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Technical Paper

Experimental Assessment of Drop-In Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) in a Medium-Duty B7 Diesel Engine for Low-Emissions Marine Applications

Nowadays, the push for more ecological low-carbon propulsion systems is high in all mobility sectors, including the recreational or light-commercial boating, where propulsion is usually provided by internal combustion engines derived from road applications. In this work, the effects of replacing conventional fossil-derived B7 diesel with Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) were experimentally investigated in a modern Medium-Duty Diesel Engine, using the advanced biofuel as ‘drop-in’ and testing according to the ISO 8178 marine standard. The compounded results showed significant benefits in terms of NOx, Particulate Matter, mass fuel consumption and especially Well-to-Wake (WtW) CO2 thanks to the inner properties of the aromatic-free, hydrogen-rich renewable fuel, with no impact on the engine power and minimal deterioration of the volumetric fuel economy.
Journal Article

Integration of a Belt Starter Generator in a Flex-Fuel Vehicle

Abstract The concern with global warming has led to the creation of legislation aimed at minimizing this phenomenon. As a result, the development of technologies to minimize vehicle emissions and reduce fuel consumption has gained market share. A promising alternative is the use of a belt starter generator (BSG): an electric machine to replace the vehicle’s alternator. This research analyzes the effects of introducing a 12 V BSG into a flex-fuel vehicle, specifically examining its impact on fuel economy and CO2 emissions when using both gasoline and ethanol. The utilization of a low-voltage BSG in a flex-fuel vehicle has not been previously studied. Numerical simulations and experimental fuel consumption and CO2 emissions tests were performed for the normal production flex-fuel baseline configuration and the vehicle with the 12 V BSG, following the standards ABNT NBR 6601 and ABNT NBR 7024.
Journal Article

Effect of Injector Type and Intake Boosting on Combustion, Performance, and Emission Characteristics of a Spray-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Engine—A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study

Abstract In general, GDI engines operate with stratified mixtures at part-load conditions enabling increased fuel economy with high power output, however, with a compensation of increased soot emissions at part-load conditions. This is mainly due to improper in-cylinder mixing of air and fuel leading to a sharp decrease in gradient of reactant destruction term and heat release rate (HRR), resulting in flame quenching. The type of fuel injector and engine operating conditions play a significant role in the in-cylinder mixture formation. Therefore, in this study, a CFD analysis is utilized to compare the effect of stratified mixture combustion with multi-hole solid-cone and hollow-cone injectors on the performance and emission characteristics of a spray-guided GDI engine. The equivalence ratio (ϕ) from 0.6 to 0.8 with the constant engine speed of 2000 rev/min is considered. For both injectors, the fuel injection pressure of 200 bar is used with 60° spray-cone angles.
Technical Paper

Influences of High-Pressure Pump and Injector Nozzle Geometry on Hydraulics Characteristics of a Mechanical Diesel Direct-Injection System

The geometry of high-pressure pump and injector nozzles crucially influences hydraulic behaviors (e.g., the start of injection, the pressure profiles developed in the high-pressure line, needle lift, and injection rates) in diesel engines. These factors, in turn, significantly impact fuel atomization, fuel–air mixing, combustion quality, and the formation of emissions. The main geometry parameters such as plunger diameter and the number and diameter of nozzles lead to the system complexity, requiring careful analysis, design, and calibration. In this study, a high-speed shadowgraph system and a high-resolution pressure recording system were developed to capture the start of injection, spray structure, and pressure profiles in the high-pressure line. Additionally, a model was developed using GT-Fuel package built within the GT-Suite of simulation tools to explore different plunger diameters and numbers and diameters of injector nozzles.
Journal Article

Auto-Ignited Combustion Control in an Engine Equipped with Multiple Boosting Devices

Abstract The combustion timing of auto-ignited combustion is determined by composition, temperature, and pressure of cylinder charge. Thus, for a successful auto-ignition, those key variables must be controlled within tight target ranges, which is challenging due to (i) nature of coupling between those variables, and (ii) complexity of managing multiple actuators in the engine. In this article, a control strategy that manages multiple actuators of a boosted homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is developed to maintain robust auto-ignited combustion. The HCCI engine being considered is equipped with multiple boosting devices including a supercharger and a turbocharger in addition to conventional actuators and sensors. Since each boosting device has its own pros and cons, harmonizing those boosting devices is crucial for successful transient operation.
Technical Paper

Centrifugal Compressor Map Prediction Based on Geometrical Parameters with Invariant Coefficients

In the present work, a new methodology for predicting the performance of centrifugal compressors is developed. The proposed method differs from existing methods found in literature by gathering principal losses in three parameters: two constants and one variable, which is a function of the compressor wheel geometrical characteristics. As those parameters are constants for a given centrifugal compressor, there is no need for additional corrective parameters in order to obtain coherent results. Indeed, the proposed methodology does not depend on the choice of the slip factor correlation for the prediction of the correct pressure ratio. However, the choice of slip factor influences the efficiency computation. The prediction of the compressor maps for two full stage centrifugal compressors is presented and they show good agreement while compared with manufacturer’s data obtained from gas stand measurements.
Journal Article

Suitability Study of Biofuel Blend for Light Commercial Vehicle Application under Real-World Transient Operating Conditions

Abstract Driving schedule of every vehicle involves transient operation in the form of changing engine speed and load conditions, which are relatively unchanged during steady-state conditions. As well, the results from transient conditions are more likely to reflect the reality. So, the current research article is focused on analyzing the biofuel-like lemon peel oil (LPO) behavior under real-world transient conditions with fuel injection parameter MAP developed from steady-state experiments. At first, engine parameters and response MAPs are developed by using a response surface methodology (RSM)-based multi-objective optimization technique. Then, the vehicle model has been developed by incorporating real-world transient operating conditions. Finally, the developed injection parameters and response MAPs are embedded in the vehicle model to analyze the biofuel behavior under transient operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Improving the Performance of Diesel Engines by Bore Profile Control under Operating Conditions

The cylinder bore in an engine block is deformed under the assembling stress of the cylinder head and thermal stress. This distortion exacerbates the piston skirt friction and piston slap. Through a numerical and experimental study, this article analyzes the effect of an optimized bore profile on the engine performance. The piston skirt friction was estimated in a three-dimensional elastohydrodynamic (EHD) friction analysis. An ideal cylindrical bore under the rated load condition was assumed as the optimal bore profile that minimized the piston skirt friction without compromising the piston slap. The simulation study revealed that secondary motion of the piston immediately after firing the top dead center can be mitigated by narrowing the piston–bore clearance at the upper position of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimization of Sealing Environment of Cylinder Head Gasket

Typically, modern automotive engine designs include separate cylinder heads and cylinder blocks and utilize a multilayer steel head gasket (MLS) to seal the resulting joint. Cylinder head bolts are used to hold the joint together and the non-linear properties of head gasket provide capability to seal the movement within the joint, which is essential for engine durability and performance. The current design of cylinder head gasket mainly evaluates the sealing performance in hot and cold state through finite element analysis. The sealing performance of cylinder head gasket is mainly determined by sealing pressure, fatigue and lateral movement in the joint, which have been widely studied [1]. However, no one has been involved in the study of factors affecting sealing pressure and lateral movement in the joint.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Internal and External EGR Effects on a CNG-OME Dual-Fuel Engine

Dual-fuel engines powered by renewable fuels provide a potential solution for reducing the carbon footprint and emissions of transportation, contributing to the goal of achieving sustainable mobility. The investigation presented in the following uses a dual-fuel engine concept running on biogas (referred to as CNG in this paper) and the e-fuel polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). The current study focuses on the effects of exhaust gas rebreathing and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A four-cylinder heavy-duty engine converted to dual-fuel operation was used to conduct the engine tests at a load point of 1600 min-1 and 9.8 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The respective shares of high reactivity fuel (HRF, here: OME) and low reactivity fuel (LRF, here: CNG) were varied, as were the external and internal EGR rates and their combinations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Engine Performance Fueled with Ammonia-Hydrogen Blend Ignited by Diesel Pilot

The global energy crisis and drastic climate change are continuously promoting the implementation of sustainable energy sources. To meet the emission standards and carbon-neutrality targets in vehicle industry, ammonia is considered to be one of the promising carbon-neutral fuels. However, running the engines on high amounts of ammonia may lead to significantly high ammonia slip. This originates huge safety concerns. Therefore, hydrogen is added in certain ratio with ammonia to promote combustion and reduce ammonia slip. Furthermore, adding diesel as a pilot fuel further facilitates the combustion reactions. This experimental study investigated the effect of different ammonia-hydrogen blend ratios on in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, cumulative heat release, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), indicated thermal efficiency (ITE), CA5 and CA50. This effect of blend ratios was tested for varied diesel pilot amounts and timings.
Technical Paper

A Study on Overcoming Unavailable Backward Driving and a New Fail-Safe Strategy for R-Gearless (P)HEV System

Recently, as part of the effort to enhance fuel efficiency and reduce costs for eco-friendly vehicles, the R-gearless system has been implemented in the TMED (P)HEV system. Due to the removal of the reverse gear, a distinct backward driving method needs to be developed, allowing the Electronic Motor (e-Motor) system to facilitate backward movement in the TMED (P)HEV system. However, the capability of backward driving with the e-Motor is limited because of partial failure in the high-voltage system of an R-gearless system. Thus, we demonstrate that it is possible to improve backward driving problems by applying a new fail-safe strategy. In the event of a high-voltage battery system failure, backward driving can be achieved using the e-Motor with constant voltage control by the Hybrid Starter Generator (HSG), as proposed in this study.
Technical Paper

Analyzing the Expense: Cost Modeling for State-of-the-Art Electric Vehicle Battery Packs

The Battery Performance and Cost Model (BatPaC), developed by Argonne National Laboratory, is a versatile tool designed for lithium-ion battery (LIB) pack engineering. It accommodates user-defined specifications, generating detailed bill-of-materials calculations and insights into cell dimensions and pack characteristics. Pre-loaded with default data sets, BatPaC aids in estimating production costs for battery packs produced at scale (5 to 50 GWh annually). Acknowledging inherent uncertainties in parameters, the tool remains accessible and valuable for designers and engineers. BatPaC plays a crucial role in National Highway Transportation Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) regulatory assessments, providing estimated battery pack manufacturing costs and weight metrics for electric vehicles. Integrated with Argonne's Autonomie simulations, BatPaC streamlines large-scale processes, replacing traditional models with lookup tables.
Technical Paper

Elucidation of Deteriorating Oil Consumption Mechanism Due to Piston Top Ring Groove Wear

The piston and piston ring are used in a severe contact environment in engine durability tests, which causes severe wear to the piston ring groove, leading to significant development costs for countermeasures. Conventionally, in order to ensure functional feasibility through wear on the piston top ring groove (hereinafter “ring groove”), only functional evaluations through actual engine durability testing were performed, and there was an issue in determining the limit value for the actual amount of wear itself. Because of this, the mechanism that may cause wear on the ring groove was clarified through past research, but this resulted in judgment criteria with some leeway from the perspective of functional assurance. To establish judgment criteria, it was necessary to understand both functional effect from ring groove wear and the mechanism behind it.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Lightweighting Impacts on Energy Consumption Reduction Potential Across Advanced Vehicle Powertrains

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) plays a crucial role in guiding the formulation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, and at the forefront of this regulatory process stands Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). Argonne, a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research institution, has developed Autonomie—an advanced and comprehensive full-vehicle simulation tool that has solidified its status as an industry standard for evaluating vehicle performance, energy consumption, and the effectiveness of various technologies. Under the purview of an Inter-Agency Agreement (IAA), the DOE Argonne Site Office (ASO) and Argonne have assumed the responsibility of conducting full-vehicle simulations to support NHTSA's CAFE rulemaking initiatives. This paper introduces an innovative approach that hinges on a large-scale simulation process, encompassing standard regulatory driving cycles tailored to various vehicle classes and spanning diverse timeframes.