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Technical Paper

Modeling of Three Way Catalyst Behavior Under Steady and Transient Operations in a Stoichiometric Natural Gas Fueled Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0074
Methane abatement in the exhaust gas of natural gas engines is much more challenging in respect to the oxidation of other higher order hydrocarbons. Under steady state λ sweep, the methane conversion efficiency is high at exact stoichiometric, and decreases steeply under both slightly rich and slightly lean conditions. Transient lean to rich transitions can improve methane conversion at the rich side. Previous experimental work has attributed the enhanced methane conversion to activation of methane steam reforming. The steam reforming rate, however, attenuates over time and the methane conversion rate gradually converges to the low steady state values. In this work, a reactor model is established to predict steady state and transient transition characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) mounted in the exhaust of a natural gas heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper

Friction Calculations and Validation Measures on an External Component Test Bench of the Piston Pin Bearing under the Influence of Greater Elastic Deformation Caused by a Hydrostatic Bearing

2021-09-05
2021-24-0001
Increasing combustion pressure, low viscosity oils, less oil supply and the increasing stress due to downsizing of internal combustion engines (ICE) lead to higher loads within the bearing. As the mechanical and tribological loads on the piston pin bearings have a direct impact on the service life and function of the overall engine system, it is necessary to develop a robust tribological design approach. Regarding the piston pin bearing of a diesel engine, this study aims to describe the effects of different parameters on a DLC-coated piston pin within the bearing. Therefore, an external engine part test rig, which applies various forces to the connecting rod and measures the torque on a driven pin, is used to carry out validation measurements. The special feature of the test bench is the way the piston is beared. For the first experiments, the piston crown is placed against a plate (plate-bearing); later, this plate-bearing is replaced by a hydrostatic bearing.
Technical Paper

Development of Dual Fuel (Diesel + CNG) Engine for Off-Road Application

2021-09-22
2021-26-0119
The evolution of engine technology has so far seen the most beneficial side of progress in the fields of transportation, agriculture, and mobility. With the advent of innovation, there is also an impact on our environment that needs to be balanced. This is where fuels like CNG, LPG, LNG, etc. outperform conventional fossil fuels in terms of pollution & operational cost. This paper enlightens on the use of innovative dual-fuel technology where diesel & CNG fuels are used for combustion simultaneously inside the combustion chamber. Dual fuel system adaptation for farm application ensures self-reliance of the farmer where he can generate Bio-CNG to use the renewable fuel for farming making him less dependent on conventional fossil fuel thus promoting a green economy. The dual-fuel system is adapted to the existing in-use diesel engine with minimum modifications. This makes it feasible to retrofit a CNG fuel system on an existing diesel engine to operate it on dual fuel mode.
Technical Paper

Variation in Automotive Shock Absorber Damping Characteristics & Their Effects on Ride Comfort Attribute and Vehicle Yaw Response

2021-09-22
2021-26-0081
In a Passive suspension, a shock absorber generates damping force by pressurizing the oil flow between chambers. Typically, vehicle responds with suspension deflection, which significantly depends on damping forces and suspension velocity. Tuning dampers for various roads and steering input is an iterative balancing process. In any setting, damping force w.r.t velocity is tuned for optimum ride and handling performance. Practically, to achieve a balance between the two is a tedious task as the choices & arrangements of inner parts like piston, port, valve etc., which defines the forces set up [soft / hard] are almost infinite. The objective of this paper is to measure, objectify and evaluate the performance of two such optimum setting in various ride and handling events. A passenger car set up with an optimum soft & hard suspension damping force is studied for various ride and handling sub-attributes and their conflicts are examined in detail from a performance point of view:
Technical Paper

Total Life Cycle Analysis of CNG and Hydrogen Enriched CNG Powered Vehicles: A Comparative Evaluation

2021-09-22
2021-26-0105
Vehicles consume energy and release harmful emissions throughout their life period from the manufacturing stage of raw materials to the vehicle scrapyard. The current Green-House Gas (GHG) emissions from diesel and petrol vehicles are reported to be 164 g CO2/km and 156 g CO2/km respectively. Thus, enormous research studies are been carried out for low-carbon alternative fuel-powered vehicles to reduce the overall GHG emissions. Numerous research on hydrogen as a transportation fuel has demonstrated the potential of reduced vehicular emissions compared to conventional fuels. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a comprehensive methodology used for estimating the overall environmental impact of vehicles. In this present work, a comparative LCA is conducted between Compressed Natural gas (CNG) powered vehicles and H-CNG powered vehicles. The effect of the two alternative vehicles is assessed from various points in their lifetime using the GREET model software.
Technical Paper

EGR Strategies Pertaining to High Pressure and Low Pressure EGR in Heavy Duty CNG Engine to Optimize Exhaust Temperature and NOx Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0114
CNG has proven to be a concrete alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel for sustained mobility. Due to stringent emission norms and sanctions being imposed on diesel fuel vehicles, OEMs have shifted their attention towards natural gas as an efficient and green fuel. Newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from the exhaust by almost 85% as compared to BS IV emission norms. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in NOx emissions. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce the NOx emissions by decreasing the in-cylinder temperature. The objective of the paper is to model a CNG TCIC engine using 1D simulation in order to optimize the NOx emissions and maintain exhaust temperatures under failsafe limits.
Technical Paper

Development of an all Speed Governed Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Engine for Farm Applications

2021-09-22
2021-26-0101
This paper discusses the development of an all speed governed diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine for agricultural farm tractor. A 45 hp, 2.9 liters diesel-natural gas dual fuel engine with a novel closed loop secondary fuel injection system was developed. A frugal approach without any modification of the base mechanical diesel fuel injection system was followed. This approach helped to minimize the cost impact, while meeting performance and emissions at par with neat diesel operation. Additional cost on gas injection system is redeemed by cost savings on diesel fuel. The dual fuel technology developed by Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd., substitutes on an average approximately 40% of diesel with compressed natural gas, meeting the TREM III A emission norms for dual fuel while meeting all application requirements. The governing performance of the tractor was found to be superior than base diesel tractor.
Technical Paper

Chemical Profiling of Exhaust Particulate Matter from Indian In-Service Vehicles

2021-09-22
2021-26-0192
Particulate matter is one of the major pollutant responsible for deteriorating air quality, particularly in urban centers. Information on contributing sources with the share from different sources is a first and one of the important steps in controlling pollution. Diverse sources, anthropogenic as well as natural, like industries, transport, domestic burning, construction, wind-blown dust, road dust contribute to particulate matter pollution. Receptor modeling is a scientific method which is utilized for assessment of the contribution of various sources based on chemical characteristics of particulate matter sources and ambient air particulate matter. Representative data of fractions of various chemical species in the particulate matter from the different sources i.e. source fingerprint is an essential input for the receptor modeling approach.
Technical Paper

The Study and Deep Insights of Port Injection Turbocharged CNG Engine Development for Trucks and Buses

2021-09-22
2021-26-0214
The intensifying demand of cleaner fuelled vehicles considering current norms of BSIV and upcoming stringent norms of BSVI with low cost solutions has promoted the development of CNG and dual fuel vehicles. CNG vehicle is anticipated to discover its extensive use for environment fortification and effective deployment of energy capitals. Thus, CNG vehicles can be pretty effective in averting environment deterioration. CNG has low carbon to hydrogen ratio, this leads to very low CO2 emissions compared to gasoline and diesel vehicles. CNG engines have the potential of low NOx and particulate emissions. Natural gas vehicle development has been directed on the way to current use of direct injection and port injection with S.I. engines. Generally for low cost development, all OEMs prefer optimization of existing engines. Similarly for this project, a diesel engine was converted to S.I. engine for development of low emission CNG engine.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of a Hydrodynamic Lubrication of a Piston Skirt Considering the Deformations and Dynamics of the Piston Displacement

2021-09-21
2021-01-1141
One of the first tasks while designing pistons is to ensure the reliable engine operation with minimal friction losses. This is possible by ensuring the liquid friction in the piston-cylinder junction during the entire operating cycle. Therefore, it is important to assess the nature of friction in the piston-cylinder conjunction. This task can be broken down into a number of interrelated subtasks: determining the characteristics of the piston lateral movement, determining the piston deformations under thermal and mechanical loads, and calculating the hydrodynamic forces acting from the side of the oil layer in the conjunction. The use of software packages that solve these problems separately and their inclusion in the iterative process will lead to huge expenditures of computing time and is difficult to implement in carrying out design optimization problems.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Gas Engine with Arbitrary Mixture Ratio of H2 and CNG for HDV

2021-09-21
2021-01-1177
To reduce exhaust emissions in commercial vehicles, hydrogen, as a carbon-free fuel, is a reasonable alternative to conventional fuels. In order to circumvent the current problem of hydrogen availability, the use of a gas engine for heavy duty vehicles (HDV), which is able to operate with pure compressed natural gas (CNG), pure hydrogen as well as any mixture of these both gases, is sensible. For this purpose, an operating concept for a gas engine was developed, which is able to operate with an arbitrary hydrogen-natural gas mixture ratio. Therefore, the mixture formation of a hydrogen-natural gas-air mixture was analyzed in a 3D CFD simulation. The results for pure hydrogen and pure CNG operation show a very good homogenization of the fuel distribution at the point of ignition when an outward-opening injector was used.
Technical Paper

Digital Approach for Dynamic Balancing of Three Cylinder Gasoline Engine Crank-Train

2021-09-22
2021-26-0265
Because of ever increasing demand for more fuel efficient engines with lower manufacturing cost, compact design and lower maintenance cost, OEM’s prefer three cylinder internal combustion engine over four cylinder engine for same capacity, though customer demands NVH characteristics of a three cylinder engines to be in line with four cylinder engine. Crank-train balancing plays most vital role in NVH aspects of three cylinder engines. A three cylinder engine crankshaft with phase angle of 120 degrees poses a challenge in balancing the crank train. In three-cylinder engines, total sum of unbalanced inertia forces occurring in each cylinder will be counterbalanced among each other. However, parts of inertia forces generated at No.1 and No. 3 cylinders will cause primary and secondary resultant moments about No. 2 cylinder. Conventional method of designing a dynamically balanced crank train is time consuming and leads to rework during manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Methane Conversion and Ammonia Formation Model over a Pd-Rh Three-Way Catalyst for CNG Heavy-Duty Engines

2021-09-05
2021-24-0002
Research activities in the development of reliable computational models for aftertreatment systems are constantly increasing in the automotive field. These investigations are essential in order to get a complete understanding of the main catalytic processes which clearly have a great impact on tailpipe emissions. In this work, a 1D chemical reaction model to simulate the catalytic activity of a Pd/Rh Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) for a Natural Gas heavy-duty engine is presented. An extensive database of tests carried out with the use of a Synthetic Gas Bench (SGB) has been collected to investigate the methane abatement pathways, linked to the lambda variation and oxide formation on palladium surface. Specific steady-state tests have shown a dynamics of the methane conversion even at fixed λ and temperature conditions, essentially due to the Pd/PdO ratio.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Causing Fatigue Failure of Reed Valves

2020-08-18
2020-28-0031
Numerous studies considering interaction between refrigerant and reed valve motion in positive displacement compressors have been cited in literature. CFD and FEA simulation tools have allowed modeling of fully coupled interaction of fluids and moving parts [1]. The present paper describes a simplified model of a multi-cylinder reciprocating piston compressor and estimation of pressure surge at high compressor speeds. The results show that the delayed discharge valve opening and closing causes surge in pressures due to formation of pressure waves. For the chosen geometry and operating conditions in the present paper, the characteristic travel time of such waves is much shorter (~ 0.2ms) as compared to longer response time of reed valves (> 1ms) owing to stiffness and exhibit delayed opening due to others factors too like stiction effect. These pressure surges may exceed the fatigue limit of reed valves and cause failures.
Journal Article

Influence of Bio Diesel Fuel on Engine Oil Performance

2010-05-05
2010-01-1543
To evaluate the influence of FAME, which has poor oxidation stability, on engine oil performance, an engine test was conducted under large volumes of fuel dilution by post-injection. The test showed that detergent consumption and polymerization of FAME were accelerated in engine oil, causing a severe deterioration in piston cleanliness and sludge protection performance of engine oil.
Journal Article

Effect of Phenolic Brake Piston Tribology on Brake Pedal Feel

2013-09-30
2013-01-2051
Phenolic brake pistons show excellent performance for weight saving, protection against vapor lock, noise reduction, no rust, and less seal scratch. Phenolic brake pistons have been successfully used since 1974. However there has been a complex system phenomenon related with the brake pedal feel. Our recent study focused on the tribology of phenolic brake piston and its correlation to brake pedal feel. Several surface designs of phenolic brake pistons were created and evaluated using modified JASO C448 bench test station. Our testing found the friction force between a phenolic brake piston and the piston seal differs from that of a steel brake piston. Furthermore, we discovered the friction forces on a phenolic piston could be favorably altered by the surface design of the piston. In this paper, we will propose how to improve brake pedal feel using a phenolic brake piston through designing the surface condition of the brake piston.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Knock Behavior for Natural Gas - Gasoline Blends in a Light Duty Spark Ignited Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2293
The compression ratio is a strong lever to increase the efficiency of an internal combustion engine. However, among others, it is limited by the knock resistance of the fuel used. Natural gas shows a higher knock resistance compared to gasoline, which makes it very attractive for use in internal combustion engines. The current paper describes the knock behavior of two gasoline fuels, and specific incylinder blend ratios with one of the gasoline fuels and natural gas. The engine used for these investigations is a single cylinder research engine for light duty application which is equipped with two separate fuel systems. Both fuels can be used simultaneously which allows for gasoline to be injected into the intake port and natural gas to be injected directly into the cylinder to overcome the power density loss usually connected with port fuel injection of natural gas.
Technical Paper

Comparative Studies of Exhaust Emissions from Three City Buses in Real Traffic Conditions, One with LNG, the Other with CI Engine and a Hybrid Bus

2020-09-15
2020-01-2191
There is a growing appreciation for using buses powered by alternative fuels in urban transport. Considered as such are city bus with engines fuelled with LNG and hybrid bus. This article, as shown above, provides a comparison of road exhaust emissions from three city buses: one with a CI engine fuelled with diesel fuel, and the other with a SI engine fuelled with LNG and Hybrid bus. Both vehicles (CI and LNG) conformed to Euro VI emission standard (hybrid bus EEV), and the tests were carried out in real traffic conditions. Equivocal opinions about differences in emissions from those types of buses, among others - CO2 and NOx emissions, were the underlying cause of the tests. The comparative study was carried out along the same urban routes during bus trips over the following days in similar traffic conditions. Exhaust road emission was determined based on the vehicle's curb weight and route length, and operating fuel consumption.
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