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Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of Tailpipe Emission Characteristics on Diesel Engine Using Nanofluid with R-EGR Setup

2020-09-25
2020-28-0442
The current research over the use of nano additive as a distinguishable thing on decelerating hazardous diesel engine emissions. The experiment was conducted with biofuel, there is no significance of engine modifications for using the biofuel. The surplus amount of oxygen integrated within the biofuel can able to generate higher combustion rate relatively it produces more NOx, the NOx burden can be reduced with the help of REGR (reformed exhaust gas recirculation). The reforming of exhaust gases causes the measurable generation of smoke, CO and HC. In order to reduce the formation of above emissions, the affordable and sustainable alternate identified from the present research, by citronella biofuel with 100ppm Cobalt Chromite nano additive. The scrutinized output enumerates that the substantial reduction in HC, CO, and BSFC with elevated EGT (exhaust gas temperature) achieved by CBN-REGR than the typical usage of the traditional CB-EGR system.
Technical Paper

Heat Flux between Impinged Diesel Spray and Flat Wall

1991-11-01
912460
In a high-speed DI diesel engine, fuel sprays impinge surely on a wall of a piston cavity. Then the phenomenon of the heat transfer between the impinged spray and the wall appears and it has the strong effect on the combustion processes of the engine. The purpose of this study are to clarify basically the heat transfer characteristics. In the experiments, the fuel was injected into the quiescent inert atmosphere with a high temperature under high pressure field, and an evaporative single diesel spray was impinging upon a flat wall. And, the temperature distribution on the wall surface in a radial direction was detected by the Loex-Constantan thin film thermo-couples. Thus, the heat flux between the impinged spray and the wall surface was calculated from the temperature profile within the wall by Fourier's equation using the finite difference method, under the assumption of the one-dimensional heat conduction.
Technical Paper

The STM4 - 120RH and STM4 - 120DH Stirling Engines Performance Comparison

1991-11-01
912478
Stirling Thermal Motors, Inc., (STM) of Ann Arbor, Michigan, has been developing a general purpose Stirling engine designated the STM4-120.* The configuration of the STM4-120 was based on the Ford/Philips automotive Stirling engine which was successfully demonstrated in a 4500 pound Ford Torino in 1976. This engine, designated the 4-215, was a four-cycle, double-acting engine with a fixed angle swashplate drive and produced 175 horsepower (128 kW). During the Ford program, three obstacles to mass production were identified: the complexity of the mean pressure power control, the life and reliability of the rod seals, and the complex geometry and manufacturability of the heater heads. In the conceptual design phase of the STM4-120, effort was concentrated on addressing and overcoming these obstacles.
Technical Paper

A Temperature Controller for Glow Plugs and its Usage in an Engine

1991-11-01
912510
Increased power outputs in high performance diesel engines are being obtained by the use of increased boost pressures obtained from the engine's turbochargers. Reduced compression ratio because of high boost tends to cause cold starting problems and white smoke at idle and light load, especially with a cold engine. One method of alleviating these problems is to make use of glow plugs in the engine cylinders. Applications of glow plugs include a glow plug ignited natural gas engine, methanol DI engine, and IDI and DI diesel engines. This paper describes a glow plug control system that actually controls the glow plug temperature directly. This new control system is better than the systems currently fitted to IDI diesel vehicles. The glow plug controller maintains a constant temperature at the glow plug without the use of any sensor external to the glow plug.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Studies in an Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1991-11-01
912502
Numerical calculation based on finite element method are carried out to calculate the temperature field in an adiabatic diesel engine piston having diameter. 127 mm and made of aluminum alloy. The engine cylinder wall have the coated externally by a thin layer of very high grade ceramic insulating material. The isothermic distribution in the piston body and the heat flow rates to the cooling media at different loads have been depicted for both cases with and without insulation coating. The paper first reviews the current state of development of ‘adiabatic’ diesel engine in Europe, U.S.A and the Japan. This review section is followed by a brief description of the common element of hostile features, then comes the experimental program on thermally insulated components for single cylinder engine in the research center of Tabriz and finally by a theoretical section dealing with the performance potential of composed engine schemes based on ‘adiabatic’ engine operation.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Solution for Spherical Joint Mechanism Including Coulomb Friction

1991-11-01
912499
This paper introduces the friction sphere concepts to consider the effects of friction in the spherical joint and presents a new effective numerical solution method for the analysis of multibody systems with spherical joint under Coulomb friction. Complete equations of motion and reaction forces are derived for dynamic analysis of multibody systems by using Lagrangian formulation. The numerical solutions of the new method are illustrated by its applications to the variable displacement car air conditioning compressor, which has five pistons connected to the wobble plate by five actuating rods with spherical joints at both ends. The new method successively accomplishes the solutions of the equations of motion and reaction forces of the compressor in less computing time than the conventional method.
Technical Paper

Unburned Methanol and Formaldehyde Emission Measurements from Methanol - Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV)

1991-11-01
912557
In the quantitative analysis of oxygenated exhaust emissions (unburned methanol and formaldehyde) from methanol fueled vehicles, the oxygen contained in oxygenated exhaust emissions results in undesirable response to a conventional FID (Flame Ionization Detector) analyzer and hence leads to erroneous HC (Hydrocarbons) reading. For correct measurement of various HC, including oxygenated HC, emitted from FFV (a Flexible Fuel Vehicle), a measurement method of real HC emissions should be established. A measuring method by GC (Gas Chromatography) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is used in this paper to analyze unburned methanol and formaldehyde in the exhaust emissions. From the emission test of FFV, it is observed that unburned methanol and formaldehyde are emitted mostly during engine warm-up period, and that formaldehyde emission level is proportional to engine displacements.
Technical Paper

A Study on Performance Improvement of Natural Gas Engine

1991-11-01
912559
Natural gas possesses several characteristics that make it desirable as an engine fuel; 1)lower production cost, 2)abundant commodity and 3)leaner energy source than gasoline. Due to the physical characteristics of natural gas, the volumetric efficiency and flame speed of a natural gas engine are lower than those of a gasoline engine, which results in a power loss of 10-20% when compared to a normal gasoline engine. This paper describes the results of a research to improve the performance of a natural gas engine through the modification and controls of compression ratio, air/fuel ratio, spark advance and supercharging. It emphasizes how to improve the power characteristics of a natural gas engine. Combustion characteristics are also studied using an ion probe. The ion probe is applied to measure flame speed of gasoline and methane fuels.
Technical Paper

Purification Characteristics of Catalytic Converters for Natural Gas Fueled Automotive Engine

1991-11-01
912599
The purification performances of some kinds of catalytic converters ( Pt, Rh, Pd, Pd/Rh, Pd/Pt, Pt/Rh/Pd, Pt_Pd and Pd_Cu) were investigated to select suitable catalytic converters for natural gas fueled automotive engines. Pd series catalysts showed better performance among the noble metal catalysts for oxidation of unburned methane in exhaust gas. The optimum loading of Pd catalyst is the range of 1.6 to 3.2 g/L. The dual-bed catalyst, Pt_Pd, consisting of a Pt catalyst in the front and a Pd catalyst in the rear, showed a performance better than Pd series catalysts. When aged to an accumulated running distance of 50000 miles, the catalytic activity of the Rh catalysts is much reduced, but those of Pd and Pt catalyst are affected little by aging. The aged Pd/Rh catalyst showed superior emissions' purification performance at the stoichiometric condition, but poor at lean mixture conditions.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of the South Coast Alternative Motor Fuels Demonstration Project

1991-11-01
912665
The conceptual design for a large scale, alternative motor fuels demonstration using delivery vans in the Los Angeles area is described. Vehicles built by Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors will be demonstrated on compressed natural gas, methanol (M-85), ethanol blend, reformulated gasoline, and liquefied petroleum gas. Control vehicles will run on unleaded gasoline. About 20 vehicles will run on each fuel. A smaller number of electric vehicles from other sources will also be demonstrated. Data will be collected over a 24-month period on speciated emissions, safety, performance, reliability, maintenance, and durability. An economic assessment of the use of each of the fuels will be performed from a fleet operator's perspective. Federal Express Corporation will serve as the host fleet.
Technical Paper

Total In-Cylinder Sampling Experiment on Emission Formation Processes in a D.I. Diesel Engine

1990-10-01
902062
An experimental study on emission formation processes, such as these of nitric oxide, particulate and total hydrocarbon in a small direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was carried out by using a newly developed total in-cylinder sampling technique. The sampling method consisted of rapidly opening a blowdown valve attached to the bottom of the piston bowl, and quickly transferring most of the in-cylinder contents into a large sampling chamber below the piston. No modification of the intake and exhaust ports in a cylinder head was required for the installation of the blowdown apparatus. The sampling experiment gave a history of spatially-averaged emission concentrations in the cylinder. The effects of several engine variables, such as the length-to-diameter ratio of the nozzle hole, the ratio of the piston bowl diameter to the cylinder bore and the intake swirl ratio, on the emission formation processes were investigated.
Technical Paper

Use of Ethyl-t-Butyl Ether (ETBE) as a Gasoline Blending Component

1990-10-01
902132
The U. S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE, ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found.
Technical Paper

The Seasonal Impact of Blending Oxygenated Organics with Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emissions - Part II

1990-10-01
902129
Evaporative and tailpipe emissions from a 1987 GM Corsica with adaptive learning closed loop control were measured with six fuels and four temperatures. Measured emissions were total (THC) and speciated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ethanol, MTBE, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, CO, and NOx. Tests were also performed to determine the effect of air conditioning (AC) and oxygen sensor failure. In general, AC reduced Highway Fuel Economy emissions, increased FTP emissions, and reduced fuel economy for both test cycles. Oxygen sensor malfunction increased tailpipe emissions and fuel economy. Higher levels of regulated tailpipe emissions were generally produced at the low test temperature. None of the fuels tested appeared to offer a consistent reduction in tailpipe THC and CO emissions under the conditions tested.
Technical Paper

Fuel Blending and Analysis for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1990-10-01
902098
This paper provides an overview of the blending techniques and analytical methods used to formulate the fuels for Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP). Details of the base stocks and final blend compositions and properties are also included. Phase I involves the blending and testing of 30 different fuels in four different fuel matrices. The four matrices included gasoline reformulations, methanol fuels, gasoline oxygenate and RVP effects, and gasoline sulfur effects. Specifications for the gasoline fuels were very tight, with several properties being held constant while varying four main fuel properties. Another goal of the blending program was that the gasolines were to be blended from existing refinery streams and not from pure components. Nine laboratories participated in the certification of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Gasoline and Methanol Vehicle Emissions Using VOC Reactivity

1990-10-01
902095
This paper compares the mass, composition and reactivity towards ozone formation of gasoline and methanol vehicle emissions. Methods used to estimate ozone forming potential include published reactivity scales and the EPA-OZIPM model. Evaluation of the available vehicle emission measurement data does not indicate any ozone benefit for methanol. The data show a wide range in the reactivity of gasoline vehicle VOC emissions. Emissions from vehicles with advanced emission control systems and low mileage have the lowest reactivity. Methanol vehicles emit essentially the same amounts of VOC (on a carbon basis), NOx and CO as gasoline-powered vehicles, and their VOC reactivity fails within the range for gasoline vehicles. When methanol fuels are compared directly with gasoline in flexible fuel vehicles, their VOC emissions have the same or higher reactivity.
Technical Paper

Effect on Intake Valve Deposits of Ethanol and Additives Common to the Available Ethanol Supply

1990-10-01
902109
With the widespread introduction of the third generation additives to modern gasolines, Phillips Petroleum Company chose to further define the effects of gasoline/ethanol blends (gasohol) on intake system deposits (ISD). The third generation additives referred to here are those that provide protection against ISD. This paper presents detailed results of the investigation in this area. During evaluation of various ISD additives, it was found that additive levels capable of controlling ISD with normal gasolines were unable to do so with fuels containing neat ethanol. Most fuel grade ethanol available in the marketplace is pretreated with additives intended to control accumulation of port fuel injector (PFI) deposits. These currently accepted PFI additives proved to be even more of a problem to intake valves than neat ethanol in gasoline. Some, however, contributed more to valve deposits than others.
Technical Paper

Interpretation of Engine Cycle-To-Cycle Variation By Chaotic Time Series Analysis

1990-10-01
902103
In this paper we summarize preliminary results from applying a new mathematical technique- chaotic time series analysis (CTSA)- to cylinder pressure data from a spark-ignition (SI) four-stroke engine fueled with both methanol and iso-octane. Our objective is to look for the presence of “deterministic chaos” dynamics in peak pressure variations and to investigate the potential usefulness of CTSA as a diagnostic tool. Our results suggest that sequential peak cylinder pressures exhibit some characteristic features of deterministic chaos and that CTSA can extract previously unrecognized information from such data.
Technical Paper

High-Alcohol Microemulsion Fuel Performance in a Diesel Engine

1990-10-01
902101
Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necessitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C1-C4 alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated.
Technical Paper

Swirl Effects on Mixing and Flame Evolution in a Research DI Diesel Engine

1990-10-01
902076
An optically accessible, DI Diesel engine was used to investigate the effect of swirl on fuel-air mixing and flame evolution. Quiescent and swirling conditions were studied at three different fuel-air ratios at an engine speed of 900 RPM. For the mixing studies, performed with nitrogen to prevent combustion, a mirrored piston was used to permit double pass shadowgraph imaging within the combustion chamber. High speed shadowgraph cinematography, using an Argon ion laser, yielded insight into the temporal evolution of the fuel jet and permitted the calculation of penetration speeds and area of the fuel jet as a function of time. With swirl, the penetration rate of the fuel jets was reduced, and the area of the over which fuel was observed increased by 25 percent. Combustion phenomena were studied using backlighting so that the spray and visible light from combustion could be recorded on high speed video.
Technical Paper

The Composition of Gasoline Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions - An Evaluation of Catalyst and Fuel Effects

1990-10-01
902074
Twenty-three hydrocarbon components were analysed in the exhaust emissions from a 2.3 litre gasoline engine. The effect of a three-way catalyst on emission rates was investigated, as was the effect of addition to fuel of specific aromatic and olefinic compounds. The addition of 1-hexene and 1-octene (olefins) caused statistically significant increases in reactive olefins - ethene and propene - in the exhaust. The addition of benzene and toluene led to increases in these compounds in the exhaust, and indicated that whilst fuel-toluene is the main source of toluene emissions, the emission of benzene has sources in addition to fuel-benzene. A three-way catalyst, when operating at > 600°C, eliminated most hydrocarbons except methane and traces of the light aromatics. At idle, however, the catalyst exhibited substantial selectivity towards different hydrocarbons according to their ease-of-oxidation.
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