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New CI & SI Engines and Components, 2018

2018-04-03
The papers in this collection cover topics regarding new CI and SI engines and components. This includes analytical, experimental, and computational studies covering hardware development, as well as design and analysis techniques.
Journal Article

High Power-Density, High Efficiency, Mechanically Assisted, Turbocharged Direct-Injection Jet-Ignition Engines for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

2019-05-02
Abstract More than a decade ago, we proposed combined use of direct injection (DI) and jet ignition (JI) to produce high efficiency, high power-density, positive-ignition (PI), lean burn stratified, internal combustion engines (ICEs). Adopting this concept, the latest FIA F1 engines, which are electrically assisted, turbocharged, directly injected, jet ignited, gasoline engines and work lean stratified in a highly boosted environment, have delivered peak power fuel conversion efficiencies well above 46%, with specific power densities more than 340 kW/liter. The concept, further evolved, is here presented for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications. Results of simulations for a new DI JI ICE with rotary valve, being super-turbocharged and having gasoline or methanol as working fuel, show the opportunity to achieve even larger power densities, up to 430 kW/liter, while delivering a near-constant torque and, consequently, a nearly linear power curve over a wide range of speeds.
Journal Article

Thermal Energy Performance Evaluation and Architecture Selection for Off-Highway Equipment

2021-08-31
Abstract An accurate and rapid thermal model of an axle-brake system is crucial to the design process of reliable braking systems. Proper thermal management is necessary to avoid damaging effects, such as brake fade, thermal cracking, and lubricating oil degradation. In order to understand the thermal effects inside of a lubricated braking system, it is common to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to calculate the heat generation and rejection. However, this is a difficult and time-consuming process, especially when trying to optimize a braking system. This article uses the results from several CFD runs to train a Stacked Ensemble Model (SEM), which allows the use of machine learning (ML) to predict the systems’ temperature based on several input design parameters. The robustness of the SEM was evaluated using uncertainty quantification.
Collection

Abnormal SI Combustion, 2015

2015-04-14
This technical paper collection focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
Collection

Dual Fuel Combustion Process, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection contains papers describing experiments and test data, simulation results focused on applications, fuel/additive effects, and RCCI (reactivity-controlled compression ignition).
Collection

Abnormal SI Combustion, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection focuses on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
Collection

Particle Emissions from Combustion Sources, 2014

2014-04-01
This technical paper collection includes papers on PM measurement methods, soot generation, alternative methods of PM mass determination, in-cylinder contol of emissions, the effects of EGR, biodiesel fuels, duel fuel systems, soot emissions modeling, PM emissions from gasoline engines, including GDI, ethanol effects, and modeling.
Collection

High Efficiency IC Engines Concepts, 2017

2017-03-28
The papers in this collection focuses on technologies such as advanced and partially mixed combustion, cooled EGR boosting, ignition and direct injection technologies, pressure boosting, intelligent combustion, thermal efficiency, fully variable valvetrains, and other new and developing technologies.
Collection

Abnormal SI Combustion, 2018

2018-04-03
The papers in this collection focus on abnormal SI combustion processes including spark knock and preignition. Papers cover both 4-stroke and 2-stroke engines characterized by 1) ignition by an external energy source that serves to control combustion phasing, and 2) a combustion rate that is limited by flame propagation.
Collection

RCCI and Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion, 2015

2015-04-14
Computational modeling and analysis of Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion. Papers focus on analyzing and improving RCCI combustion using novel injection strategies, combustion chamber designs, and fueling combinations.
Technical Paper

Infrared Signature of Combat Aircraft Incorporating Weight Penalty due to the Divergent Section of the Convergent-Divergent Nozzle

2021-09-01
2021-01-6002
Performance penalties associated with infrared (IR)-signature suppression (IRSS), e.g., increased engine back pressure, weight, drag, cost, and complexity, can shift the engine operating point to higher combustion temperatures. Extra weight degrades aircraft flight performance in terms of reduced range, higher length needed for takeoff, reduced maneuverability, etc. Lift-induced drag penalty due to increased weight shifts the aircraft gas turbine engine operating point to a higher combustion temperature. But the divergent section of the convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzle gives the extra thrust up to optimal flow expansion, which more than compensates the increased lift-induced drag corresponding to its weight. Thus, for the same thrust, an engine with a C-D nozzle operates at a lower combustion temperature than with a convergent nozzle.
Technical Paper

LPG and Prechamber as Enabler for Highly Performant and Efficient Combustion Processes Under Stoichiometric Conditions

2021-09-05
2021-24-0032
The European Union has defined legally binding CO2-fleet targets for new cars until 2030. Therefore, improvement of fuel economy and carbon dioxide emission reduction is becoming one of the most important issues for the car manufacturers. Today’s conventional car powertrain systems are reaching their technical limits and will not be able to meet future CO2 targets without further improvement in combustion efficiency, using low carbon fuels (LCF), and at least mild electrification. This paper demonstrates a highly efficient and performant combustion engine concept with a passive pre-chamber spark plug, operating at stoichiometric conditions and powered with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Even from fossil origin, LPG features many advantages such as low carbon/hydrogen ratio, low price and broad availability. In future, it can be produced from renewables and it is in liquid state under relatively low pressures, allowing the use of conventional injection and fuel supply components.
Technical Paper

Estimation of Speciation Data for Hydrocarbons using Data Science

2021-09-05
2021-24-0081
Strict regulations on air pollution motivates clean combustion research for fossil fuels. To numerically mimic real gasoline fuel reactivity, surrogates are proposed to facilitate advanced engine design and predict emissions by chemical kinetic modelling. However, chemical kinetic models could not accurately predict non-regular emissions, e.g. aldehydes, ketones and unsaturated hydrocarbons, which are important air pollutants. In this work, we propose to use machine-learning algorithms to achieve better predictions. Combustion chemistry of fuels constituting of 10 neat fuels, 6 primary reference fuels (PRF) and 6 FGX surrogates were tested in a jet stirred reactor. Experimental data were collected in the same setup to maintain data uniformity and consistency under following conditions: residence time at 1.0 second, fuel concentration at 0.25%, equivalence ratio at 1.0, and temperature range from 750 to 1100K.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Steady-State and Stop-Start Emissions in a Wankel Rotary Engine with a Novel Rotor Cooling Arrangement

2021-09-05
2021-24-0097
The present work investigates a means of controlling engine hydrocarbon startup and shutdown emissions in a Wankel engine which uses a novel rotor cooling method. Mechanically the engine employs a self-pressurizing air-cooled rotor system (SPARCS) configured to provide improved cooling versus a simple air-cooled rotor arrangement. The novelty of the SPARCS system is that it uses the fact that blowby past the sealing grid is inevitable in a Wankel engine as a means of increasing the density of the medium used for cooling the rotor. Unfortunately, the design also means that when the engine is shutdown, due to the overpressure within the engine core and the fact that fuel vapour and lubricating oil are to be found within it, unburned hydrocarbons can leak into the combustion chambers, and thence to the atmosphere via either or both of the intake and exhaust ports.
Technical Paper

Influence of the MeFo and DMC Content in the Fuel on the Gasoline DI Spray Characteristics with the Focus on Droplet Speed and Size

2021-09-21
2021-01-1191
E-fuels are proven to be a major contributing factor to reduce CO2 emissions in internal combustion engines. In gasoline engines, C1 oxygenate are seen as critical to reach CO2 and emission reduction goals. Their properties affect the fuel injection characteristics and thus the fuel mixture formation and combustion emissions. To exploit the full potential of e-fuels, the detailed knowledge of their spray characteristic is necessary. The correlation between the fuel content of C1 oxygenates and particulate emissions do not appear to be linear. To understand this correlation, the spray characteristics have to be investigated in detail. The reduced stoichiometric air requirement leads to an increase of the injected fuel mass, which has to evaporate. This can lead to a changed fuel film interaction within the combustion chamber walls and therefore a change of particle formation.
Technical Paper

Effect of Blend Fuel Properties on Combustion Improvement Under Heterogeneous Combustion Field by Using Multi-Impinging Injection System

2021-09-21
2021-01-1194
To solve the engine performance deterioration and emission problems caused by fuel spray impingement on combustion chamber wall from direct injection internal engines, we bring out the new fuel injection concept, which we call it the impinging injection method. The impinging injection method uses two opposite injectors and tries to achieve spray atomization effect from the fuel sprays collision. A constant volume combustion chamber was used to confirm the spray characteristics and the combustion improvements. Previous study confirmed a significant reduction of spray/wall impingement and combustion improvements. Therefore, in this study, from the aspect of surrogate fuel, we investigated the spray and combustion characteristics of n-butanol addition blend with iso-octane and n-hexadecane, respectively, by using impinging injection and multi-impinging injection with different injection timing conditions. The n-butanol addition ratio ranged from 0% to 50%.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition with Oxygenated Alternative Fuel Blends to Reduce Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions

2021-09-21
2021-01-1203
For controlling oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particular matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines, various fuel and combustion mode modification strategies are investigated in the past. Low temperature combustion (LTC) is an alternative combustion strategy that reduces NOx and PM emissions through premixed lean combustion. Dual fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a promising LTC strategy with better control over the start and end of combustion because of reactivity and equivalence ratio stratification. However, the unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly higher in RCCI, especially at part-load conditions. The present work intends to address this shortcoming by utilizing oxygenated alternative fuels. Considering the limited availability and higher cost, replacing conventional fuels completely with alternative fuels is not feasible.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Combustion Characteristics of Biodiesel by Reforming with Cross-Metathesis Reaction

2021-09-21
2021-01-1205
The boiling point curve of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), or biodiesel fuel, can be adapted to that of diesel fuel by breaking FAME down into a low-molecular structure using a cross-metathesis reaction with a short-chain olefin. Reformulated FAME by a metathesis reaction consists mainly of medium-chain olefins and fatty acid methyl esters. In the present study, the engine performance and exhaust emissions from reformulated FAME were investigated through engine bench tests. Surrogate fuels made from typical chemical components of reformulated FAME were used to clarify the effects of respective components upon combustion. Surrogate fuels were made by mixing 1-decene, 1-tetradecene, methyl laurate, methyl palmitate, and methyl oleate to simulate the boiling point, oxygen mass concentration, and calorific value of reformed biodiesel of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WME). A single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with common-rail-type injection system was used.
Technical Paper

Impact of CO2 Dilution on Ignition Delay Times of Full Blend Gasolines in a Rapid Compression Machine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1199
Autoignition delay times of two full blend gasoline fuels (high and low RON) were explored in a rapid compression machine. CO2 dilution by mass was introduced at 0%, 15%, and 30% levels with the O2:N2 mole ratio fixed at 1:3.76. This dilution strategy is used to represent exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) substitution in spark ignition (SI) engines by using CO2 as a surrogate for major EGR constituents(N2, CO2, H2O). Experiments were conducted over the temperature range of 650K-900K and at 10 bar and 20 bar compressed pressure conditions for equivalence ratios of (Φ =) 0.6-1.3. The full blend fuels were admitted directly into the combustion chamber for mixture preparation using the direct test chamber (DTC) approach. CO2 addition retarded the autoignition times for the fuels studied here. The retarding effect of the CO2 dilution was more pronounced in the NTC region when compared to the lower and higher temperature range.
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