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Journal Article

Optimizing Spark-Ignition Engine Performance with Ternary Blend Fuels and Hybrid Nanolubricants: A Response Surface Methodology Study

2024-07-17
Abstract The current research elucidates the application of response surface methodology to optimize the collective impact of methanol–isobutanol–gasoline blends and nanolubricants on the operational parameters of a spark-ignition engine. Diverse alcohol blends in conjunction with gasoline are employed in engine trials at 2500 rpm across varying engine loads. The alcohol blends exhibit notable enhancements in brake thermal efficiency, peak in-cylinder pressure, and heat release rate. At 2500 rpm and 75% load, the break thermal efficiency of iBM15 surpasses that of gasoline by 33.5%. Alcohol blends significantly reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions compared to gasoline. The iBM15 demonstrates a reduction of 25.2% and 51.12% in vibration along the Z and Y axes, respectively, relative to gasoline.
Technical Paper

In Situ Estimation of the Coefficient of Stress Source in the Eulerian–Lagrangian Spray Atomization Model

2024-07-03
2024-01-5069
Liquid jet atomization is one of the key processes in many engineering applications, such as IC engines, gas turbines, and the like, to name a few. Simulating this process using a pure Eulerian or a pure Lagrangian framework has its own drawbacks. The Eulerian–Lagrangian spray atomization (ELSA) modeling seems like a viable alternative in such scenarios. ELSA simulations consist of solving an additional transport equation for the surface area density (Σ) of the issuing jet. In this study we have proposed a dynamic approach to compute the turbulent timescale constant (α1), which appears in the source of Σ-transport equation and is responsible for restoring the surface area back to its equilibrium. The dynamic approach involves an analytical computation of the turbulent timescale constant (α1), thereby eliminating the need for ad hoc adjustments to surface area values during computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Piston Geometry on the Performance of a Ducted Fuel Injection Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3024
Ducted Fuel Injection (DFI) engines have emerged as a promising technology in the pursuit of a clean, efficient, and controllable combustion process. This article aims at elucidating the effect of piston geometry on the engine performance and emissions of a metal DFI engine. Three different types of pistons were investigated and the main piston design features including the piston bowl diameter, piston bowl floor angle, and the injection nozzle angle were examined. To achieve the target, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted coupled to a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism. Extensive validations were performed against the measured data from a conventional diesel engine. To calibrate the soot model, genetic algorithm and machine learning methods were utilized. The simulation results highlight the pivotal role played by piston bowl diameter and fuel injection angle in controlling soot emissions of a DFI engine.
Technical Paper

Benefits of Supercharger Boosting on H2 ICE for Heavy Duty Applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3006
The fast acceleration of GHG (CO2 in particular) emitted by human activities into the atmosphere is accelerating the average temperature increase of our globe causing heavy climate change. This phenomenon has triggered a strong pressure on GHG emission reduction in all the human activities including the transportation sector which contributes for the 29% to the total emissions in EU [1]. A mitigation to this tendency can come from synthetic fuels: when produced by using clean energy, they can be considered CO2 neutral. H2 is the building block of synthetic fuels and can be used in spark ignited engines where releases the energy accumulated during its production. This solution is particularly attractive for HD applications thanks to the high energy density. H2 can be burned in a quite wide range of λ, but staying on 2,2 the amount of engine out NOx will be low enough for the use on a 13L engine with a relatively simple aftertreatment system.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging System Selection for a Hydrogen-Fuelled Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2024-07-02
2024-01-3019
Nowadays, green hydrogen can play a crucial role in a successful clean energy transition, thus reaching net zero emissions in the transport sector. Moreover, hydrogen exploitation in internal combustion engines is favored by its suitable combustion properties and quasi-zero pollutant emissions. High flame speeds enable a lean combustion approach, which provides high efficiency and reduces NOx emissions. However, high airflow rates are required to achieve the load levels typical of heavy-duty applications. In this framework, the present study aims at investigating the required boosting system of a 6-cylinder, 13-litre heavy-duty spark ignition engine through 1D numerical simulation. A comparison among various architectures of the turbocharging system and the size of each component is presented, thus highlighting the limitations and potentialities of each architecture and providing important insights for the selection of the best turbocharging system.
Technical Paper

The 3D-CFD Contribution to H2 Engine Development for CV and Off-Road Application

2024-07-02
2024-01-3017
The hydrogen engine is one of the promising technologies that enables carbon-neutral mobility, especially in heavy-duty on- or off-road applications. In this paper, a methodological procedure for the design of the combustion system of a hydrogen-fueled, direct injection spark ignited commercial vehicle engine is described. In a preliminary step, the ability of the commercial 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code AVL FIRE Classic to reproduce the characteristics of the gas jet, introduced into a quiescent environment by a dedicated H2 injector, is established. This is based on two parts: Temporal and numerical discretization sensitivity analyses ensure that the spatial and temporal resolution of the simulations is adequate, and comparisons to a comprehensive set of experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the simulations. The measurements used for this purpose rely on the well-known Schlieren technique and use helium as a safe substitute for H2.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle and Internal EGR in Diesel Engines Using Alternative Fuels

2024-07-02
2024-01-3020
The Single Cylinder Research Engine (SCRE) at the Institute of Internal Combustion Engines and Powertrain Systems is equipped with a variable valve train that allows to switch between regular intake valve lift and early intake valve closing (Miller). On the exhaust side, a secondary exhaust valve lift (SEVL) on each valve is possible with adjustable back pressure and thus the possibility of realizing internal EGR. In combination with alternative fuels, even if they are Drop-In capable as HVO, properties differ and can influence the emission and efficiency behavior. The investigations of this paper are focusing on regenerative Drop-In fuel (HVO), fossil fuel (B7), and an oxygenate (OME), that needs adaptions at the engine control unit, but offers further emission potential. By commissioning a 2-stage boost system, it is possible to fully equalize the air mass in Miller mode compared to the normal valve lift.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hydrogen Combustion in Spark Ignition Engines Using a Modified Wiebe Model

2024-07-02
2024-01-3016
Due to its physical and chemical properties, hydrogen is an attractive fuel for internal combustion engines, providing grounds for studies on hydrogen engines. It is common practice to use a mathematical model for basic engine design and an essential part of this is the simulation of the combustion cycle, which is the subject of the work presented here. One of the most widely used models for describing combustion in gasoline and diesel engines is the Wiebe model. However, for cases of hydrogen combustion in DI engines, which are characterized by mixture stratification and in some cases significant incomplete combustion, practically no data can be found in the literature on the application of the Wiebe model. Based on Wiebe’s formulas, a mathematical model of hydrogen combustion has been developed. The model allows making computations for both DI and PFI hydrogen engines. The parameters of the Wiebe model were assessed for three different engines in a total of 26 operating modes.
Technical Paper

Measurements in the Recirculation Path of a Fuel Cell System

2024-07-02
2024-01-3009
The study demonstrates the possibility and in particular the method to derive the efficiency of the entire fuel cell power system by measuring specific data of the recirculation path of the anode circuit of a fuel cell system. The results demonstrate the capabilities of the existing test rig and enable investigations on the suitability of auxiliary components. This study focuses on the hydrogen recirculation path equipped with multiple sensors and a needle valve to enable the required operating conditions of the fuel cell. Running a startup load profile without reaching the equilibrium state at all steps, the dynamic of the system and the requirements to the sensor parameters, such as sampling rate and precision, was seen. Additionally, it became obvious that the recirculation pump used is oversized, but a load point shift compensated this artifact. In detail, the stoichiometry and the efficiency of the entire system was evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study of Hydrogen Direct Injection Using a Pre-Chamber in an Opposed-Piston Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Combustion characteristics of a hydrogen (H2) direct-injected (DI) pre-chamber (PC)-assisted opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) engine are investigated by 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The architecture of the OP2S engine has potential features for reducing wall heat losses, as the DI H2 jets are not directed towards the piston face. To overcome the high resistance to autoignition of H2, a PC technology was implemented in order to enhance the ignition of the mixture by the multiple hot reactive jets. To further investigate the interaction between the H2 plume and the chamber walls, three different piston bowl designs were evaluated and ranked based on a merit function. For the cases under study, the flat piston design was found to be most favorable (compared to the narrow and wide pistons) due to its reduced surface area for lower wall heat losses.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Injection and Mixture Formation in Hydrogen Combustion Engines by Means of Different 3D-CFD Simulation Approaches

2024-07-02
2024-01-3007
For the purpose of achieving carbon-neutrality in the mobility sector by 2050, hydrogen can play a crucial role as an alternative energy carrier, not only for direct usage in fuel cell-powered vehicles, but also for fueling internal combustion engines. This paper focuses on the numerical investigation of high-pressure hydrogen injection and the mixture formation inside a high-tumble engine with a conventional liquid fuel injector for passenger cars. Since the traditional 3D-CFD approach of simulating the inner flow of an injector requires a very high spatial and temporal resolution, the enormous computational effort, especially for full engine simulations, is a big challenge for an effective virtual development of modern engines. An alternative and more pragmatic lagrangian 3D-CFD approach offers opportunities for a significant reduction in computational effort without sacrificing reliability.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of a Dual-Fuel Hydrogen–Kerosene Engine for Sustainable General Aviation

2024-06-17
2024-01-6001
Reducing CO2 emissions is an increasingly important issue. In aviation, approaches such as e-propulsion only represent a solution for special applications due to the low energy density of batteries. Because of the low-cost and robust design of combustion engines, this concept is still the most suitable for general aviation. For defossilization, besides e-fuels and bio-fuels, which represent the so-called sustainable aviation fuels (SAF), hydrogen can serve as a promising energy carrier for CO2 reduction. For this purpose, the combustion process of a dual-fuel hydrogen–kerosene (Jet A-1) engine was developed and investigated for use in small aircrafts. This study explores the influence of hydrogen addition on combustion parameters, emissions, and efficiency.
Journal Article

Engine Behavior Analysis on a Conventional Diesel Engine Powered with Blends of Lemon Grass Oil Biodiesel–Diesel Blends

2024-06-14
Abstract Fossil fuel usage causes environmental pollution, and fuel depletion, further affecting a country’s economy. Biofuels and diesel-blended fuels are practical alternatives to sustain fossil fuels. This experimental study analyses lemongrass oil’s performance, emissions, and combustion characteristics after blending with diesel. Lemongrass oil is mixed with diesel at 10 (B10), 15 (B15), and 25% (B25) and evaluated using a 5.20 kW direct injection diesel engine. B10 brake thermal efficiency is 36.47%, which is higher than other blends. The B10 displays an 8.73% decrease in brake-specific fuel consumption compared to diesel. An increase in exhaust gas temperature for B10 than diesel is 4.5%. It indicates that higher lemongrass oil blends decrease exhaust gas temperature. The decrease in average carbon monoxide emissions in B10 to diesel is 22.19%. The decrease in hydrocarbon emissions for B10 to diesel is 7.14%.
Technical Paper

Transmission of Sound under the Influence of Various Environmental Conditions on Short Distances

2024-06-12
2024-01-2933
Electric vehicles, being inherently quiet without the typical combustion noises, pose a potential safety concern, especially at low speeds. Consequently, an Acoustic Vehicle Alerting System (AVAS) is mandatory in many countries worldwide to warn pedestrians of approaching electric vehicles. The development of AVAS sounds involves conducting measurements on an outside noise test track to verify compliance with regulations. Various environmental parameters on the test track can influence the transmission of sound from the car’s AVAS speaker to the measurement microphones. This research delves into understanding the relationship between the transmission of sound over short distances and environmental parameters. Over a one-year period, 122 measurements were conducted using a specially designed dolly setup. The frequency response function, which characterises the sound transmission, was calculated to determine the dependencies and correlations with environmental parameters.
Technical Paper

Artificial Neural Network for Airborne Noise Prediction of a Diesel Engine

2024-06-12
2024-01-2929
Throughout its history, the engine acoustic character has been emblematic of the product essence, owing to its robust correlation of factors like in-cylinder pressure gradients, components design, and perceived quality. Best practice for engine acoustic characterization requires the employment of a hemi-anechoic chamber, a significant number of sensors and special acoustic insulation for engine ancillaries and transmission. This process is highly demanding in terms of cost and time due to multiple engine working points to be tested and consequent data post-processing. Given the apparent underutilization of Neural Networks (NN) predictive capabilities in this research area, the following paper introduces a tool capable of estimation of engine acoustic performance by processing system inputs (e.g., Injected Fuel, Rail Pressure). This is achieved through the application of a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), which operates as a feedforward network functioning at stationary points.
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