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Technical Paper

TORQUE RECOIL AND CAR WEIGHT

1919-01-01
190053
Few points have aroused such discussion among users and engineers as that of the desirable number of cylinders in an engine. A large part of the work of the author has been in the direction of attaining the same ends as those achieved by the multi-cylinder engine but by different means. He discusses the relations between torque at clutch and number of cylinders and multicylinder engines and uniform torque, the factors governing torque recoil, torque recoil as a function of car weight and engine balance. His conclusion is that the multi-cylinder engine now so widely used exceeds the real requirements and obtains its smoothness of operation at the expense of more desirable qualities. A reduction in car weight would in his opinion enable existing standards of performance to be maintained and even improved by the use of four cylinders for the heavier type, with all that this means in tremendous advantages to the automotive industry and to the user.
Technical Paper

THE FUTURE PASSENGER CAR

1919-01-01
190049
Efficiency, appearance and comfort will be the catchwords of the car of the future. Extreme simplicity of chassis will be needed to reduce weight and permit the use of substantial sheet-metal fenders, mud-guards and bodies. The center of gravity should be as low as possible consistent with good appearance. For comfort the width and angle of seats will be studied more carefully and the doors will be wider. A new type of spring suspension is coming to the fore, known as the three-point cantilever. Cars adopting it will have a certain wheelbase and a longer spring base. A car equipped with this new mechanism has been driven at 60 m.p.h. in safety and comfort without the use of shock absorbers or snubbers. It is the opinion of the author that this new spring suspension will revolutionize passenger-car construction.
Technical Paper

THE PASSENGER CAR OF THE FUTURE

1919-01-01
190051
The limit of acceleration has been reached. What may well be considered a maximum for practical service has been secured. The present seven-passenger body is as roomy as could be desired. There should be no need for further increase in size. The author believes the total weight of this large car will be reduced to between 3500 to 4000 lb. To make this reduction without sacrifice of durability greater use must be made of alloy steels and aluminum alloys. The tendency in body design and style is toward smoother lines, fewer breaks and a more graceful contour. The number of closed cars is increasing. There will be a general simplification of detail throughout, better wiring, better lubrication, an increased use of oilless bushings and fewer grease-cups. Brakes and wearing parts will be made more accessible and easier of adjustment. The take-up points for the various adjustments will be placed so that they can be reached with ease.
Technical Paper

HEAVY-FUEL CARBURETER-TYPE ENGINES FOR VEHICLES

1919-01-01
190069
Manufacturers of carbureters and ignition devices are called upon to assist in overcoming troubles caused by the inclusion of too many heavy fractions in automobile fuels. So far as completely satisfactory running is concerned, the difficulty of the problem with straight petroleum distillates is caused by the heaviest fraction present in appreciable quantity. The problems are involved in the starting, carburetion, distribution and combustion. An engine is really started only when all its parts have the same temperatures as exist in normal running, and when it accelerates in a normal manner. Two available methods, (a) installing a two-fuel carbureter, using a very volatile fuel to start and warm-up the engine, and (b) heating the engine before cranking by a burner designed to use the heavier fuel, are described and discussed.
Technical Paper

AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF MARINE ENGINES IN THE WAR

1919-01-01
190004
THE application of the marine internal-combustion engine to the British ML class of 80-footers and to the American 110-ft. class of submarine chasers, undoubtedly constituted the most important development along this line of automotive work. With a hull form similar to that of an enlarged runabout, driven by a pair of six-cylinder Standard marine engines rated at 220 b.-hp. at 460 r.p.m., the boats of the ML class averaged about 20 knots. A total of 720 boats of this type were built and the class as a whole proved very satisfactory. In the development of the 110-ft. SC class, the requirement of seaworthiness was made of greater importance than speed. Each boat carried three six-cylinder Standard engines identical with those used in the British boats, driving them at about 17 knots. Although rather uncomfortable, as in the case of any small vessel, the 110-ft. boats proved wonderfully successful in heavy weather; about 450 of this class were built. The 220-b.
Technical Paper

HEAT-FLOW THROUGH CYLINDER WALLS

1918-01-01
180008
Modern requirements have already forced the rotative speed of high-duty gas and oil engines to a point where the difficulty of heat-flow control, especially with cast iron cylinders, tends to arrest further progress in this direction. In view of this inherent limitation the art of high-speed engine design can best be advanced, not by continued experimental exploration, but rather by first establishing the basic principles underlying heat-flow effects. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate that every internal-combustion engine of given size and type has a safe speed limit and that this can be predetermined upon a rational heat-flow basis. This paper provides an explicit method of procedure, by means of which the design characteristics of a normal gas or oil engine can be critically analyzed for heat-flow effects.
Technical Paper

SOME ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF HIGH SPEED ENGINES

1917-01-01
170004
The author outlines methods for producing high-speed engines with high mean effective pressure and gives data resulting from several years' experimental work. He discusses the desirable stroke-bore ratios; valve area, weight, dimensions, location and timing; compression ratios; ignition requirements; and the location and means for operating camshafts and other valve-actuating mechanism. Data are given regarding the best material and dimensions for pistons and the desirable number of rings. The physical characteristics of alloy steel desirable for use in connecting-rods are mentioned. Similar data, including dimensions and factors controlling the construction of the crankshaft and its bearings are included. The relation of the inertia stresses set up by reciprocating parts to those due to the explosion and compression pressure on the piston head is indicated, and the maximum total stress deduced.
Technical Paper

DYNAMIC BALANCING OF ROTATING PARTS

1917-01-01
170005
The author points out the necessity of obtaining dynamic or running balance of rotating parts, especially in automobile-engine construction. He discusses the manifestations of the lack of static and running balance, such as vibration and high bearing pressures. Formulas are supplied for calculating bending moments and centrifugal forces in a crankshaft that is out of balance. Methods for obtaining static balance are described and the possible conditions existing after static balance is obtained are treated, with especial reference to the existence of one or more couples. Descriptions are given of two representative machines that are used to locate couples and correct for them. The principles of operation are made clear and advantages and disadvantages of each type are brought out fully.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS IN IGNITION DEVELOPMENT

1917-01-01
170053
The author discusses in this paper a few of the problems involved in the design of ignition equipment. Some of these problems have been solved and some remain to be solved. The early history of the development of ignition apparatus is traced, reference being made to the vibrating coil type of ignition operated by dry cells or storage batteries, various types of magneto and dual-magneto systems, and combined generator and storage battery systems. The balance of the paper refers more particularly to batteries and ignition proper. The two types of battery ignition, open-circuit and closed-circuit, are described and the current characteristics of each are shown graphically by means of curves. Some of the problems encountered in the development of present battery systems are next considered and such topics as reduction of inertia in the contact-arm, overcoming harmonic vibration, advantages of one-piece cams and the function and design of the condenser are treated in detail.
Technical Paper

SOLVING THE GASOLINE PROBLEM

1917-01-01
170047
The author first compares mineral oils with certain other liquids in order to point out clearly certain of their characteristics. He then shows the economic benefits that would result from making more of the crude available for use as fuels. He discusses such topics as cracking methods in use, advantages of dry gas, initial flame propagation, gas producers, hot mixtures, wet mixtures and difficulties of correcting existing engines. He concludes by proposing as a solution of the gasoline problem the more general use of superheated homogeneous fixed dry gases made in vaporizing devices independent of engine cylinders, and outlines means for attaining this end. Performance data covering the use of mixtures of kerosene and gasoline on several cars are included in a table, and several charts throughout the paper illustrate many of the topics discussed.
Technical Paper

METROPOLITAN SECTION PAPERS TREATMENT OF HYDROCARBON FUELS

1917-01-01
170046
The author states that the objects of the paper are to define and trace the development of the various processes of carburetion, and to offer such suggestions along these lines as may assist the investigator in developing motorboats, automobiles and self-contained unit motor cars for railway purposes. The surface carburetor is mentioned chiefly as of historic interest. In considering the jet carbureter the author discusses the proportion of gas desired, the effect of the varying inertia of the air and the liquid gasoline and the breaking up of the combustible needed. Following sections review the devices for using kerosene, such as gasoline jet carbureters to which heat is applied, devices of the fixed gas type, the introduction of combustible directly into the cylinder, forcing combustible directly upon a hot surface in the cylinder and devices which raise the combustible to the boiling point.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS OF CRANKSHAFT DESIGN

1917-01-01
170040
The forces necessary to induce and maintain gasoline engine speeds of 3000 r.p.m. or faster, as well as other forces closely associated with high speeds, are numerous. The author has, however, confined his discussion to the three most important groups of forces upon which, in the main, the smooth running and the life of an engine depend. The different component forces were determined in respect to two engines of equal capacity for twenty-four crank positions, uniformly spaced at intervals of 30 degrees, which constitutes two revolutions and one complete cycle in the case of four-stroke cycle engines. Medium-sized six and twelve-cylinder engines were chosen for investigation. Corresponding components were combined as resultant forces and graphically represented in magnitude and direction. Several such characteristic diagrams of the resultant forces acting upon crankpins and main bearings of the two engines investigated are reproduced throughout the paper.
Technical Paper

ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION ON OWEN CARS

1916-01-01
160041
This paper contains a brief description of the Entz electric transmission. Wiring connections are given of the several speeds, for electric braking, for starting the engine and for charging the battery. The statement is made that the electric transmission eliminates and does the work of the friction clutch, the clutch pedal, the transmission gears, the flywheel and separate starting and lighting systems.
Technical Paper

FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES OF TO-DAY*

1916-01-01
160043
The paper gives the value of certain factors in engine design that are good practice and uses these values to calculate the horsepower of a four-cylinder engine. The author holds that the deciding factor in comparing four-cylinder engines with those of the same displacement but with a greater number of cylinders, is the thermal efficiency. Both the cooling medium and the mechanical losses increase in proportion to the number of cylinders. He suggests in closing, that the demand for power output beyond the possibilities of four cylinders must be met by the use of a greater number.
Technical Paper

FIELD OF FOUR-CYLINDER ENGINES*

1916-01-01
160042
The author confines his discussion to engines used on pleasure cars, inasmuch as practically all commercial vehicles use the four-cylinder type. The performance expected of their cars by automobile owners is outlined, particularly as regards performance, durability and maintenance cost. In-asmuch as the horsepower required is often determined by the acceleration demanded, the argument in favor of four-cylinder engines is based mainly on a comparison of its acceleration performance with those of engines having a larger number of cylinders. A number of acceleration curves are given for these engines. The paper next considers smoothness of operation at low, medium and high running speeds, asserting that the decrease in inertia forces due to lighter reciprocating parts has made it possible to increase the speed and thus reduce remarkably the vibration of the four-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

FACTORS IN UNIVERSAL JOINT DESIGN

1916-01-01
160036
The author considers the effects of velocity variation on the operation of a car and states that this variation is absorbed mainly by the flywheel. A formula is given for calculating the pressure on universal bearings. Various methods of protecting and lubricating joints are described. A number of European types of joints are illustrated. A much larger number of types of joints are used abroad in-asmuch as each maker usually makes his own design instead of purchasing it from a specialist as is the usual practice in this country. In conclusion the paper describes types of joints using flexible material, such as leather or spring steel.
Technical Paper

PROBLEMS IN HIGH-SPEED ENGINE DESIGN

1916-01-01
160023
The author outlines in a general way the relation of car performance to modern engine development. He considers particularly weight reduction and torque performance of high-speed engines, giving the undesirable characteristics attending the increased torque range gained by higher speed. He next discusses the relation of torque to total car weight, to acceleration and to hill-climbing ability and suggests a method of determining the value of a car in terms of its performance ability. The author holds incorrect those systems in which the amount of lubrication is in proportion to speed only; and in which oil for crankshaft and crankpin bearings must cool as well as lubricate them. He shows a system designed to solve these oiling problems. Static, running and distortion balance of a rotating mass are defined by the author, who shows how they apply to a large number of types of crankshafts.
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