams and the function and design of the condenser are treated in detail.
Technical Paper

MAGNETO VS. BATTERY IGNITION

1917-01-01
170050
This paper discusses the principles of battery ignition and then describes high-tension magneto ignition. A comparison between the two types of ignition is given, and the paper concludes by illustrating diagrammatically how and why a very hot spark causes the engine to produce more power and to economize on fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

DESIGN OF AN ENDURING TRACTOR

1917-01-01
170049
After a few general introductory remarks the author outlines the operating requirements for tractors, and takes up the matter of the proper sizes of tractors, stated in horsepowers per given number of plows. The use of lower-grade fuels, value of water in the engine, cylinder construction, methods of lubrication and design of drive-wheels are the subjects covered by the balance of the paper.
Technical Paper

SOLVING THE GASOLINE PROBLEM

1917-01-01
170047
The author first compares mineral oils with certain other liquids in order to point out clearly certain of their characteristics. He then shows the economic benefits that would result from making more of the crude available for use as fuels. He discusses such topics as cracking methods in use, advantages of dry gas, initial flame propagation, gas producers, hot mixtures, wet mixtures and difficulties of correcting existing engines. He concludes by proposing as a solution of the gasoline problem the more general use of superheated homogeneous fixed dry gases made in vaporizing devices independent of engine cylinders, and outlines means for attaining this end. Performance data covering the use of mixtures of kerosene and gasoline on several cars are included in a table, and several charts throughout the paper illustrate many of the topics discussed.
Technical Paper

METROPOLITAN SECTION PAPERS TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON FUELS

1917-01-01
170046
The author states that the objects of the paper are to define and trace the development of the various processes of carburetion, and to offer such suggestions along these lines as may assist the investigator in developing motorboats, automobiles and self-contained unit motor cars for railway purposes. The surface carburetor is mentioned chiefly as of historic interest. In considering the jet carbureter the author discusses the proportion of gas desired, the effect of the varying inertia of the air and the liquid gasoline and the breaking up of the combustible needed. Following sections review the devices for using kerosene, such as gasoline jet carbureters to which heat is applied, devices of the fixed gas type, the introduction of combustible directly into the cylinder, forcing combustible directly upon a hot surface in the cylinder and devices which raise the combustible to the boiling point.
Technical Paper

LABORATORY TESTING IN THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

1917-01-01
170043
This paper emphasizes the importance of using standardized testing equipment in order that mental calculations may be avoided in interpreting the reports of other engineers. The situation and environments of the engine-testing plant, cooperation among the men conducting tests, standardized methods of conducting tests, value of venturi meters and testing of accessories are among the subjects discussed in the first part of the paper. The subject of the testing of engine cooling systems is treated at some length, the importance of obtaining operating conditions being emphasized. The paper concludes with two sections covering spark-plug testing and tests for preignition.
Technical Paper

AVIATION ENGINE DEVELOPMENT

1917-01-01
170042
This paper first traces the early development of aviation engines in various countries. The six-cylinder Mercedes, V-type twelve-cylinder Renault, and six-cylinder Benz engines are then described in detail and illustrated. Various types of Sunbeam, Curtiss, and Austro-Daimler are also described. The effect of offset crankshafts, as employed on the Benz and Austro-Daimler engines, is illustrated by pressure and inertia diagrams and by textual description. The paper concludes with a section on the requirements as to size of aviation engines, four curves showing the changing conditions which affect the engine size requirements. These curves relate to variations of temperature, air density, engine speed, airplane speed and compression ratio required to compensate for decrease in air density, all as related to varying altitude.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE ENGINE COOLING

1917-01-01
170041
This paper deals only with water-cooled engines, the cooling system being considered as made up of four main units-the water jacket, the circulating system, the radiator and the fan. Water-jacket problems are first considered, followed by a comparison of pump and gravity (thermosyphon) systems of circulation. The next section is devoted to radiator requirements. The balance of the paper relates to the fan. Five curves show graphically the correlations of the various factors of cooling, power consumed, air velocity and volume, engine speed, fan speed, air and water temperatures and the element of time, the results applying to different types and sizes of fans. These curves are of service in the selection of fans for radiator cooling purposes. The classification of fans, fan power consumption and speed, fan belts and pulleys, disadvantages of high fan speed, types of fan bearings, and applications of fans are the subjects next taken up.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS OF CRANKSHAFT DESIGN

1917-01-01
170040
The forces necessary to induce and maintain gasoline engine speeds of 3000 r.p.m. or faster, as well as other forces closely associated with high speeds, are numerous. The author has, however, confined his discussion to the three most important groups of forces upon which, in the main, the smooth running and the life of an engine depend. The different component forces were determined in respect to two engines of equal capacity for twenty-four crank positions, uniformly spaced at intervals of 30 degrees, which constitutes two revolutions and one complete cycle in the case of four-stroke cycle engines. Medium-sized six and twelve-cylinder engines were chosen for investigation. Corresponding components were combined as resultant forces and graphically represented in magnitude and direction. Several such characteristic diagrams of the resultant forces acting upon crankpins and main bearings of the two engines investigated are reproduced throughout the paper.
Technical Paper

ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION ON OWEN CARS

1916-01-01
160041
This paper contains a brief description of the Entz electric transmission. Wiring connections are given of the several speeds, for electric braking, for starting the engine and for charging the battery. The statement is made that the electric transmission eliminates and does the work of the friction clutch, the clutch pedal, the transmission gears, the flywheel and separate starting and lighting systems.
Technical Paper

INCREASING AUTOMOBILE-ENGINE THERMAL EFFICIENCY

1916-01-01
160040
The efficiency of the automobile engine, as operated on the Otto cycle, is thought by the author to be too low, and he therefore suggests a method of improving it. He considers the various losses by which heat is dissipated in internal-combustion engines and finds that the best opportunity for increasing thermal efficiency is by an increased expansion of the charge. The author suggests that this expansion be carried 50 per cent further than is ordinarily done. In order to obtain higher efficiency at part load, the suggestion is made that instead of throttling the mixture, the admission valves be closed earlier. In case the expansion is 50 per cent longer than the induction stroke and the cut-off takes place earlier as the load becomes lighter, it will be necessary to vary the fuel opening inversely with the air induced. It is suggested that the fuel valve and cut-off lever be connected together and operated by the accelerator pedal or hand lever on the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES OF TO-DAY*

1916-01-01
160043
The paper gives the value of certain factors in engine design that are good practice and uses these values to calculate the horsepower of a four-cylinder engine. The author holds that the deciding factor in comparing four-cylinder engines with those of the same displacement but with a greater number of cylinders, is the thermal efficiency. Both the cooling medium and the mechanical losses increase in proportion to the number of cylinders. He suggests in closing, that the demand for power output beyond the possibilities of four cylinders must be met by the use of a greater number.
Technical Paper

FIELD OF FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES*

1916-01-01
160042
The author confines his discussion to engines used on pleasure cars, inasmuch as practically all commercial vehicles use the four-cylinder type. The performance expected of their cars by automobile owners is outlined, particularly as regards performance, durability and maintenance cost. In-asmuch as the horsepower required is often determined by the acceleration demanded, the argument in favor of four-cylinder engines is based mainly on a comparison of its acceleration performance with those of engines having a larger number of cylinders. A number of acceleration curves are given for these engines. The paper next considers smoothness of operation at low, medium and high running speeds, asserting that the decrease in inertia forces due to lighter reciprocating parts has made it possible to increase the speed and thus reduce remarkably the vibration of the four-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

REFINEMENTS IN TRUCK DESIGN

1916-01-01
160031
The author describes a number of detailed developments that took place during the working out of a line of worm-driven trucks. The details of front axle and steering parts are dealt with at length, the reasons for the final constructions being clearly explained and the constructions themselves well illustrated. Details concerning difficulty with the Hotchkiss type of drive on heavy trucks, troubles with drive-shafts and lubrication of the worm wheel are all covered thoroughly; spring-shackle construction and lubrication, radiator and hood mounting come in for detailed attention and the question of governors is interestingly covered. Brief reference is made to the influence of unsprung weight, the differences between truck and pleasure car practice in this respect being pointed out.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOBILE EXPERIENCES IN THE GREAT WAR

1916-01-01
160032
The author outlines the constructions that have performed cially that four-cylinder engines carried under a hood are the most satisfactory. The defects revealed by war service are given in considerable detail, the author finding that all of the trucks used had developed some weak point. Radiators and springs are specified as a general source of trouble. The author outlines a number of operating troubles developed under the existing conditions of operation and gives examples of the way these have been remedied. Considerable attention is paid to the methods of operating trucks away from made roads. The methods of fitting chains to the wheels, and the use of caterpillar attachments are described. Dimensions are given for bodies and a number of suggestions made as to their proper construction.
Technical Paper

CARBURETER INVESTIGATIONS

1916-01-01
160035
The results are given of laboratory investigations made of a number of different types of carbureters, showing the relation between their gasoline and air consumptions over a wide range. This relation is plotted on so-called quality diagrams, on which is indicated the range between which high power and high efficiency can be expected. A description is given of a carbureter arranged in two stages, the first being used at light load and the second coming into action when the throttle is nearly open, thereby more than doubling the carbureter capacity. Engine performance curves are presented showing the result when only one or both stages of this carbureter are used.
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