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Program - Government/Industry Meeting 2024

2024-07-21
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.
Event

Exhibit/Sponsor - 2024 Government/Industry Meeting

2024-07-21
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.
Event

Contact - 2024 Government Industry Meeting

2024-07-21
Annual conference government policy, regulatory makers, automotive industry neutral forum discuss US government regulation, technology, customer acceptance future vehicle design. industry event safety, emission control, fuel efficiency, automated vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Computational Study of Hydrogen Direct Injection Using a Pre-Chamber in an Opposed-Piston Engine

2024-07-02
2024-01-3010
Combustion characteristics of a hydrogen (H2) direct-injected (DI) pre-chamber (PC)-assisted opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) engine are investigated by 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The architecture of the OP2S engine has potential features for reducing wall heat losses, as the DI H2 jets are not directed towards the piston face. To overcome the high resistance to autoignition of H2, a PC technology was implemented in order to enhance the ignition of the mixture by the multiple hot reactive jets. To further investigate the interaction between the H2 plume and the chamber walls, three different piston bowl designs were evaluated and ranked based on a merit function. For the cases under study, the flat piston design was found to be most favorable (compared to the narrow and wide pistons) due to its reduced surface area for lower wall heat losses.
Technical Paper

Effect of Dithering on Post-Catalyst Exhaust Gas Composition and on Short Time Regeneration of Deactivated PdO/Al2O3 Catalysts under Real Engine Conditions

2024-06-12
2024-37-0002
Fossil fuels such as natural gas used in engines still play an important role worldwide which however is also exacerbating climate change as a result of carbon dioxide emissions. Although natural gas engines show an overall low pollutant emissions level, methane slip due to incomplete combustion occurs, causing methane emissions with a more than 20 times higher global warming potential than CO2. Additionally, further tightening of emissions legislation is to be expected bringing methane emissions even more into focus making exhaust gas aftertreatment issues remain relevant. For lean gas applications, (Pd)-based catalysts turned out to convert CH4 most efficiently usually being supported by metal oxides such as aluminium oxide (Al2O3). Water (H2O) contained in the exhaust gas causes strong inhibition on Pd catalysts.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid-Electric Medium-HD Demonstrator Vehicle with a Pent-Roof SI Natural Gas Engine

2024-06-12
2024-37-0026
In response to global climate change, there is a widespread push to reduce carbon emissions in the transportation sector. For the difficult to decarbonize heavy-duty (HD) vehicle sector, hybridization and lower carbon-intensity fuels can offer a low-cost, near-term solution for CO2 reduction. The use of natural gas can provide such an alternative for HD vehicles while the increasing availability of renewable natural gas affords the opportunity for much deeper reductions in net-CO2 emissions. With this in consideration, the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory launched the Natural Gas Vehicle Research and Development Project to stimulate advancements in technology and availability of natural gas vehicles. As part of this program, Southwest Research Institute developed a hybrid-electric medium-HD vehicle (class 6) to demonstrate a substantial CO2 reduction over the baseline diesel vehicle and ultra-low NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Fuels for Long-Haul Truck Engines: A 1D-CFD Analysis

2024-06-12
2024-37-0027
Heavy duty engines for long-haul trucks are quite difficult to electrify, due to the large amount of energy that should be stored on-board to achieve a range comparable to that of conventional fuels. In particular, this paper considers a stock engine with a displacement of 12.9 L, developed by the manufacturer in two different versions. As a standard diesel, the engine is able to deliver about 420 kW at 1800 rpm, whereas in the compressed natural gas configuration the maximum power output is 330 kW, at the same speed. Three possible alternatives to these fossil fuels are considered in this study: biodiesel (HVOlution by Eni), bio-methane and green hydrogen. While the replacement of diesel and compressed natura gas with biofuels does not need significant hardware modifications, the implementation of a hydrogen spark ignition combustion system requires a deep revision of the engine concept.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Lignin Fuels for CI Engines

2024-06-12
2024-37-0022
This study explores the feasibility of using a sustainable lignin-based fuel, consisting of 44 % lignin, 50 % ethanol, and 6 % water, in conventional compression ignition (CI) marine engines. Through experimental evaluations on a modified small-bore CI engine, we identified the primary challenges associated with lignin-based fuel, including engine startup and shutdown issues due to solvent evaporation and lignin solidification inside the fuel system, and deposit formation on cylinder walls leading to piston ring seizure. To address these issues, we developed a fuel switching system transitioning from lignin-based fuel to cleaning fuel with 85 vol% of acetone, 10 vol% of water and 5 vol% of ignition improving additive, effectively preventing system clogs.
Technical Paper

Influences of High-Pressure Pump and Injector Nozzle Geometry on Hydraulics Characteristics of a Mechanical Diesel Direct-Injection System

2024-06-04
2024-01-5061
The geometry of high-pressure pump and injector nozzles crucially influences hydraulic behaviors (e.g., the start of injection, the pressure profiles developed in the high-pressure line, needle lift, and injection rates) in diesel engines. These factors, in turn, significantly impact fuel atomization, fuel–air mixing, combustion quality, and the formation of emissions. The main geometry parameters such as plunger diameter and the number and diameter of nozzles lead to the system complexity, requiring careful analysis, design, and calibration. In this study, a high-speed shadowgraph system and a high-resolution pressure recording system were developed to capture the start of injection, spray structure, and pressure profiles in the high-pressure line. Additionally, a model was developed using GT-Fuel package built within the GT-Suite of simulation tools to explore different plunger diameters and numbers and diameters of injector nozzles.
Standard

Test Method for the Determination of Water Concentration in Polyol Ester and Diester Aerospace Lubricants by Coulometric Karl Fischer Titration

2024-05-17
CURRENT
ARP5991B
The test method describes the procedure for the direct determination of water concentration in polyol ester and diester based aerospace lubricants by commercially available automated coulometric Karl Fischer titration instruments. The method was validated to cover the water concentration range of 150 to 3500 µg/g. The method may also be suitable for the determination of water concentrations outside this range and for other classes of fluids; however, the precision statement shall not be applicable for such uses.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Condensation Particle Counter-Based Portable Solid Particle Number System for Applications with High Water Content in Exhaust

2024-04-22
2024-01-5048
The Particle Number–Portable Emission Measurement System (PN-PEMS) came into force with Euro VI Phase E regulations starting January 1, 2022. However, positive ignition (PI) engines must comply from January 1, 2024. The delay was due to the unavailability of the PN-PEMS system that could withstand high concentrations of water typically present in the tailpipe (TP) of CNG vehicles, which was detrimental to the PN-PEMS systems. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the condensation particle counter (CPC)-based PN-PEMS measurement capabilities that was upgraded to endure high concentration of water. The PN-PEMS measurement of solid particle number (SPN23) greater than 23 nm was compared against the laboratory-grade PN systems in four phases. Each phase differs based upon the PN-PEMS and PN system location and measurements were made from three different CNG engines. In the first phase, systems measured the diluted exhaust through constant volume sampler (CVS) tunnel.
Journal Article

Potential Analysis of Defossilized Operation of a Heavy-Duty Dual-Fuel Engine Utilizing Dimethyl Carbonate/Methyl Formate as Primary and Poly Oxymethylene Dimethyl Ether as Pilot Fuel

2024-04-18
Abstract This study demonstrates the defossilized operation of a heavy-duty port-fuel-injected dual-fuel engine and highlights its potential benefits with minimal retrofitting effort. The investigation focuses on the optical characterization of the in-cylinder processes, ranging from mixture formation, ignition, and combustion, on a fully optically accessible single-cylinder research engine. The article revisits selected operating conditions in a thermodynamic configuration combined with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. One approach is to quickly diminish fossil fuel use by retrofitting present engines with decarbonized or defossilized alternatives. As both fuels are oxygenated, a considerable change in the overall ignition limits, air–fuel equivalence ratio, burning rate, and resistance against undesired pre-ignition or knocking is expected, with dire need of characterization.
Technical Paper

Improving the Performance of Diesel Engines by Bore Profile Control under Operating Conditions

2024-04-09
2024-01-2832
The cylinder bore in an engine block is deformed under the assembling stress of the cylinder head and thermal stress. This distortion exacerbates the piston skirt friction and piston slap. Through a numerical and experimental study, this article analyzes the effect of an optimized bore profile on the engine performance. The piston skirt friction was estimated in a three-dimensional elastohydrodynamic (EHD) friction analysis. An ideal cylindrical bore under the rated load condition was assumed as the optimal bore profile that minimized the piston skirt friction without compromising the piston slap. The simulation study revealed that secondary motion of the piston immediately after firing the top dead center can be mitigated by narrowing the piston–bore clearance at the upper position of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Elucidation of Deteriorating Oil Consumption Mechanism Due to Piston Top Ring Groove Wear

2024-04-09
2024-01-2269
The piston and piston ring are used in a severe contact environment in engine durability tests, which causes severe wear to the piston ring groove, leading to significant development costs for countermeasures. Conventionally, in order to ensure functional feasibility through wear on the piston top ring groove (hereinafter “ring groove”), only functional evaluations through actual engine durability testing were performed, and there was an issue in determining the limit value for the actual amount of wear itself. Because of this, the mechanism that may cause wear on the ring groove was clarified through past research, but this resulted in judgment criteria with some leeway from the perspective of functional assurance. To establish judgment criteria, it was necessary to understand both functional effect from ring groove wear and the mechanism behind it.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Two-Parameter Controlled Novel Tribometer for Analysing Durability of Piston Ring-Engine Cylinder Tribo-Pair

2024-04-09
2024-01-2067
The wear of the piston ring-cylinder liner system in gasoline engines is inevitable and significantly impacts fuel economy. Utilizing a custom-built linear reciprocating tribometer, this study assesses the wear resistance of newly developed engine cylinder coatings. The custom device offers a cost-effective means for tribological evaluation, optimizing coating process parameters with precise control over critical operational factors such as normal load and sliding frequency. Unlike conventional commercial tribometers, it ensures a more accurate simulation of the engine cylinder system. However, existing research lacks a comprehensive comparative analysis and procedure to establish precision limits for such modified devices. This study evaluates the custom tribometer's repeatability compared to a commercial wear-testing instrument, confirming its potential as a valuable tool for advanced wear testing on engine cylinder samples.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of an EGR Dilution in a Pre-Chamber Spark Ignited Engine Fuelled by Natural Gas

2024-04-09
2024-01-2081
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a proven strategy for the reduction of NOX emissions in spark ignited (SI) engines and compression ignition engines, especially in lean burn conditions where the increase of thermal efficiency is obtained. The dilution level of the mixture with EGR is in a conventional SI engine limited by the increase of combustion instability (CoV IMEP). A possible method to extend the EGR dilution level and ensure stable combustion is the implementation of an active pre-chamber combustion system. The pre-chamber spark ignited (PCSI) engine enables fast and stable combustion of lean mixtures in the main chamber by utilizing high ignition energy of multiple flame jets penetrating from the pre-chamber to the main chamber. In this paper, as an initial research step, a numerical analysis is performed by employing the 0D/1D simulation model, validated with the initial experimental and 3D-CFD results.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the IC Engine Piston Skirt Design Via Neural Network Surrogate and Genetic Algorithms

2024-04-09
2024-01-2603
Internal combustion (IC) engines still power most of the vehicles on road and will likely to remain so in the near future, especially for heavy duty applications in which electrification is typically more challenging. Therefore, continued improvements on IC engines in terms of efficiency and longevity are necessary for a more sustainable transportation sector. Two important design objectives for heavy duty engines with wet liners are to reduce friction loss and to lower the risks of cavitation damages, both of which can be greatly influenced by the piston-liner clearance and the design of the piston skirt. However, engine design optimization is difficult due to the nonlinear interactions between the key design variables and the design objectives, as well as the multi-physics and multi-scale nature of the mechanisms that are relevant to the design objectives.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effects of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger on Scavenging Control for an Opposed Piston Two Stroke (OP2S) Compression Ignition Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2388
Opposed piston two-stroke (OP2S) diesel engines have demonstrated a reduction in engine-out emissions and increased efficiency compared to conventional four-stroke diesel engines. Due to the higher stroke-to-bore ratio and the absence of a cylinder head, the heat transfer loss to the coolant is lower near ‘Top Dead Center.’ The selection and design of the air path is critical to realizing the benefits of the OP2S engine architecture. Like any two-stroke diesel engine, the scavenging process and the composition of the internal residuals are predominantly governed by the pressure differential between the intake and the exhaust ports. Without dedicated pumping strokes, the two-stroke engine architecture requires external devices to breathe.
Technical Paper

Modeling Pre-Chamber Assisted Efficient Combustion in an Argon Power Cycle Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2690
The Argon Power Cycle (APC) is a novel zero-emission closed-loop argon recirculating engine cycle which has been developed by Noble Thermodynamics Systems, Inc. It provides a significant gain in indicated thermal efficiency of the reciprocating engine by breathing oxygen and argon rather than air. The use of argon, a monatomic gas, greatly increases the specific heat ratio of the working fluid, resulting in a significantly higher ideal Otto cycle efficiency. This technology delivers a substantial improvement in reciprocating engine performance, maximizing the energy conversion of fuel into useful work. Combined Heat and Power (CHP) operating under the APC represents a promising solution to realize a net-zero-carbon future, providing the thermal energy that hard-to-electrify manufacturing processes need while at the same time delivering clean, dispatchable, and efficient power.
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