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Journal Article

Potential Analysis of Defossilized Operation of a Heavy-Duty Dual-Fuel Engine Utilizing Dimethyl Carbonate/Methyl Formate as Primary and Poly Oxymethylene Dimethyl Ether as Pilot Fuel

2024-04-18
Abstract This study demonstrates the defossilized operation of a heavy-duty port-fuel-injected dual-fuel engine and highlights its potential benefits with minimal retrofitting effort. The investigation focuses on the optical characterization of the in-cylinder processes, ranging from mixture formation, ignition, and combustion, on a fully optically accessible single-cylinder research engine. The article revisits selected operating conditions in a thermodynamic configuration combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One approach is to quickly diminish fossil fuel use by retrofitting present engines with decarbonized or defossilized alternatives. As both fuels are oxygenated, a considerable change in the overall ignition limits, air–fuel equivalence ratio, burning rate, and resistance against undesired pre-ignition or knocking is expected, with dire need of characterization.
Journal Article

Comparison of Tabulated and Complex Chemistry Approaches for Ammonia–Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion Simulation

2024-04-18
Abstract Using ammonia as a carbon-free fuel is a promising way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the maritime sector. Due to the challenging fuel properties, like high autoignition temperature, high latent heat of vaporization, and low laminar flame speeds, a dual-fuel combustion process is the most promising way to use ammonia as a fuel in medium-speed engines. Currently, many experimental investigations regarding premixed and diffusive combustion are carried out. A numerical approach has been employed to simulate the complex dual-fuel combustion process to better understand the influences on the diffusive combustion of ammonia ignited by a diesel pilot. The simulation results are validated based on optical investigations conducted in a rapid compression–expansion machine (RCEM). The present work compares a tabulated chemistry simulation approach to complex chemistry-based simulations.
Journal Article

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2024-04-15
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Technical Paper

Open-loop Torque Control Strategy based on Constant Volume Instantaneous Combustion Model

2024-04-09
2024-01-2840
A model-based torque control strategy which is simple and easily adaptable to various types of engines is developed in this paper. A torque model is derived from constant-volume combustion model, and applications of the model to engine torque control problem are also discussed. As examples, the torque model is calibrated with experimental data collected from two different engines, and simulation and experimental results from the torque control strategy are presented as well.
Technical Paper

Impact of Injection Valve Condition on Data-driven Prediction of Key Combustion Parameters Based on an Intelligent Diesel Fuel Injector for Large Engine Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2836
The advent of digitalization opens up new avenues for advances in large internal combustion engine technology. Key engine components are becoming "intelligent" through advanced instrumentation and data analytics. By generating value-added data, they provide deeper insight into processes related to the components. An intelligent common rail diesel fuel injection valve for large engine applications in combination with machine learning allows reliable prediction of key combustion parameters such as maximum cylinder pressure, combustion phasing and indicated mean effective pressure. However, fault-related changes to the injection valve also have to be considered. Based on experiments on a medium-speed four-stroke single-cylinder research engine with a displacement of approximately 15.7 liter, this study investigates the extent to which the intelligent injection valve can improve the reliability of combustion parameter predictions in the presence of injection valve faults.
Technical Paper

A Deviation-Based Centroid Displacement Method for Combustion Parameters Acquisition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2839
The absence of combustion information continues to be one of the key obstacles to the intelligent development of engines. Currently, the cost of integrating cylinder pressure sensors remains too high, prompting attention to methods for extracting combustion information from existing sensing data. Mean-value combustion models for engines are unable to capture changes of combustion parameters. Furthermore, the methods of reconstructing combustion information using sensor signals mainly depend on the working state of the sensors, and the reliability of reconstructed values is directly influenced by sensor malfunctions. Due to the concentration of operating conditions of hybrid vehicles, the reliability of priori calibration map has increased. Therefore, a combustion information reconstruction method based on priori calibration information and the fused feature deviations of existing sensing signals is proposed and named the "Deviation-based Centroid Displacement Method" (DCDM).
Technical Paper

Strategies to Reduce Higher Unburned Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions in Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2360
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is a promising, high-efficiency, clean combustion mode for diesel engines. One of the significant limitations of RCCI is its higher unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions compared to conventional diesel combustion. After-treatment control of HC and CO emissions is difficult to achieve in RCCI because of lower exhaust gas temperatures associated with the low-temperature combustion (LTC) mode of operation. The present study involves combined experimental and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) investigations to develop the most effective HC and CO control strategy for RCCI. A production light-duty diesel engine is modified to run in RCCI mode by introducing electronic port fuel injection with the replacement of mechanical injectors by the CRDI system. Experimental data were obtained using diesel as HRF (High reactive fuel) and gasoline as LRF (low reactive fuel).
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Internal and External EGR Effects on a CNG-OME Dual-Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2361
Dual-fuel engines powered by renewable fuels provide a potential solution for reducing the carbon footprint and emissions of transportation, contributing to the goal of achieving sustainable mobility. The investigation presented in the following uses a dual-fuel engine concept running on biogas (referred to as CNG in this paper) and the e-fuel polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (OME). The current study focuses on the effects of exhaust gas rebreathing and external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions and brake thermal efficiency (BTE). A four-cylinder heavy-duty engine converted to dual-fuel operation was used to conduct the engine tests at a load point of 1600 min-1 and 9.8 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The respective shares of high reactivity fuel (HRF, here: OME) and low reactivity fuel (LRF, here: CNG) were varied, as were the external and internal EGR rates and their combinations.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Engine Performance Fueled with Ammonia-Hydrogen Blend Ignited by Diesel Pilot

2024-04-09
2024-01-2365
The global energy crisis and drastic climate change are continuously promoting the implementation of sustainable energy sources. To meet the emission standards and carbon-neutrality targets in vehicle industry, ammonia is considered to be one of the promising carbon-neutral fuels. However, running the engines on high amounts of ammonia may lead to significantly high ammonia slip. This originates huge safety concerns. Therefore, hydrogen is added in certain ratio with ammonia to promote combustion and reduce ammonia slip. Furthermore, adding diesel as a pilot fuel further facilitates the combustion reactions. This experimental study investigated the effect of different ammonia-hydrogen blend ratios on in-cylinder pressure, heat release rate, cumulative heat release, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), indicated thermal efficiency (ITE), CA5 and CA50. This effect of blend ratios was tested for varied diesel pilot amounts and timings.
Technical Paper

Development of an Ultra-Low Carbon Flex Dual-Fuel Ammonia Engine for Heavy-Duty Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2368
The work examined the practicality of converting a modern production 6 cylinder 7.7 litre heavy-duty diesel engine for flex dual-fuel operation with ammonia as the main fuel. A small amount of diesel fuel (pilot) was used as an ignition source. Ammonia was injected into the intake ports during the intake stroke, while the original direct fuel injection equipment was retained and used for pilot diesel injection. A bespoke engine control unit was used to control the injection of both fuels and all other engine parameters. The aim was to provide a cost-effective retrofitting technology for existing heavy-duty engines, to enable eco-friendly operation with minimal carbon emissions. The tests were carried out at a baseline speed of 600 rpm for the load range of the engine (10-90%), with minimum pilot diesel quantity and as high as 90% substitution ratio of ammonia for diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

NH 3 and H 2 Impact on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of i-C 8 H 18 Flame under Premixed and Diffusion Conditions

2024-04-09
2024-01-2370
Soot and carbon dioxide released from internal combustion engines became the key issues when using fossil fuels. Ammonia and hydrogen having zero-carbon species can reduce carbon-related emissions and enhance the reliance on renewable fuels. A comparative study of ammonia and hydrogen impact on combustion and emission characteristics of iso-octane flame was performed under different combustion conditions. Arrhenius equation, soot surface reactions, and modified kinetic mechanism were used to study the flame growth, soot nucleation, and surface growth rates. The results show that hydrogen increased the temperature about 20.74 K and 59.30 K, whereas ammonia reduced it about 82.17 K and 66.03 K at premixed and counterflow conditions, respectively. The flame speed of iso-octane was increased 43.83 cm/s by hydrogen and decreased 34.36 cm/s by ammonia. A reduction in CH2O caused a reduction in CO and CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of an Automatic Pipeline for Data Analysis and Pre-Processing for Data Driven-Based Engine Emission Modeling in a Real Industrial Application

2024-04-09
2024-01-2018
During the development of an Internal Combustion Engine-based powertrain, traditional procedures for control strategies calibration and validation produce huge amount of data, that can be used to develop innovative data-driven applications, such as emission virtual sensing. One of the main criticalities is related to the data quality, that cannot be easily assessed for such a big amount of data. This work focuses on an emission modeling activity, using an enhanced Light Gradient Boosting Regressor and a dedicated data pre-processing pipeline to improve data quality. First thing, a software tool is developed to access a database containing data coming from emissions tests. The tool performs a data cleaning procedure to exclude corrupted data or invalid parts of the test. Moreover, it automatically tunes model hyperparameters, it chooses the best set of features, and it validates the procedure by comparing the estimation and the experimental measurement.
Technical Paper

Ultra-Downsizing of ICEs Based on True Atkinson Cycle Implementations. Thermodynamic Analysis and Comparison on the Indicated Fuel Conversion Efficiency of Atkinson and Classical ICE Cycles

2024-04-09
2024-01-2096
Ultra-Downsizing (UD) was introduced as an even higher level of downsizing for Internal Combustion Engines ICEs, see [2] SAE 2015-01-1252. The introduction of Ultra Downsizing (UD) aims to enhance the power, efficiency, and sustainability of ICEs while maintaining the thermal and mechanical strain within acceptable limits. The following approaches are utilized: 1 True Atkinson Cycles are implemented utilizing an asymmetrical crank mechanism called Variable Compression and Stroke Ratios (VCSR). This mechanism allows for extended expansion stroke and continuous adjustment of the Volumetric Compression Ratio (VCR). 2 Unrestricted two or more stage high-pressure turbocharging and intensive intercooling: This setup enables more complete filling of the cylinder and reduces the compression work on the piston, resulting in higher specific power and efficiency. 3 The new Load Control (LC) approach is based to continuous VCR adjustment.
Technical Paper

Development of the New V6 Twin-Turbocharged Engine for Flagship SUV

2024-04-09
2024-01-2095
As part of Nissan’s strategy of electrification and the shift to smart technologies, our powertrain department has two main pillars: zero emissions and ICE Evolution. As a core unit of ICE Evolution, we have developed a brand new 3.5L V6 Twin turbocharged gasoline engine for Nissan’s next generation full-size flagship SUV to deliver luxury and toughness at the highest level. This brand-new engine will be applied to vehicles in all corners of the world and must have strong performance in every corner. More specifically, it has to meet the latest emissions and fuel efficiency regulations, have strong power performance beyond expectation, and provide reliable drivability on rough roads and deserts. To achieve these requirements, the new engine is incorporating many cutting-edge technologies.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Knock Formation in Gasoline and Methanol Combustion Using a Multiple Spark Ignition Approach: An Optical Investigation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2105
Engine knock is a major challenge that limits the achievement of higher engine efficiency by increasing the compression ratio of the engine. To address this issue, using a higher octane number fuel can be a potential solution to reduce or eliminate the propensity for knock and so obtain better engine performance. Methanol, a promising alternative fuel, can be produced from conventional and non-conventional energy resources, which can help reduce pollutant emissions. Methanol has a higher octane number than typically gasolines, which makes it a viable option for reducing knock intensity. This study compared the combustion characteristics of gasoline and methanol fuels in an optical spark-ignition engine using multiple spark plugs. The experiment was carried out on a single-cylinder four-stroke optical engine. The researchers used a customized metal liner with four circumferential spark plugs to generate multiple flame kernels inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study on the Combustion Characteristics of an Ammonia/Hydrogen Engine with Active Prechamber Ignition

2024-04-09
2024-01-2104
Both ammonia and hydrogen, as zero-carbon fuels for internal combustion engines, are received growing attention. However, ammonia faces a challenge of low flame propagation velocity. Through injecting hydrogen into active pre-chamber, its jet flame ignition can accelerate the flame propagation velocity of ammonia. The influence of different pre-chamber structures on engine combustion characteristics is significant. In this paper, numerical studies were conducted to assess the impact of various pre-chamber structures and hydrogen injection strategy on the combustion characteristics of ammonia/hydrogen engines while maintaining the equivalent ratio of 1.0. The results indicate that the jet angle significantly affects the position of jet flame and the followed main combustion. The in-cylinder combustion pressure peaks at jet angle of 150°. Meanwhile, the combustion duration of 150° is shortened by 74.3% compared with that of 60°.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Combustion Stability, Unregulated and Particle Emissions in RCCI Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2088
This study experimentally investigates the combustion stability in RCCI engines along with the gaseous (regulated and unregulated) and particle emissions. Multifractal analysis is used to characterize the cyclic combustion variations in the combustion parameters (such as IMEP, CA50, and THR). This analysis aims to investigate the multifractal characteristics of the RCCI combustion mode near the misfiring limit. The investigation is carried out on a modified single-cylinder diesel engine to operate in RCCI combustion mode.The RCCI combustion mode is tested for different diesel injection timing (SOI) at fixed engine speed (1500rpm) and load (1.5 bar BMEP). The particle number characteristics and gaseous emissions are measured using a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS500) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) along with Flame Ionizing Detector (FID), respectively.
Technical Paper

CFD Modeling of Conventional and Pre-Chamber Ignition of a High-Performance Naturally Aspirated Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2102
The abatement of carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions on motorbike spark-ignition (SI) engines is a challenging task, considering the small size, the low cost and the high power-to-weight ratio required by the market for such powertrain. In this context, the passive pre-chamber (PPC) technology is an attractive solution. The combustion duration can be reduced by igniting the air-fuel mixture inside a small volume connected to the cylinder, unfolding the way to high engine efficiencies without penalization of the peak performance. Moreover, no injectors are needed inside the PPC, guaranteeing a cheap and fast retrofitting of the existing fleet. In this work, a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) investigation is carried out over an experimental configuration of motorbike SI engine, operated at fixed operating conditions with both traditional and PPC configurations.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Cathode Spot Formation on Spark Plug Electrodes Leading to Electrode Erosion

2024-04-09
2024-01-2103
A multi-dimensional cathode spot generation model is proposed to study the interaction between the plasma arc and cathode surface of a spark plug during the ignition process. The model is focused on the instationary (high current) arc phase immediately following breakdown, and includes detailed physics for the phenomena during spot formation such as ion collision, thermal-field emission, and metal vaporization, to simulate the surface heat source, current density and surface pressure. The spot formation for a platinum cathode is simulated using the VOF (volume of fluid) model within FLUENT, where the local metal is melted and deformed by pressure differences on the surface. A random walk model has been integrated to consider the movement of the arc center, resulting in the formation of different types of spots.
Technical Paper

Effects of Spark Plug Operating Conditions on Electrode Erosion and Surface Deformation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2100
An experimental study of the spark ignition process for SI engines was conducted to study spark plug erosion and the effect of breakdown voltage/energy on electrode surface deformation. The experiments were conducted outside of an engine, in both a pressurized constant volume optical chamber and in a high-pressure vessel heated within a furnace with gas temperatures as high as 730°C. J-gap spark plugs designed for natural gas engines were studied at elevated temperature and under a range of pressures to investigate electrode wear characteristics. Both iridium-alloy and platinum-alloy cathode (center electrode) and anode (ground strap) spark plugs were investigated. In addition, single spark events were performed on polished platinum cathode surfaces to allow the visualization of craters from individual spark events in order to quantify how their size and shape were affected by energy deposition and breakdown characteristics.
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