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Technical Paper

DIFFERENTIAL SUBSTITUTES

1916-01-01
160028
Substitutes for the conventional type of differential are considered under four classifications; namely, the free-wheel type, the crank and eccentric types, the spiral gear type, and the solid axle. Examples of each of these classifications are described and the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more practical ones discussed. Considerable space is devoted to a discussion of the elimination of any form of differential whatever. Although such construction has advantages of eliminating the spinning of the wheels and assuring positive travel under all conditions, the author believes the disadvantages too great to be overcome. The paper mentions some interesting experiments conducted by street railway engineers in connection with using differentials for street cars, to eliminate the corrugation of rails and wheels, as well as to economize in power consumption.
Technical Paper

POSSIBILITIES OF THE CONSTANT PRESSURE CYCLE

1916-01-01
160021
The authors first define the elementary conditions governing combustion efficiency, dividing these conditions into three main classes. They next compare engines operating on constant volume, constant temperature and constant pressure cycles, dealing specifically with the Otto, Diesel and semi-Diesel types. The main part of the paper is devoted to an outline of the constant pressure cycle, analyzing its advantages as compared with the merits of the constant volume cycle now used in internal-combustion engines. The paper is concluded with a detail description of a proposed constant pressure engine.
Technical Paper

FACTORS OF SAFETY

1916-01-01
160019
The author has selected fourteen automobiles on which to make a study of the factors of safety used in their design. He considers specifically the front axles, front-wheel spindles, propeller-shafts, clutch-shafts, transmission drive-shafts and rear-axle drive-shafts. The method of calculating the stresses is outlined; compositions of the steels used are given; and complete data are presented showing the factors of safety of the various parts, together with the intermediate figures used in obtaining the factors.
Technical Paper

Trends and Forecasts for Turbocharging

1800-01-01
871147
Predictable and unpredictable forces will change the direction of the charge-air systems industry. The driver of diesel engine development will be the stringent emissions regulations of the 1990s. The drivers in the gasoline engine market will be improved fuel economy, performance, durability and emissions. Forces will also influence the charge-air marketplace, including changes in emission standards, national fiscal policies, political issues, fuel prices, alternate fuels and consumer tastes. The world community mandate for engines that are clean, quiet, durable and fuel efficient will be satisfied, increasingly, by first-tier component suppliers developing integrated systems solutions.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Diesel Engines Converted to High Compression Spark Ignition (SI) Natural Gas Operation

1800-01-01
871149
There is a strong interest around the world in natural gas as an alternative fuel. This paper is concerned with the option of converting diesel engines to spark ignition operation. Although this may appear to be an outrageous thermodynamic action, it is preferable to using natural gas in a low compression gasoline engine conversion. An investigation is described in which engine maps were produced for a 5.6 litre direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG. The diesel operating characteristics have been compared with those of the spark ignition conversion at compression ratios of 18:1 (the original diesel value), 15:1 and 13:1. Detailed data are presented for the 15:1 compression ratio. These test results are supplemented by results for other diesel conversions. The use of these engines in bus fleet operations is also discussed.
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