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Commercial Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2013

This technical paper collection discusses aerodynamics: design and evaluation process; vehicle drag reduction; bluff base flows; wind tunnels; CFD applications and test procedure corrections.

Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2014

This technical paper collection covers vehicle aerodynamic development, drag reduction and fuel economy, handling and stability, cooling flows, surface soiling and water management, vehicle internal environment, tyre aerodynamics and modelling, aeroacoustics, structural response to aerodynamic loading, simulating the on-road environment, onset flow turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics, fundamental flow structures, new test methods and facilities, new applications of computational fluid dynamics simulation, competition vehicle aerodynamics.

Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2015

Vehicle aerodynamic development, drag reduction and fuel economy, handling and stability, cooling flows, surface soiling and water management, vehicle internal environment, tyre aerodynamics and modelling, aeroacoustics, structural response to aerodynamic loading, simulating the on-road environment, onset flow turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics, fundamental flow structures, new test methods and facilities, new applications of computational fluid dynamics simulation, competition vehicle aerodynamics.

Vehicle Aerodynamics, 2017

Vehicle aerodynamic development, drag reduction and fuel economy, handling and stability, cooling flows, surface soiling and water management, vehicle internal environment, tyre aerodynamics and modelling, aeroacoustics, structural response to aerodynamic loading, simulating the on-road environment, onset flow turbulence, unsteady aerodynamics, fundamental flow structures, new test methods and facilities, new applications of computational fluid dynamics simulation, competition vehicle aerodynamics.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of the Near Wall Flow Downstream of a Passenger Car Wheel Arch

Abstract The flow around and downstream of the front wheels of passenger cars is highly complex and characterized by flow structure interactions between the external flow, fluid exiting through the wheelhouse, flow from the engine bay and the underbody. In the present paper the near wall flow downstream of the front wheel house is analyzed, combining two traditional methods. A tuft visualization method is used to obtain the limiting streamline pattern and information about the near wall flow direction. Additionally, time resolved surface pressure measurements are used to study the pressure distribution and the standard deviation. The propagation of the occurring flow structures is investigated by cross correlations of the pressure signal and a spectral analysis provides the characteristic frequencies of the investigated flow.
Journal Article

Computational-Based Aerodynamic Design for a Formula SAE Vehicle

Abstract The computational analysis and design of an aerodynamics system for a Formula SAE vehicle is presented. The work utilizes a stochastic-approximation optimization (SAO) process coupled with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. The methodology is presented in a general manner, and is applicable to other complex parametrizable systems. A mix of discrete and continuous variables is established to define the airfoil profile, location, sizing and angle of all wing elements. Objectives are established to maximize downforce, minimize drag and maintain a target vehicle aerodynamic balance. A combination of successive 2D and 3D CFD evaluations have achieved vehicle aerodynamic performance targets at a minimal computational cost.
Journal Article

Impact of Rear Spoiler on Vehicle Braking Longitudinal Dynamics

Abstract During vehicle braking, friction forces generated on the vehicle tires and the vehicle resisting aerodynamic forces play a critical role that impact the vehicle’s longitudinal braking dynamics such as stopping distance and time. These forces are mainly the tires’ braking and rolling resisting forces, vehicle lift, and drag forces. The vehicle aerodynamic forces cannot be neglected due to their impact on the vehicle’s longitudinal dynamics, especially at high vehicle speeds. This article investigates the impact of the vehicle’s rear spoiler on both vehicle aerodynamic forces and longitudinal dynamic, such as stopping distance and time. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model using ANSYS-Fluent® is employed to precisely estimate the vehicle’s aerodynamic forces in the case of a vehicle without and with a rear spoiler.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Characterization of a Full-Scale Compact Car Exposed to Transient Crosswind

Abstract The transient surface pressure over a full-scale, operational compact automotive vehicle—a Volkswagen Golf 7—exposed to transient crosswinds with relative yaw angles of β = 22-45° has been characterized. Experiments were performed at the BMW side-wind facility in Aschheim, Germany. Measurements of the incoming flow in front of the car were taken with eleven five-hole dynamic pressure probes, and separately, time-resolved surface pressure measurements at 188 locations were performed. Unsteady characteristics (not able to be identified in quasi-steady modelling) have been identified: the flow in separated regions on the vehicle’s leeward side takes longer to develop than at the windward side, and spatially, the vehicle experiences local crosswind as it gradually enters the crosswind.
Journal Article

Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization: On a Combination of Adjoint Method and Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm

Abstract This article presents a workflow for aerodynamic optimization of vehicles that for the first time combines the adjoint method and the efficient global optimization (EGO) algorithm in order to take advantage of both the gradient-based and gradient-free methods for aerodynamic optimization problems. In the workflow, the adjoint method is first applied to locate the sensitive surface regions of the baseline vehicle with respect to the objective functions and define a proper design space with reasonable design variables. Then the EGO algorithm is applied to search for the optimal site in the design space based on the expected improvement (EI) function. Such workflow has been applied to minimize the aerodynamic drag for a mass-produced electric vehicle. With the help of STAR-CCM+ and its adjoint solver, sensitive surface regions with respect to the aerodynamic drag are first located on the vehicle.
Journal Article

Passive Flow Control on a Ground-Effect Diffuser Using an Inverted Wing

Abstract In this experimental and computational study a novel application of aerodynamic principles in altering the pressure recovery behavior of an automotive-type ground-effect diffuser was investigated as a means of enhancing downforce. The proposed way of augmenting diffuser downforce production is to induce in its pressure recovery action a second pressure drop and an accompanying pressure rise region close to the diffuser exit. To investigate this concept with a diffuser-equipped bluff body, an inverted wing was situated within the diffuser flow channel, close to the diffuser exit. The wing’s suction surface acts as a passive flow control device by increasing streamwise flow velocity and reducing static pressure near the diffuser exit. Therefore, a second-stage pressure recovery develops along the diffuser’s overall pressure recovery curve as the flow travels from the diffuser’s low pressure, high velocity inlet to its high pressure, low velocity exit.
Journal Article

CFD and Wind Tunnel Analysis of the Drag on a Human-Powered Vehicle Designed for a Speed Record Attempt

Abstract A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and wind tunnel investigation of a human powered vehicle (HPV), designed by the Velo Racing Team at Ostfalia University, is undertaken to analyse the Eco-body’s drag efficiency. Aimed at competing in a high profile HPV speed record competition, the vehicle’s aerodynamic efficiency is shown to compare well with successful recent eco-body designs. Despite several limitations, newly obtained wind tunnel data shows that the corresponding CFD simulations offer an effective tool for analysing and refining the HPV design. It is shown that, in particular, the design of the rear wheel fairings, as well as the ride height of the vehicle, may be optimised further. In addition, refinements to the CFD and wind tunnel methodologies are recommended to help correlation.
Journal Article

Landing Response Analysis on High-Performance Aircraft* Using Estimated Touchdown States

Abstract A novel use of state estimation methods as initial input for a landing response analysis is proposed in this work. Six degrees of freedom (DOF) non-linear landing response model is conceived by considering longitudinal dynamics of aircraft as a rigid body with heave-and-pitch motions coupled onto a bicycle landing gear † arrangement. The DOF for each landing gear consist of vertical and longitudinal motions of un-sprung mass, considering strut bending flexibility. The measurement data for state estimation is obtained for three landing cases using non-linear flight mechanics model interfaced with pilot-in-loop simulation. State estimation methods such as Upper Diagonal Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (UD-AEKF) with fuzzy-based adaptive tuning and Un-scented Kalman Filter (UKF) were adapted for landing maneuver problem. On the basis of estimation error metrics, aircraft state from UKF is considered during onset of touchdown.
Journal Article

Stall Mitigation and Lift Enhancement of NACA 0012 with Triangle-Shaped Surface Protrusion at a Reynolds Number of 105

Abstract Transient numerical simulations are conducted over a NACA 0012 airfoil with triangular protrusions at a Reynolds number (Re) of 100000 using the γ-Reθ transition Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Protrusions of heights 0.5%c, 1%c, and 2%c are placed at one of the three locations, viz, the leading edge (LE), 5%c on the suction surface, and 5%c on the pressure surface, while the angle of attack (AOA) is varied between 0° and 20°. Results obtained from the time-averaged solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation indicate that the smaller protrusion placed at 5%c on the suction surface improves the post-stall lift coefficient by up to 59%, without altering the pre-stall characteristics. The improvement in time-averaged lift coefficients comes with enhanced flow unsteadiness due to vigorous vortex shedding.
Journal Article

Parametric Studies on Airfoil-Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion System

Abstract From the fact that a propulsor consumes less power for a given thrust if the inlet air is slower, simulations are conducted for a propulsor imposed behind an airfoil as ideal boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsor to stand on the benefits of this configuration from the point of view of power and efficiency and to get a closer look on the mutual interaction between them. This interaction is quantified by the impact on three main sets of parameters, namely, power consumption, boundary layer properties, and airfoil performance. The position and size of the propulsor have great influence on the flow around the airfoil. Parametric studies are carried out to understand their influence. BLI propulsor directly affects the power saving and all of the pressure-dependent parameters, including lift and drag. For the present case, power saving reached 14.4% compared to the propeller working in freestream.
Journal Article

Flight Performance Envelope for an Aircraft with a Fixed-Pitch Propeller

Abstract A flight envelope for aircraft performance in the vertical plane illustrates the performance limitations on the aircraft, usually indicating the minimum and maximum airspeeds at a given altitude, the airspeeds for maximum rate of climb and maximum angle of climb at a given altitude, and the maximum altitude or absolute ceiling of the aircraft. This study outlines the procedure for constructing a vertical-plane flight performance aircraft for an aircraft with a fixed-pitch propeller, which involves additional complexities due to the variable propeller efficiency. The propeller performance, engine power, and drag polar models are described, as is the computational procedure. Envelopes for the flight performance in the vertical plane are presented for a particular remotely-piloted aircraft at different take-off weights.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Analysis of Cooling Airflow for Different Front-End Designs of a Heavy-Duty Cab-Over-Engine Truck

Abstract Improving the aerodynamics of heavy trucks is an important consideration in the strive for more energy-efficient vehicles. Cooling drag is one part of the total aerodynamic resistance acting on a vehicle, which arises as a consequence of air flowing through the grille area, the heat exchangers, and the irregular under-hood area. Today cooling packages of heavy trucks are dimensioned for a critical cooling case, typically when the vehicle is driving fully laden, at low speed up a steep hill. However, for long-haul trucks, mostly operating at highway speeds on mostly level roads, it may not be necessary to have all the cooling airflow from an open-grille configuration. It can therefore be desirable for fuel consumption purposes, to shut off the entire cooling airflow, or a portion of it, under certain driving conditions dictated by the cooling demands. In Europe, most trucks operating on the roads are of cab-over-engine type, as a consequence of the length legislations present.
Journal Article

Investigation of Passive Porosity as a Means for Bluff-Body Drag Reduction

Abstract An investigation into the capability of passive porosity to reduce the drag of a bluff-body is presented. This initial work involves integrating varying degrees of porosity into the side and back faces of a small-scale model to determine optimum conditions for maximum drag reduction. Both force and pressure measurements at differing degrees of model yaw are presented, with the conditions for optimum performance, identified. At a length-based Reynolds number of 2.3 × 106, results showed a maximum drag reduction of 12% at zero yaw when the ratio of the open area on the back face relative to the side faces was between two and four. For all non-zero yaw angles tested, this ratio reduced to approximately two, with the drag benefit reducing to 6% at 10.5 degrees. From a supplementary theoretical analysis, calculated optimum bleed rate into the base for maximum drag reduction, also showed reasonable agreement to other results reported previously.
Journal Article

Electrifying Long-Haul Freight—Part I: Review of Drag, Rolling Resistance, and Weight Reduction Potential

Abstract Electric heavy-duty tractor-trailers (EHDTT) offer an important option to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) for the transportation sector. However, to increase the range of the EHDTT, this effort investigates critical vehicle design features that demonstrate a gain in overall freight efficiency of the vehicle. Specifically, factors affecting aerodynamics, rolling resistance, and gross vehicle weight are essential to arrive at practical input parameters for a comprehensive numerical model of the EHDTT, developed by the authors in a subsequent paper. For example, drag reduction devices like skirts, deturbulators, vortex generators, covers, and other commercially available apparatuses result in an aggregated coefficient of drag of 0.367. Furthermore, a mixed utilization of single-wide tires and dual tires allows for an optimized trade-off between low rolling resistance tires, traction, and durability.
Journal Article

Empirical Investigation on the Effects of Rolling Resistance and Weight on Fuel Economy of Medium-Duty Trucks

Abstract Vehicle rolling resistance and weight are two of the factors that affect fuel economy. The vehicle tire rolling resistance has a more significant influence than aerodynamics drags on fuel economy at lower vehicle speeds, particularly true for medium- and heavy-duty trucks. Less vehicle weight reduces inertia loads, uphill grade resistance, and rolling resistance. The influence of weight on the fuel economy can be considerable particularly in light- to medium-duty truck classes because the weight makes up a larger portion of gross vehicle weight. This article presents an empirical investigation and a numerical analysis of the influences of rolling resistance and weight on the fuel economy of medium-duty trucks. The experimental tests include various tires and payloads applied on a total of 21vehicle configurations over three road profiles. These tests are used to assess the sensitivity of rolling resistance and weight to the vehicle fuel economy.