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Technical Paper

Effect of Baffle Height on the in-Cylinder Air-Fuel Mixture Preparation in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine – A Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2697
In-cylinder fluid dynamics enhance performance and emission characteristics in internal combustion (IC) engines. Techniques such as helical ports, valve shrouding, masking, and modifications to piston profiles or vanes in ports are employed to achieve the desired in-cylinder flows in these engines. However, due to space constraints, modifications to the cylinder head are typically minimal. The literature suggests that introducing baffles into the combustion chamber of an IC engine can enhance in-cylinder flows, air-fuel mixing, and, subsequently, stratification. Studies have indicated that the height of the baffles plays a significant role in determining the level of improvement in in-cylinder flow and air-fuel mixing. Therefore, this study employs Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis to investigate the impact of baffle height on in-cylinder flow and air-fuel mixing in a four-stroke, four-valve, spray-guided gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine.
Technical Paper

Powering Tomorrow's Light, Medium, and Heavy-Duty Vehicles: A Comprehensive Techno-Economic Examination of Emerging Powertrain Technologies

2024-04-09
2024-01-2446
This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of emerging powertrain technologies for a wide spectrum of vehicles, ranging from light-duty passenger vehicles to medium and heavy-duty trucks. The study focuses on the anticipated evolution of these technologies over the coming decades, assessing their potential benefits and impact on sustainability. The analysis encompasses simulations across a wide range of vehicle classes, including compact, midsize, small SUVs, midsize SUVs, and pickups, as well as various truck types, such as class 4 step vans, class 6 box trucks, and class 8 regional and long-haul trucks. It evaluates key performance metrics, including fuel consumption, estimated purchase price, and total cost of ownership, for these vehicles equipped with advanced powertrain technologies such as mild hybrid, full hybrid, plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell powertrains.
Technical Paper

Computational Investigation of Hydrogen-Air Mixing in a Large-Bore Locomotive Dual Fuel Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2694
The internal combustion engine (ICE) has long dominated the heavy-duty sector by using liquid fossil fuels such as diesel but global commitments by countries and OEMs to reduce lifecycle carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions has garnered interest in alternative fuels like hydrogen. Hydrogen is a unique gaseous fuel that contains zero carbon atoms and has desired thermodynamic properties of high energy density per unit mass and high flame speeds. However, there are challenges related to its adoption to the heavy-duty sector as a drop-in fuel replacement for compression ignition (CI) diesel combustion given its high autoignition resistance. To overcome this fundamental barrier, engine manufacturers are exploring dual fuel combustion engines by substituting a fraction of the diesel fuel with hydrogen which enables fuel flexibility when there is no infrastructure and retrofittability to existing platforms.
Technical Paper

Piston Geometries Impact on Spark-Ignition Light-Duty Hydrogen Engine

2024-04-09
2024-01-2613
The European Union aims to be climate neutral by 2050 and requires the transport sector to reduce their emissions by 90%. The deployment of H2ICE to power vehicles is one of the solutions proposed. Indeed, H2ICEs in vehicles can reduce local pollution, reduce global emissions of CO2 and increase efficiency. Although H2ICEs could be rapidly introduced, investigations on hydrogen combustion in ICEs are still required. This paper aims to experimentally compare a flat piston and a bowl piston in terms of performances, emissions and abnormal combustions. Tests were performed with the help of a single cylinder Diesel engine which has been modified. In particular, a center direct injector dedicated to H2 injection and a side-mounted spark plug were installed, and the compression ratio was reduced to 12.7:1. Several exhaust gas measurement systems complete the testbed to monitor exhaust NOx and H2.
Technical Paper

Ducted Fuel Injection: Confirmed Re-entrainment Hypothesis

2024-04-09
2024-01-2885
Testing of ducted fuel injection (DFI) in a single-cylinder engine with production-like hardware previously showed that adding a duct structure increased soot emissions at the full load, rated speed operating point [1]. The authors hypothesized that the DFI flame, which travels faster than a conventional diesel combustion (CDC) flame, and has a shorter distance to travel, was being re-entrained into the on-going fuel injection around the lift-off length (LOL), thus reducing air entrainment into the on-going injection. The engine operating condition and the engine combustion chamber geometry were duplicated in a constant pressure vessel. The experimental setup used a 3D piston section combined with a glass fire deck allowing for a comparison between a CDC flame and a DFI flame via high-speed imaging. CH* imaging of the 3D piston profile view clearly confirmed the re-entrainment hypothesis presented in the previous engine work.
Technical Paper

Effect of In-Cylinder Flow Motion on Fuel-Air Mixture Formation in a Medium-Duty DI-SI H2 Engine: An Experimentally Supported CFD Study

2024-04-09
2024-01-2117
The increased utilization of batteries and fuel-cells for powering electric applications, as well as bio- and e-fuels into internal combustion engines are seen as options to lower the carbon footprint of industry and transportation sectors. When high power outputs and fast refueling are requisites, H2 ICEs may be a relevant choice. Applications include electricity conversion within a genset or mechanical energy in a vehicle. Within this framework, a John Deere 4045 Diesel engine converted to a H2 single-cylinder is studied at relevant operating conditions for the mentioned use cases, which pose high torque and power output requirements. The modified engine integrates a Phinia DI-CHG 10 outward-opening H2 injector instead of the Diesel unit, as well as a spark-plug rather than the glow-plug.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis of Hydrogen-DDF Mode Based on OH* Chemiluminescence Images

2024-04-09
2024-01-2367
Hydrogen–diesel dual-fuel combustion processes were visualized using an optically accessible rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). A hydrogen-air mixture was introduced into the combustion chamber, and a pilot injection of diesel fuel was used as the ignition source. A small amount of diesel fuel was injected as the pilot fuel at injection pressures of 40, 80, and 120 MPa using a common rail injection system. The injection amounts of diesel fuel were varied as 3, 6, and 13 mm3. The amount of hydrogen was manipulated by varying the total excess air ratio (λtotal) at 3 and 4. The RCEM was operated at a constant speed of 900 rpm, and the in-cylinder pressure and temperature at the top dead center (TDC) were set as 5 MPa and 700 K, respectively. The combustion processes were visualized via direct photography and hydroxyl (OH*) chemiluminescence photography using a high-speed camera and an image intensifier.
Technical Paper

Sulfur Impact on Methane Steam Reforming over the Stoichiometric Natural Gas Three-Way Catalyst

2024-04-09
2024-01-2633
The steam reforming of CH4 plays a crucial role in the high-temperature activity of natural gas three-way catalysts. Despite existing reports on sulfur inhibition in CH4 steam reforming, there is a limited understanding of sulfur storage and removal dynamics under various lambda conditions. In this study, we utilize a 4-Mode sulfur testing approach to elucidate the dynamics of sulfur storage and removal and their impact on three-way catalyst performance. We also investigate the influence of sulfur on CH4 steam reforming by analyzing CH4 conversions under dithering, rich, and lean reactor conditions. In the 4-Mode sulfur test, saturating the TWC with sulfur at low temperatures emerges as the primary cause of significant three-way catalyst performance degradation. After undergoing a deSOx treatment at 600 °C, NOx conversions were fully restored, while CH4 conversions did not fully recover.
Technical Paper

Methane Conversion in Stoichiometric Natural Gas Engine Exhaust

2024-04-09
2024-01-2632
Stoichiometric natural gas (CNG) engines are an attractive solution for heavy-duty vehicles considering their inherent advantage in emitting lower CO2 emissions compared to their Diesel counterparts. Additionally, their aftertreatment system can be simpler and less costly as NOx reduction is handled simultaneously with CO/HC oxidation by a Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). The conversion of methane over a TWC shows a complex behavior, significantly different than non-methane hydrocarbons in stoichiometric gasoline engines. Its performance is maximized in a narrow A/F window and is strongly affected by the lean/rich cycling frequency. Experimental and simulation results indicate that lean-mode efficiency is governed by the palladium’s oxidation state while rich conversion is governed by the gradual formation of carbonaceous compounds which temporarily deactivate the active materials.
Technical Paper

Highway Exhaust Emissions of a Natural Gas-Diesel Dual-Fuel Heavy-Duty Truck

2024-04-09
2024-01-2120
Diesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) can be retrofitted with conversion kits to operate as dual-fuel vehicles in which partial diesel usage is offset by a gaseous fuel such as compressed natural gas (CNG). The main purpose of installing such a conversion kit is to reduce the operating cost of HDVs. Additionally, replacing diesel partially with a low-carbon fuel such as CNG can potentially lead to lower carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the tail-pipe. The main issue of CNG-diesel dual-fuel vehicles is the methane (CH4, the primary component of CNG) slip. CH4 is difficult to oxidize in the exhaust after-treatment (EAT) system and its slip may offset the advantage of lower CO2 emissions of natural gas combustion as CH4 is a strong greenhouse gas (GHG). The objective of this study is to compare the emissions of an HDV with a CNG conversion kit operating in diesel and dual-fuel mode during highway operation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Predictive Capabilities of Chemical Kinetic Models for Hydrogen Combustion Applications

2024-04-09
2024-01-2116
Recent legislation banning the sale of new petrol and diesel vehicles in Europe from 2035 has shifted the focus of internal combustion engine research towards alternative fuels with net zero tailpipe emissions such as hydrogen. Research regarding hydrogen as a fuel is particularly pertinent to the so-called ‘hard-to-electrify’ propulsion applications, requiring a combination of large range, fast refuelling times or high-load duty cycles. The virtual design, development, and optimisation of hydrogen internal combustion engines has resulted in the necessity for accurate predictive modelling of the hydrogen combustion and autoignition processes. Typically, the models for these processes rely respectively on laminar flame speed datasets to calculate the rate of fuel burn as well as ignition delay time datasets to estimate autoignition timing. These datasets are generated using chemical kinetic mechanisms available in the literature.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Development for Flat Firedeck Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

2024-04-09
2024-01-2115
The widely accepted best practice for spark-ignition combustion is the four-valve pent-roof chamber using a central sparkplug and incorporating tumble flow during the intake event. The bulk tumble flow readily breaks up during the compression stroke to fine-scale turbulent kinetic energy desired for rapid, robust combustion. The natural gas engines used in medium- and heavy-truck applications would benefit from a similar, high-tumble pent-roof combustion chamber. However, these engines are invariably derived from their higher-volume diesel counterparts, and the production volumes are insufficient to justify the amount of modification required to incorporate a pent-roof system. The objective of this multi-dimensional computational study was to develop a combustion chamber addressing the objectives of a pent-roof chamber while maintaining the flat firedeck and vertical valve orientation of the diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Ammonia Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Converted to Spark Ignition Operation

2024-04-09
2024-01-2371
Ammonia is one of the carbon-free alternatives considered for power generation and transportation sectors. But ammonia’s lower flame speed, higher ignition energy, and higher nitrogen oxides emissions are challenges in practical applications such as internal combustion engines. As a result, modifications in engine design and control and the use of a secondary fuel to initiate combustion such as natural gas are considered for ammonia-fueled engines. The higher-octane number of methane (the main component in natural gas) and ammonia allows for higher compression ratios, which in turn would increase the engine's thermal efficiency. One simple approach to initiate and control combustion for a high-octane fuel at higher compression ratios is to use a spark plug. This study experimentally investigated the operation of a heavy-duty compression ignition engine converted to spark ignition and ammonia-methane blends.
Journal Article

A Diesel Engine Ring Pack Performance Assessment

2024-03-23
Abstract Demonstrating ring pack operation in an operating engine is very difficult, yet it is essential to optimize engine performance parameters such as blow-by, oil consumption, emissions, and wear. A significant amount of power is lost in friction between piston ring–cylinder liner interfaces if ring pack parameters are not optimized properly. Thus, along with these parameters, it is also necessary to reduce friction power loss in modern internal combustion engines as the oil film thickness formed between the piston ring and liner is vital for power loss reduction due to friction. Hence, it has also been a topic of research interest for decades. Piston and ring dynamics simulation software are used extensively for a better ring pack design. In this research work, a similar software for piston ring dynamics simulation reviews the ring pack performance of a four-cylinder diesel engine.
Standard

Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid

2024-03-12
CURRENT
J1703_202403
This SAE Standard covers motor vehicle brake fluids of the nonpetroleum type, based upon glycols, glycol ethers, and appropriate inhibitors, for use in the braking system of any motor vehicle such as a passenger car, truck, bus, or trailer. These fluids are not intended for use under arctic conditions. These fluids are designed for use in braking systems fitted with rubber cups and seals made from styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR), or a terpolymer of ethylene, propylene, and a diene (EPDM).
Technical Paper

Impact of Liquefied Petroleum Gas on the Emission Characteristics of Diesel in a Single Cylinder Four Stroke Engine

2024-02-23
2023-01-5136
The depletion of oil resource and change in global warming has led to the development of alternate energy resources. Commercially the LPG gas is used as alternate fuel for the spark ignition engine. In this work an experimental investigation is done on Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) along with dual fuel mode of diesel as an alternative fuel for four stroke compression ignition engines. The primary objective of this study was to analyze the performance and the exhaust emissions of the engine using different LPG flow rate. The engine used in the study was originally a single cylinder, four-stroke compression ignition engine and minor modifications were carried out to permit the experiments to run on LPG fuel. The LPG is supplied in the suction stroke mixed with air while diesel is injected at the end of the compression stroke to initiate the combustion process. The LPG is made to flow with different levels of 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 18% and 21% on the volume basis with Diesel 100%.
Standard

Internal Combustion Engines - Piston Ring-Grooves

2024-02-16
CURRENT
J2275_202402
There is no ISO standard equivalent to this SAE Standard. This SAE Standard identifies and defines the most commonly used terms for piston ring-groove characteristics, specifies dimensioning for groove widths, and demonstrates the methodology for calculation of piston groove root diameter. The requirements of this document apply to pistons and rings of reciprocating internal combustion engines and compressors working under analogous conditions, up to and including 200 mm diameter and 4.5 mm width for compression rings and 8.0 mm width for oil rings. The specifications in this document assume that components are measured at an ambient temperature of 20 °C (68 °F). Tolerances specified in this document represent practical functional limits and do not imply process capabilities.
Journal Article

Modal Analysis of Combustion Chamber Acoustic Resonance to Reduce High-Frequency Combustion Noise in Pre-Chamber Jet Ignition Combustion Engines

2024-01-31
Abstract The notable increase in combustion noise in the 7–10 kHz band has become an issue in the development of pre-chamber jet ignition combustion gasoline engines that aim for enhanced thermal efficiency. Combustion noise in such a high-frequency band is often an issue in diesel engine development and is known to be due to resonance in the combustion chamber. However, there are few cases of it becoming a serious issue in gasoline engines, and effective countermeasures have not been established. The authors therefore decided to elucidate the mechanism of high-frequency combustion noise generation specific to this engine, and to investigate effective countermeasures. As the first step, in order to analyze the combustion chamber resonance modes of this engine in detail, calculation analysis using a finite element model and experimental modal analysis using an acoustic excitation speaker were conducted.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Potential of CBG as an Alternative Fuel: An Experimental Study on Vehicle Performance and Emissions in BS VI Compliant Three-Wheeler and Passenger Car

2024-01-16
2024-26-0076
India's natural gas consumption reached 60.3 billion cubic meters (BCM) in the year 2022-23, with imports accounting for 44.2% of the total consumption. As India targets 15% of primary energy consumption from gas by 2030, the demand for natural gas is expected to grow significantly. In this context, CBG (bio-CNG) which can reduce dependence on imported natural gas, has emerged as a viable alternative to CNG. The government's SATAT (Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation) initiative encourages entrepreneurs to establish CBG plants and supply CBG to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) for use as automotive and industrial fuels. As of June 2023, 50 CBG plants have been set up, and 128 retail outlets in India are selling CBG as a transportation fuel. The quality requirements of CBG are governed by IS 16087, aligning with the specifications for automotive CNG defined in IS 15958.
Technical Paper

Oil Aerosol Emission Optimization Using Deflectors in Turbo Charger Oil Drain Circuit

2024-01-16
2024-26-0047
Closed crankcase ventilation prevent harmful gases from entering atmosphere thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions. Ventilation system usually carries blowby gases along with oil mist generated from Engine to Air intake system. Major sources of blowby occurs from leak in combustion chamber through piston rings, leakage from turbocharger shafts & leakage from valve guides. Oil mist carried by these blowby gases gets separated using separation media before passing to Air Intake. Fleece separation media has high separation efficiency with lower pressure loss for oil aerosol particles having size above 10 microns. However, efficiency of fleece media drops drastically if size of aerosol particles are below 10 microns. Aerosol mist of lower particle size (>10 microns) generally forms due to flash boiling on piston under crown area and from shafts of turbo charger due to high speeds combined with elevated temperatures. High power density diesel engine is taken for our study.
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