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Technical Paper

Work Extraction Efficiency in a Series Hybrid Opposed Piston Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1242
This work investigates the development of a novel series hybrid architecture utilizing a single cylinder opposed piston engine. The opposed piston engine presents unique benefits in a hybrid architecture such as its lower heat transfer due to a favorable surface area to volume ratio and lack of a cylinder head, as well as the thermodynamic benefits of two stroke operation with uniflow scavenging. A particular focus of this effort is the work extraction efficiency of two design concepts. The first design concept utilizes a geartrain to couple the crankshafts of the engine in a conventional manner, providing a single power take-off for coupling to an electric motor/generator. In this design, the large inertia of the geartrain dampens the speed fluctuation of the single cylinder engine, reducing the peak torque required to for the electric machine. However, the friction losses caused by the geartrain limit the maximum work extraction efficiency.
Technical Paper

Under-Expanded Jets Characterization by Means of CFD Numerical Simulation Using an Open FOAM Density-Based Solver

2021-09-05
2021-24-0057
Among the others, natural gas (NG) is regarded as a potential solution to enhance the environmental performance of internal combustion engines. Low carbon-to-hydrogen ratio, worldwide relatively homogeneous distribution and reduced price are the reason as, lately, many researchers efforts have been put in this area. In particular, this work focuses on the characterization of the injection process inside a constant volume chamber (CVC), which could provide a contribution to the development of direct injection technologies for a gaseous fuel. Direct injection of a gaseous fuel involves the presence of under-expanded jets whose knowledge is fundamental to achieve the proper mixture formation prior to the combustion ignition. For this reason, a density based solver was developed within the OpenFOAM library in order to simulate the jet issued from an injector suitable for direct injection of methane.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Engine Oils: Scientific Rationale and Controversies

2021-09-05
2021-24-0067
Since a significant part of energy losses in the internal combustion engine comes from viscous dissipation, the trend has shifted toward low-viscosity oils from SAE 40 and 50 in the 1960s-1980s to current SAE 20 and lower viscosity grades. Use of low viscosity engine oils significantly reduces energy losses in the main bearing and piston/bore systems, while tribological stresses on the valvetrain - especially in flat-tappet cammed engines - may increase. This makes a strong argument for deploying new classes of friction modifiers and antiwear additives. However, development of a balanced formulation is not as straightforward as it appears, and numerous pitfalls may be encountered due to additive interactions. Another serious problem is that the definition of “fuel-economy engine oil” is rather vague, as it depends on choice of reference oil. Nowadays, the assessment of fuel economy is often based on the Sequence VIE or VIF tests using a 2012 3.6L GM V6 gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Cycle-by-Cycle Variations of an Optically Accessible Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Retrofitted to Natural Gas Spark Ignition

2021-09-05
2021-24-0045
The combustion process in spark-ignition engines can vary considerably cycle by cycle, which may result in unstable engine operation. The phenomena amplify in natural gas (NG) spark-ignition (SI) engines due to the lower NG laminar flame speed compared to gasoline, and more so under lean burn conditions. The main goal of this study was to investigate the main sources and the characteristics of the cycle-by-cycle variation in heavy-duty compression ignition (CI) engines converted to NG SI operation. The experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder optically-accessible CI engine with a flat bowl-in piston that was converted to NG SI. The engine was operated at medium load under lean operating conditions, using pure methane as a natural gas surrogate. The CI to SI conversion was made through the addition of a low-pressure NG injector in the intake manifold and of a NG spark plug in place of the diesel injector.
Technical Paper

High Load Lean SI-Combustion Analysis of DI Methane and Gasoline Using Optical Diagnostics with Endoscope

2021-09-05
2021-24-0046
Homogeneous lean spark-ignited combustion is known for its thermodynamic advantages over conventional stoichiometric combustion but remains a challenge due to combustion instability, engine knock and NOx emissions especially at higher engine loads above the naturally aspirated limit. Investigations have shown that lean combustion can partly suppress knock, which is why the concept may be particularly advantageous in high load, boosted operation in downsized engines with high compression ratios. However, the authors have previously shown that this is not true for all cases due to the appearance of a lean load limit, which is defined by the convergence of the knock limit and combustion stability limit. Therefore, further research has been conducted with the alternative and potentially renewable fuel methane which has higher resistance to autoignition compared to gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Study on Prediction of Unburned Hydrocarbons in Active Pre-chamber Gas Engine: Combustion Analysis Using 3D-CFD by Considering Wall Quenching Effects

2021-09-05
2021-24-0049
To reproduce wall quenching phenomena using 3D-CFD, a wall quenching model was constructed based on the Peclet number. The model was further integrated with the flame propagation model. Combustion analysis showed that that a large amount of unburned hydrocarbons (UHCs) remained in the piston clevis and small gaps. Furthermore, the model was capable of predicting the increase in UHC emissions when there was a delay in the ignition time. The flame front cells were plotted on Peters' premixed turbulent combustion diagram to identify transitions in the combustion states. It was found that the flame surface transitioned from corrugated flamelets through thin reaction zones to wrinkled flamelets and further to laminar flamelets, which led to wall quenching. The turbulent Reynolds number (Re) decreased rapidly due to the increase in laminar flame speed and flame thickness and the decrease in turbulent intensity and turbulent scale.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Three Way Catalyst Behavior Under Steady and Transient Operations in a Stoichiometric Natural Gas Fueled Engine

2021-09-05
2021-24-0074
Methane abatement in the exhaust gas of natural gas engines is much more challenging in respect to the oxidation of other higher order hydrocarbons. Under steady state λ sweep, the methane conversion efficiency is high at exact stoichiometric, and decreases steeply under both slightly rich and slightly lean conditions. Transient lean to rich transitions can improve methane conversion at the rich side. Previous experimental work has attributed the enhanced methane conversion to activation of methane steam reforming. The steam reforming rate, however, attenuates over time and the methane conversion rate gradually converges to the low steady state values. In this work, a reactor model is established to predict steady state and transient transition characteristics of a three-way catalyst (TWC) mounted in the exhaust of a natural gas heavy-duty engine.
Technical Paper

Sub-23 nm Particle Measurement and Assessment of Their Volatile Fraction at Exhaust of a Four Cylinder GDI Engine Fueled with E10 and E85 Under Transient Conditions

2021-09-05
2021-24-0087
In view of the new emission regulations seeking to lower the particle cut-off size down to the current 23 nm, an extensive comprehension on the nature of sub-23 nm particles is crucial. In this regard, a new challenge lies ahead considering an even more massive use of biofuels. The objective of this research study was to characterize the sub-23 nm particles and to evaluate their volatile organic fraction (VOF) from a high performance, 1.8 L gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine under the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). Particle emissions were measured through an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) capable of particle sizing and counting in the range 5.6 - 560 nm. The sampling and conditioning were performed by both a single diluter and the Dekati Engine Exhaust Diluter (DEED) a Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) compliant sample conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Oxidative Reactivity of Soot Particles Generated from the Combustion of Conventional Diesel, HVO and OME Collected in Particle Filter Structures

2021-09-05
2021-24-0085
The reduction of CO2 emissions in transport and power generation is currently a key challenge. One particular opportunity of CO2 reduction is the introduction of low CO2 or even CO2 neutral fuels. The combustion characteristics of such fuels are different and require engine settings modification. In addition, emissions characteristics differ significantly among different fuels. In the present study a one cylinder diesel engine was operated with conventional diesel, hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and polyoxymethyl dimethyl ether (OME) as well as a series of blends. Particle filter segments were positioned in the exhaust of the engine and loaded with particles originating from the combustion of these fuels. The filter segments have been regenerated individually in a specifically designed and developed controlled temperature soot oxidation apparatus.
Technical Paper

Friction Calculations and Validation Measures on an External Component Test Bench of the Piston Pin Bearing under the Influence of Greater Elastic Deformation Caused by a Hydrostatic Bearing

2021-09-05
2021-24-0001
Increasing combustion pressure, low viscosity oils, less oil supply and the increasing stress due to downsizing of internal combustion engines (ICE) lead to higher loads within the bearing. As the mechanical and tribological loads on the piston pin bearings have a direct impact on the service life and function of the overall engine system, it is necessary to develop a robust tribological design approach. Regarding the piston pin bearing of a diesel engine, this study aims to describe the effects of different parameters on a DLC-coated piston pin within the bearing. Therefore, an external engine part test rig, which applies various forces to the connecting rod and measures the torque on a driven pin, is used to carry out validation measurements. The special feature of the test bench is the way the piston is beared. For the first experiments, the piston crown is placed against a plate (plate-bearing); later, this plate-bearing is replaced by a hydrostatic bearing.
Technical Paper

Variation in Automotive Shock Absorber Damping Characteristics & Their Effects on Ride Comfort Attribute and Vehicle Yaw Response

2021-09-22
2021-26-0081
In a Passive suspension, a shock absorber generates damping force by pressurizing the oil flow between chambers. Typically, vehicle responds with suspension deflection, which significantly depends on damping forces and suspension velocity. Tuning dampers for various roads and steering input is an iterative balancing process. In any setting, damping force w.r.t velocity is tuned for optimum ride and handling performance. Practically, to achieve a balance between the two is a tedious task as the choices & arrangements of inner parts like piston, port, valve etc., which defines the forces set up [soft / hard] are almost infinite. The objective of this paper is to measure, objectify and evaluate the performance of two such optimum setting in various ride and handling events. A passenger car set up with an optimum soft & hard suspension damping force is studied for various ride and handling sub-attributes and their conflicts are examined in detail from a performance point of view:
Technical Paper

EGR Strategies Pertaining to High Pressure and Low Pressure EGR in Heavy Duty CNG Engine to Optimize Exhaust Temperature and NOx Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0114
CNG has proven to be a concrete alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel for sustained mobility. Due to stringent emission norms and sanctions being imposed on diesel fuel vehicles, OEMs have shifted their attention towards natural gas as an efficient and green fuel. Newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from the exhaust by almost 85% as compared to BS IV emission norms. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in NOx emissions. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce the NOx emissions by decreasing the in-cylinder temperature. The objective of the paper is to model a CNG TCIC engine using 1D simulation in order to optimize the NOx emissions and maintain exhaust temperatures under failsafe limits.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Emission Reduction Potential of Diesel-Methanol Blends in a Heavy-Duty Genset Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0104
One of the most promising fuel alternatives for Diesel is Methanol. The fuel is regarded advantageous owing to the easy availability of raw materials for its production, its low cost and high Oxygen content that has potential to reduce emissions of smoke, CO and PM. Methanol as a fuel blend with Diesel is non-viable as they are not readily miscible with each other. This paper expounds the engine performance and emission evaluation of blending Methanol with Diesel by using two methods that aid in overcoming phase separation. The experiments were performed in two stages. In the first stage, investigation of phase stabilization of Methanol in Diesel with suitable additive concentration was performed. This was performed to determine the optimum additive and its concentration for a Methanol share of up to 25% in Diesel-Methanol blends for a stabilization period of 30 days.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of a Hydrodynamic Lubrication of a Piston Skirt Considering the Deformations and Dynamics of the Piston Displacement

2021-09-21
2021-01-1141
One of the first tasks while designing pistons is to ensure the reliable engine operation with minimal friction losses. This is possible by ensuring the liquid friction in the piston-cylinder junction during the entire operating cycle. Therefore, it is important to assess the nature of friction in the piston-cylinder conjunction. This task can be broken down into a number of interrelated subtasks: determining the characteristics of the piston lateral movement, determining the piston deformations under thermal and mechanical loads, and calculating the hydrodynamic forces acting from the side of the oil layer in the conjunction. The use of software packages that solve these problems separately and their inclusion in the iterative process will lead to huge expenditures of computing time and is difficult to implement in carrying out design optimization problems.
Technical Paper

Chemical Reactivity Control of DME/Ethanol Dual Fuel Combustion

2021-09-21
2021-01-1176
The use of renewable fuels in place of conventional hydrocarbon fuels can minimize the carbon footprint of internal combustion engines. DME has been treated as a suitable surrogate to diesel fuel because of its high reactivity and soot-less combustion characteristics. The lower energy density of DME fuel demands a higher fuel supply rate to match the engine loads compared to diesel, which was achieved through prolonged injection duration and larger nozzle holes. When used as a pilot fuel to control the combustion behavior in a dual-fuel application, the fuel energy delivery rate becomes less critical allowing the use of a standard diesel common-rail injector for DME direct injection. In this work, the combustion of DME-Ethanol dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition was experimentally investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Adsorption/Desorption Process in SI Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1184
Ethanol is regarded as a potential alternative fuel for combustion engine as it provides lower exhaust emissions, higher efficiency and higher octane rating. However, the solubility of ethanol in oil can effect lubricant quality. The impact of ethanol-blend gasoline on lubricants is a matter of concern that must be addressed. With this in mind, the current study investigates the effect of blending ethanol with gasoline on the oil layer adsorption/desorption mechanism. The blends used for the study are E0, E5, E10, and E15. The study is carried out with the help of a mathematical model that predicts the fuel adsorbed/desorbed in the oil layer of an engine. The mathematical model predictions are compared to experimental results obtained on a single-cylinder gasoline engine. Fuel adsorbed in the oil layer ranges from 0.46% for E0 fuel to 0.35% for E15 fuel. Similarly, the desorbed fuel ranges from 0.45% to 0.29% as the ethanol fraction increases from 0% to 15%.
Technical Paper

Digital Approach for Dynamic Balancing of Three Cylinder Gasoline Engine Crank-Train

2021-09-22
2021-26-0265
Because of ever increasing demand for more fuel efficient engines with lower manufacturing cost, compact design and lower maintenance cost, OEM’s prefer three cylinder internal combustion engine over four cylinder engine for same capacity, though customer demands NVH characteristics of a three cylinder engines to be in line with four cylinder engine. Crank-train balancing plays most vital role in NVH aspects of three cylinder engines. A three cylinder engine crankshaft with phase angle of 120 degrees poses a challenge in balancing the crank train. In three-cylinder engines, total sum of unbalanced inertia forces occurring in each cylinder will be counterbalanced among each other. However, parts of inertia forces generated at No.1 and No. 3 cylinders will cause primary and secondary resultant moments about No. 2 cylinder. Conventional method of designing a dynamically balanced crank train is time consuming and leads to rework during manufacturing.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol-Blended Fuel on Combustion Characteristics, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2021-09-22
2021-26-0356
Ethanol fuel blends with gasoline for spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines are widely used on account of their advantages in terms of fuel economy and emissions reduction potential. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of these blends on combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure profiles, gas-phase emissions (e.g., unburned hydrocarbons, NOx) and particulates (e.g., particulate matter and particle number) using both measurement campaigns and digital engineering workflows. Nineteen load-speed operating points in a 1L 3-cylinder GDI SI engine were measured and modelled. The measurements for in-cylinder pressure and emissions were repeated at each operating point for three types of fuel: gasoline (E0, 0% by volume of ethanol blend), E10 (10 % by volume of ethanol blend) and E20 (20% by volume of ethanol blend).
Technical Paper

Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0556
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Methane Conversion and Ammonia Formation Model over a Pd-Rh Three-Way Catalyst for CNG Heavy-Duty Engines

2021-09-05
2021-24-0002
Research activities in the development of reliable computational models for aftertreatment systems are constantly increasing in the automotive field. These investigations are essential in order to get a complete understanding of the main catalytic processes which clearly have a great impact on tailpipe emissions. In this work, a 1D chemical reaction model to simulate the catalytic activity of a Pd/Rh Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) for a Natural Gas heavy-duty engine is presented. An extensive database of tests carried out with the use of a Synthetic Gas Bench (SGB) has been collected to investigate the methane abatement pathways, linked to the lambda variation and oxide formation on palladium surface. Specific steady-state tests have shown a dynamics of the methane conversion even at fixed λ and temperature conditions, essentially due to the Pd/PdO ratio.
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