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Technical Paper

A TRACTOR ENGINE TEST

1920-01-01
200032
A four-cylinder 4 by 5-in. truck and tractor engine, designed for either kerosene or gasoline fuel and having the very low volumetric compression ratio of 3.36, was used. Only by suitable adjustments was it found possible to make it show a fuel consumption as low as 0.67 lb. per b.hp.-hr.; but with a slight variation in power and only a different carbureter adjustment the fuel consumption at 600 r.p.m. increased to about 1.2 lb., or 70 per cent, emphasizing the importance of knowing what constitutes the best engine adjustment and of disseminating such knowledge. The engine and its dimensions, the experimental apparatus and the method of testing are fully described and discussed, the results being presented in charts showing performance curves. These are described, analyzed and the results interpreted.
Technical Paper

ENGINE DESIGN FOR MAXIMUM POWER AND FUEL ECONOMY

1920-01-01
200058
Design factors are considered from the thermodynamic standpoint only, which excludes several factors affecting power and economy. The problem of air heating includes a consideration of its influence on pressure, the consequent lowering of pressure being counteracted to some extent by the resulting improvements in carburetion and distribution and by more rapid and complete combustion; the effects of delayed combustion, with a study of the thermodynamic conditions and possible improvements; and the results that are actually obtainable from lean and rich fuel mixtures. Fuel economy is difficult because its factors conflict with those of power. The benefit of the expansion of any elastic working medium to economy is emphasized. Charts from previous papers, showing the ratio of air to fuel by weight, are referred to and discussed, best economy being obtained with mixtures leaner than those giving maximum power.
Technical Paper

IMPACT TESTS ON TRUCKS

1920-01-01
200059
In investigating the forces that tend to break up and destroy roads, the most destructive of these being that of impact, the United States Bureau of Public Roads devised a method of receiving the impact of a truck on a small copper cylinder and determining its amount by measuring the deformation of the cylinder. The impact values are largely dependent upon the type and construction of the truck. Unsprung weights have a great influence upon the impact value of the blow on the road surface and a reverse influence upon the body of the truck; these effects are in two different directions. The present aim of the Bureau is to investigate this impact and the effect of the unsprung weight on the road. Most of the tests have been made on solid tires, a few have been made on worn solid tires and some on pneumatic tires. The Bureau intends to elaborate all of these tests, including different types of pneumatic tire, different unsprung weights and special wheels, such as cushion or spring wheels.
Technical Paper

FACTORS INVOLVED IN FUEL UTILIZATION

1920-01-01
200060
From a laboratory examination of the controlling relationships between carburetion and engine performance still in progress, the general conclusions so far reached include fuel metering characteristics, the physical structure of the charge, fuel combustion factors and details of engine design and manufacture. In every throttle-controlled engine, the variation in fuel metering for best utilization is inversely functional with the relative loading and with the compression ratio, but the nature of the fuel leaves these general relationships undisturbed. The physical structure of the charge influences largely the net engine performance and the order of variation of the best metering with change in load. Perfect homogeneity in the charge is theoretically desirable but entails losses in performance.
Technical Paper

INTAKE-MANIFOLD TEMPERATURES AND FUEL ECONOMY

1920-01-01
200054
Supplementing a “more miles per gallon” movement in 1919, a series of experiments outlined by the S. A. E. Committee on Utilization of Present Fuels was undertaken by the Bureau of Standards, in May, 1920, which included measurements of engine performance under conditions of both steady running and rapid acceleration with different temperatures of the intake charge secured by supplying heated air to the carbureter from a hot-air stove, by maintaining a uniformly heated intake manifold and by using a hot-spot manifold, fuel economy being determined for both part and full-throttle operation. A typical six-cylinder engine was used, having a two-port intake manifold with a minimum length of passage within the cylinder block, an exhaust manifold conveniently located for installing special exhaust openings, rather high peak-load speed and conventional general design.
Technical Paper

FUNDAMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING TRACTOR DESIGN

1920-01-01
200061
The farm tractor is finding itself among the most essential of mechanical agricultural devices; the industry is young, and controlling basic factors of design are not yet completely crystallized, nor has research had its proper share in the development. Some further factors of the author's earlier article on tractor plowing speeds2 are discussed in this paper. The earlier article dealt chiefly with plowing data on the assumption that there was delivered at the drawbar of the tractor a constant horsepower. This paper starts with a normal condition of a constant engine power which is to be delivered to the crankshaft under governor control for any of the travel speeds analyzed. The tractor is considered as powered by a given brake-horsepower engine, this power being transmitted through sets of gears in which the net bearing and gear efficiency is taken to be 73 per cent.
Technical Paper

SAVING FUEL WITH THE CARBURETER

1920-01-01
200056
Two series of tests were made in 1918; one to determine whether the mixture giving best economy and that giving maximum power is a constant quality for all conditions of speed and power output; the other to ascertain what effect changes in the temperature of the fuel-intake system have on the quality of the mixture which gives the maximum power and that which gives best economy. The standard United States ambulance four-cylinder engine was used for these tests, its carbureter having a primary air passage, a primary fuel-jet, an auxiliary air passage with an air-valve and a secondary fuel-jet, the manifold being cast integrally with the cylinder block and a curved riser conducting the fuel mixture from the carbureter to it. The testing methods and fuel consumption measurements are described.
Technical Paper

CARBURETION AND DISTRIBUTION OF LOW-GRADE FUELS

1920-01-01
200052
Continued lowering in the grade of fuel obtainable compels automotive engineers to produce engines that will utilize it with maximum economy. The manufacture of Pacific coast engine-distillate with an initial-distillation point of about 240 and an end-point of 480 deg. fahr. was abandoned by the principal oil companies early in 1920. Utilizing this fuel efficiently through its period of declining values forced advance solution of some fuel problems prior to a general lowering of grade of all automotive fuels.
Technical Paper

MOTOR-BUS TRANSPORTATION

1920-01-01
200053
Since the Fifth Avenue Coach Co. of New York is the largest successful company operating motor-buses in this country, the author gives a rather comprehensive description of this company's systems and methods, stating the three main divisions as being the engineering, mechanical and transportation departments, and presenting an organization chart. Departments concerned with finance, auditing, purchasing, publicity, claims and the like, which follow conventional lines, are not considered. The engineering, research, mechanical, repair and operating departments are then described in considerable detail. Six specific duties and responsibilities of the research department are stated and six divisions of the general procedure in carrying out overhauls for the operating department are enumerated. Regarding fuel economy, high gasoline averages from the company's standpoint mean economy, well-designed and maintained equipment, and skilled and contented operatives.
Technical Paper

MARINE HEAVY-OIL ENGINE INSTALLATION PRACTICE AND DEVELOPMENT POSSIBILITIES

1920-01-01
200046
The undisputed economy of the Diesel-type engine using heavy fuel oil is recognized, as no other power-generating unit of today shows better thermal efficiency. It is the result of the direct application of fuel in working cylinders. Transmission processes, such as the burning of fuel under a boiler to produce a working agent which must be carried to the prime mover, are less economical. The various factors which enter into a comparison between steam and heavy-oil installations are illustrated. The subject is treated in a more or less elementary manner. The diagrams and sketches are intended to explain the working principles of such examples of two and four-cycle engines as are now in actual operation in cargo ships, these being of the single-acting type. Double-acting and opposed-piston-type engines have been built and are being tried out. The working processes of two-cycle and four-cycle engines are illustrated and described in some detail, inclusive of critical comment.
Technical Paper

USE OF HEAVY FUEL IN AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1920-01-01
200049
Emphasizing the necessity of persuading fuel manufacturers to improve the suitability of internal-combustion engine fuel by the mixture of other materials with petroleum distillates, and realizing that efficiency is also dependent upon improved engine design, the author then states that results easily obtainable in the simplest forms of automotive engine when using fuel volatile at fairly low temperatures, must be considered in working out a future automotive fuel policy. The alternatives to this as they appear in the light of present knowledge are then stated, including design considerations. The principles that should be followed to obtain as good results as possible with heavy fuel in the conventional type of engine are then described. These include considerations of valve-timing and fuel distribution. Valve-timing should assist correct distribution, especially at the lower engine speeds.
Technical Paper

AIRCRAFT RADIATORS

1919-01-01
190028
THIS paper describes the various types of radiator installations in use. Tabulated data on several makes of radiation and on successful airplane radiator installations are given. A brief review of laboratory tests is made and the features to be considered in design and manufacture are discussed. The author concludes by cautioning engineers against attempting to base new designs entirely upon experimental data, without comparing the tentative design with existing successful installations.
Technical Paper

FIXED RADIAL CYLINDER ENGINES

1919-01-01
190016
DURING the first two years of the war the author conducted in England experimental work for the British Government on the engine he describes. After brief mention of V-type water-cooled engines and the general situation as regards revolving air-cooled and radial water-cooled types, the discussion is narrowed to two distinct designs of fixed radial air-cooled engine, both of which have been tried out and seen some service. The fundamentals in which fixed radial air-cooled engines give promise of excelling are weight of powerplant per horsepower, the fuselage mounting and space required being duly considered; reliability and durability; fuel and oil consumed per horsepower-hour; streamline mounting, with armor, if desired; quick detachability of powerplant; accessibility, and freedom from certain inherent difficulties peculiar to water-cooled engines.
Technical Paper

FUEL ECONOMY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES

1919-01-01
190014
THE approaching exhaustion of the petroleum supply, from which nearly all of the available internal-combustion engine fuel is produced, raises two vital questions, upon the answers to which will depend the future of the automotive industry. These are (a) what fuels are to be available, from the point of view of the engine designer and (b) how much transportation can be secured from the fuel used. It is not certain that satisfactory engines can be developed to handle a wider range of fuels than those used at present. It is therefore not clear whether the trend of development will be toward two or more different grades of fuel, or toward a single mixed fuel to be used in all engines ultimately designed to burn it.
Technical Paper

AN INTERPRETATION OF THE ENGINE-FUEL SITUATION

1919-01-01
190013
THE automotive industry is developing without due regard to the fuel situation. This situation is an integral part of the automotive field and should not be left out of account. Owing to the pressure of automotive demand, the supply of engine fuel is changing in character and price, with danger of precipitant alterations; there arises in consequence a fuel problem which cannot be adequately solved without the active participation of the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

THE HIGH-COMPRESSION OIL ENGINE

1919-01-01
190039
THE ever-increasing demand for highly volatile fuels and constantly decreasing volatility, constitute a serious problem. Synthetic fuels have been suggested as a remedy, but these require a change in carburetion methods. It is the author's conviction that, if any redesigning is necessary, this should embody a combustion method by which any of the existing liquid hydrocarbons can be utilized and further change of method obviated, if a new fuel should later be developed. The high-compression engine is presented as a solution. Proof is offered that by its adoption any liquid hydrocarbon fuel can be utilized under any temperature condition and a real saving in fuel accomplished through increased thermal efficiency. Sustained effort should be made along these lines to increase thermal efficiency and provide an engine of adequate power, flexibility, ease of control and ability to operate on any of the fuels obtainable now or later.
Technical Paper

RADIATOR COOLING FANS

1919-01-01
190041
IN the cooling system for an automobile engine, the water-jacket must be designed to give ample capacity and free flow of the water. It is essential that water-pump capacities and speeds be figured to equal the radiator capacity so as not to retard the flow of water through the radiator and cause hot water to back up into the cylinder; the radiator must always be kept full and still handle the water as fast as the pump carries it. Fan locations are necessarily considered with relation to the radiator and radiator shroud. Fan diameters, blade path and fan speeds should be given thought, in order that the proper volume of air can be handled to carry heat from the engine. The frontal area of the radiator core in square feet per horsepower developed by the engine and several other details which can be worked out by the fan and radiator manufacturers should receive attention. The best possible fan bearings must be used, giving special attention to radial and thrust loads, fan speeds, etc.
Technical Paper

PROGRESSIVE AND RETROGRESSIVE DESIGNING

1919-01-01
190032
SOME practical examples of correct as well as of incorrect methods of designing are studied, using a motor vehicle for illustration. The mechanism of such a vehicle should be very simple, and the elimination of certain links and members here and there may become more or less desirable. It is essential to know how much this will burden other members, and what strengthening or even redesigning may become necessary. It has been proposed to eliminate the torque and radius-rods. By formulas and drawings the author shows how complex the problem is and the various changes that must follow such an attempt. A vehicle must have much stiffer springs if the torque rod is to be eliminated. This inevitably leads to a study of springs and of the influences of brakes. A vehicle can be operated at somewhat higher speed with a torque-rod.
Technical Paper

A MODIFIED DESIGN OF CLASS B TRUCK ENGINE

1919-01-01
190031
THE design of a modification of the Class B Government standardized truck engine is presented, the principal object being a saving in weight without sacrificing either durability or safety factors. The crankcase design is rigid, but the metal is distributed so that the weight will be a minimum. The crankshafts are made of chrome-nickel steel of an elastic limit of 120,000 lb. per sq. in., which further carries out the idea of durability with low weight. The connecting-rod length is slightly more than twice that of the stroke, and this, with light-weight pistons, obviates vibration, without adding weight to the engine on account of increased cylinder height. The flywheel and bell-housing diameters were selected with a view to securing enough flywheel weight for smooth running without increasing the engine weight materially. All-steel supports reduce breakage of arms to a minimum. The manifolds are carefully designed to give economical performance, even with low-grade fuels.
Technical Paper

ENGINE PERFORMANCE

1919-01-01
190030
EVERY plow in use should have 10 b.-hp. available. Every tractor engine should deliver continuously at least 33 hp. If the 330-cu. in. engine mentioned were as good as a Liberty airplane engine, it could deliver 57 hp. at 1000 r.p.m. The horsepower actually obtained is as follows: 41.5 in the laboratory 33.0 at the factory 29.0 when burning gasoline 23.0 when burning kerosene 21.0 with poor piston-rings 19.0 with poor spark-plugs 9.5 available at the drawbar The great engineering problem of the future lies between the 57 and the 23 hp. From 19 to 9.5 hp. is the manufacturer's problem. The main difficulties, as outlined by the figures given, lie in the combustion chamber and its ability to dissipate the surplus heat, and in the limitations of fuel. There will be no need for refiners to continue to break up the heavier fuels by processes already so successful, if by ingenuity and good understanding of thermodynamics these can be made to burn in present-day engines.
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