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Technical Paper

Dynamic Behavior of In-Cylinder Pressure Causing Fatigue Failure of Reed Valves

Numerous studies considering interaction between refrigerant and reed valve motion in positive displacement compressors have been cited in literature. CFD and FEA simulation tools have allowed modeling of fully coupled interaction of fluids and moving parts [1]. The present paper describes a simplified model of a multi-cylinder reciprocating piston compressor and estimation of pressure surge at high compressor speeds. The results show that the delayed discharge valve opening and closing causes surge in pressures due to formation of pressure waves. For the chosen geometry and operating conditions in the present paper, the characteristic travel time of such waves is much shorter (~ 0.2ms) as compared to longer response time of reed valves (> 1ms) owing to stiffness and exhibit delayed opening due to others factors too like stiction effect. These pressure surges may exceed the fatigue limit of reed valves and cause failures.
Journal Article

Influence of Bio Diesel Fuel on Engine Oil Performance

To evaluate the influence of FAME, which has poor oxidation stability, on engine oil performance, an engine test was conducted under large volumes of fuel dilution by post-injection. The test showed that detergent consumption and polymerization of FAME were accelerated in engine oil, causing a severe deterioration in piston cleanliness and sludge protection performance of engine oil.
Journal Article

Effect of Phenolic Brake Piston Tribology on Brake Pedal Feel

Phenolic brake pistons show excellent performance for weight saving, protection against vapor lock, noise reduction, no rust, and less seal scratch. Phenolic brake pistons have been successfully used since 1974. However there has been a complex system phenomenon related with the brake pedal feel. Our recent study focused on the tribology of phenolic brake piston and its correlation to brake pedal feel. Several surface designs of phenolic brake pistons were created and evaluated using modified JASO C448 bench test station. Our testing found the friction force between a phenolic brake piston and the piston seal differs from that of a steel brake piston. Furthermore, we discovered the friction forces on a phenolic piston could be favorably altered by the surface design of the piston. In this paper, we will propose how to improve brake pedal feel using a phenolic brake piston through designing the surface condition of the brake piston.

Fuel Dispensing Filter Test Methods

This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to gasoline and diesel fuel filters installed on fuel dispensing equipment, mobile or stationary. It describes a set of tests used to characterize the structural integrity, filtration performance, and reaction to water contaminant with fuel dispensing filters.

Fuel Dispensing Filter Test Methods

This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to gasoline and diesel fuel filters installed on fuel dispensing equipment, mobile or stationary. It describes a set of tests used to characterize the structural integrity, filtration performance, and reaction to water contaminant with fuel dispensing filters.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ethanol-Containing Fuel Supply Control Efficiency in Spark Ignition Engine

The article is devoted to investigation of fuel supply control efficiency in a spark ignition engine equipped with a catalytic converter during use of ethanol-containing fuels with different ethanol content. The study involves determining the efficiency of fuel supply controlling algorithm for the engine, which is powered by conventional petrol and non-adapted for using fuels with high ethanol content. Within the study the following fuels were used: petrol, ethanol and fuel blends with ethanol content varying from 15 to 90%. The efficiency of fuel supply control is evaluated in terms of providing the specified fuel-air mixture composition, fuel consumption and emissions in transient engine operation modes during vehicle motion in the driving cycle. The data obtained during the engine bench tests using petrol and ethanol-containing fuels were used for evaluation.
Journal Article

Measurement of Vapor Pressures and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Gasoline and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on Mixture Preparation in an SI Engine

Global ethanol trade is forecast to increase 25-fold by 2020. Most of it will be blended with gasoline to make biofuel. However, blending ethanol with gasoline has a profound effect on the evaporation characteristics of the mixture. In particular, the thermodynamic properties of the blends can be significantly different than the constituents. A clear understanding of the blend's properties is essential for optimizing engine design, e.g. utilizing charge cooling effect. Data available in the literature is very limited, considering ethanol-gasoline blends will be used as a fuel in large scale worldwide. In this work, comprehensive measurements of vapor pressures were carried out. The enthalpies of vaporization were derived from vapor pressure data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Maximum vapor pressure occurs with 20% ethanol-gasoline blend at which a positive azeotrope is formed. The trend is different in enthalpy of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Real Driving Emissions of Diesel and LNG Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles Measured with FTIR-PEMS

To replace conventional Diesel and to make the transport sector CO2 neutral, liquid bio methane or liquefied biogas (LBG) is one possible solution to replace conventional fuel. Due to the ongoing development of methane engines for trucks and the possible perspective of realizing closed CO2 cycles, a pilot project "Use of LBG (Liquefied Biogas) for Swiss heavy-duty transportation" has been launched in Switzerland. This project is intended to demonstrate the performance of LBG trucks as well as their environmental benefits. The emission behavior of the vehicles is a critical point in the evaluation of the idea of using methane as a fuel. In the present paper the conducted real drive emission measurements of two different methane gas and one Diesel powered truck, as reference, with the parallel use of a standard and FTIR-PEMS are presented. The configuration of both PEMS systems mounted on a trailer is shown, as well as the real drive scenario.
Journal Article

Finite Element Thermo-Structural Methodology for Investigating Diesel Engine Pistons with Thermal Barrier Coating

Abstract Traditionally, in combustion engine applications, metallic materials have been widely employed due to their properties: castability and machinability with accurate dimensional tolerances, good mechanical strength even at high temperatures, wear resistance, and affordable price. However, the high thermal conductivity of metallic materials is responsible for consistent losses of thermal energy and has a strong influence on pollutant emission. A possible approach for reducing the thermal exchange requires the use of thermal barrier coating (TBC) made by materials with low thermal conductivity and good thermo-mechanical strength. In this work, the effects of a ceramic coating for thermal insulation of the piston crown of a car diesel engine are investigated through a numerical methodology based on finite element analysis. The study is developed by considering firstly a thermal analysis and then a thermo-structural analysis of the component.
Journal Article

Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Dual Fuel Lean Flames Using Local Burning Velocity and Critical Chemical Timescale

Abstract Addition of hydrogen to hydrocarbons in premixed turbulent combustion is of technological interest due to their increased reactivity, flame stability and extended lean extinction limits. However, such flames are a challenge to reaction modelling, especially as the strong preferential diffusion effects modify the physical processes, which are of importance even for highly turbulent high-pressure conditions. In the present work, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modelling is carried out to investigate pressure and hydrogen content on methane/hydrogen/air flames.
Journal Article

An Investigation of the Effects of the Piston Bowl Geometries of a Heavy-Duty Engine on Performance and Emissions Using Direct Dual Fuel Stratification Strategy, and Proposing Two New Piston Profiles

Abstract Direct dual fuel stratification (DDFS) strategy benefits the advantages of the RCCI and PPC strategies simultaneously. DDFS has improved control over the heat release rate, by injecting a considerable amount of fuel near TDC, compared to RCCI. In addition, the third injection (near TDC) is diffusion-limited. Consequently, piston bowl geometry directly affects the formation of emissions. The modified piston geometry was developed and optimized for RCCI by previous scholars. Since all DDFS experimental tests were performed with the modified piston profile, the other piston profiles need to be investigated for this strategy. In this article, first, a comparative study between the three conventional piston profiles, including the modified, stock, and scaled pistons, was performed. Afterward, the gasoline injector position was shifted to the head cylinder center for the stock piston. NOX emissions were improved; however, soot was increased slightly.
Journal Article

Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

Abstract Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber.
Journal Article

Effect of Start of Injection on the Particulate Emission from Methanol Fuelled HCCI Engine

New combustion concepts developed in internal combustion engines such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) have attracted serious attention due to the possibilities to simultaneously achieve higher efficiency and lower emissions, which will impact the environment positively. The HCCI combustion concept has potential of ultra-low NOX and particulate matter (PM) emission in comparison to a conventional gasoline or a diesel engine. Environmental Legislation Agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions from engines because the health and environmental effects of particulates emitted are now known and can be measured by sophisticated instruments. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible, and the measurement of mass emission of PM from HCCI combustion systems shows their negligible contribution to PM mass. However some recent studies suggest that PM emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected.
Journal Article

Impact of Reformed Ethanol on the Volumetric Efficiency in I.C. Engines

This article presents a set of formulas for estimating the impact of reformed ethanol fuel on volumetric efficiency in I.C. engines. Both partial and complete usages of reformed ethanol fuel are discussed. Analysis suggests that volumetric efficiency drastically decreases as the level of fuel reforming increases in S.I. engines. Such impact on volumetric efficiency is reduced when the reformed fuel is partially used in diesel engines. A formula for calculating the impact of intake air temperature variation on volumetric efficiency is also presented. This formula is validated against engine simulation on factors such as engine load, speed, displacement, intake air temperature and reformed fuel temperature. Validation results show a maximum of 0.5% error, indicating an accurate approximation and hence high feasibility of this formula.
Journal Article

A Non-Linear Finite Element Approach Applied to Diesel Piston Combustion Bowl Rim Strength Assessment

The single piece aluminium alloy piston remains the dominant and preferred design offering for highly loaded diesel engines. Piston manufacturers have progressively developed aluminium alloys, machining capability, and design geometries to cope with increasing thermal and mechanical loading. In conjunction with these developments, the methodology used to analyse the pistons has also improved as software and digital computers have advanced. This advancement has permitted larger more detailed models and more sophisticated simulation of the material behaviour, in response to the loading and contact conditions applied to pistons. Transient finite element analysis was first applied to diesel pistons in the late 1970's using a linear elastic approach, coupled with a life assessment based on limited low cycle fatigue data. This methodology gave valuable insights into the mechanism of piston failures, particularly at the combustion bowl rim of diesel pistons.
Technical Paper

Topology Optimisation of Brake Caliper

The objective of the research is to develop a lightweight yet stiff, 2 piston fixed brake caliper which can be used in formula student race car. To make a race car, its components need to be lighter. To stop a car with minimum stopping distance, it needs to have a sophisticated braking system with well-designed components. The designing of the caliper is carried out on the Altair Inspire software. The topology optimisation algorithm is used to minimise the weight of the caliper without compromising the stiffness. The structural analysis is also carried out on the Altair Inspire. The caliper is also tested for fatigue failure using Ansys.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Experimental Thermal Mapping and FEA Thermal Simulation for Cylinder Head for Diesel Engine Development

For upgrading/new engine development, the piston and cylinder head are the most exposed members due to amplified mechanical and thermal loadings. Mechanical loading is basically due to the combustion gas pressure in the combustion chamber and its scale can be judged in terms of peak cylinder pressure. Thermal loading is due to temperature by heat flux acting on the piston surface, cylinder liner and the cylinder head. The importance of the various loads applied on the head and cylinder block in operation was assessed and a method of predicting their influence on the structural integrity of the components described by doing actual test on engine test bench. Therefore, it’s very important to have thermal survey of the engine. The engine thermal survey test was primarily developed to measure the temperature in the head of the engine to determine if the temperatures that are measured are within the design guidelines for appropriate engine operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Automotive AC Components (Condenser & Piston) with Experimental Validation

Automotive Air Conditioning is the process of removing the heat and moisture from the interior of an occupied space to improve comfort of occupants. A condenser is a device or unit used to condense refrigerant from its gaseous to its liquid state, by cooling it. In so doing, the latent heat is given up by the substance and transferred to the surrounding environment. It is made of Aluminum Alloy Material and subjected to very high internal stresses due to refrigerant pressure, thermal / inertia and dynamic load. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of the condenser assembly under these loading conditions, operating frequency should be far away from the resonance frequency and component design should be robust to sustain external excitation load coming from the engine & road. The above design evaluation criteria is also applicable for piston of AC’s reciprocating compressor.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Stir cum Squeeze Cast A356 with 5wt. % SiC and x wt. % Flyash Hybrid Composites

The forged connecting rod and pin experience a large amount of stresses due to cyclic load for a long period of time induced by the reciprocating movement of the piston. The proposed work focused to produce lightweight composites with high strength using waste flyash and simple manufacturing process. In this context, the proposed experimental work was formulated to develop aluminium alloy hybrid metal matrix composite of A356 alloy with silicon carbide and flyash processed through stir cum squeeze casting process under optimal parametric condition. The samples were subjected to varying flyash content of 0, 5, 10wt.% and SiC of 5wt.% kept constant. Responses like metallography, hardness, impact strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength were observed for the manufactured hybrid composites. There was a significant improvement in the properties with a higher weight percentage addition of 10wt.% flyash and 5wt.% SiC with A356 hybrid composites.
Technical Paper

Design and Couple Field Analysis of Uncoated and Coated Aluminium Metal Matrix Hybrid Composite Piston

Piston is the most imperative part of an automotive engine in which it exchanges drive due to expanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft through the piston rod. During the combustion of fuel charge inside the ignition chamber, high pressure and temperature are developed and the piston is imperiled to high mechanical and thermal stresses. The main objective of the proposed work is to analyse the stress distributions and thermal behaviour of uncoated A356 with 5wt% SiC and 10wt% Fly Ash HMMC piston crown and Plasma sprayed Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (Y-PSZ) coated A356 with 5wt% SiC and 10wt% Fly Ash HMMC piston crown. A356 with 5wt% SiC and 10wt% Fly Ash HMMC were fabricated via squeeze casting to improve the performance of a petrol engine. A structural model of an HMMC piston crown was made using CREO software and structural and thermal analysis was done using ANSYS. Further coupled field analysis is done to find the stress and temperature distribution on the piston.