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Technical Paper

Oxidative Reactivity of Soot Particles Generated from the Combustion of Conventional Diesel, HVO and OME Collected in Particle Filter Structures

2021-09-05
2021-24-0085
The reduction of CO2 emissions in transport and power generation is currently a key challenge. One particular opportunity of CO2 reduction is the introduction of low CO2 or even CO2 neutral fuels. The combustion characteristics of such fuels are different and require engine settings modification. In addition, emissions characteristics differ significantly among different fuels. In the present study a one cylinder diesel engine was operated with conventional diesel, hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and polyoxymethyl dimethyl ether (OME) as well as a series of blends. Particle filter segments were positioned in the exhaust of the engine and loaded with particles originating from the combustion of these fuels. The filter segments have been regenerated individually in a specifically designed and developed controlled temperature soot oxidation apparatus.
Technical Paper

EGR Strategies Pertaining to High Pressure and Low Pressure EGR in Heavy Duty CNG Engine to Optimize Exhaust Temperature and NOx Emissions

2021-09-22
2021-26-0114
CNG has proven to be a concrete alternative to gasoline and diesel fuel for sustained mobility. Due to stringent emission norms and sanctions being imposed on diesel fuel vehicles, OEMs have shifted their attention towards natural gas as an efficient and green fuel. Newly implemented BS VI emission norms in India have stressed on the reduction of Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) from the exhaust by almost 85% as compared to BS IV emission norms. Also, Indian Automotive market is fuel economy cautious. This challenges to focus on improving fuel economy but without increase in NOx emissions. Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has the potential to reduce the NOx emissions by decreasing the in-cylinder temperature. The objective of the paper is to model a CNG TCIC engine using 1D simulation in order to optimize the NOx emissions and maintain exhaust temperatures under failsafe limits.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Emission Reduction Potential of Diesel-Methanol Blends in a Heavy-Duty Genset Engine

2021-09-22
2021-26-0104
One of the most promising fuel alternatives for Diesel is Methanol. The fuel is regarded advantageous owing to the easy availability of raw materials for its production, its low cost and high Oxygen content that has potential to reduce emissions of smoke, CO and PM. Methanol as a fuel blend with Diesel is non-viable as they are not readily miscible with each other. This paper expounds the engine performance and emission evaluation of blending Methanol with Diesel by using two methods that aid in overcoming phase separation. The experiments were performed in two stages. In the first stage, investigation of phase stabilization of Methanol in Diesel with suitable additive concentration was performed. This was performed to determine the optimum additive and its concentration for a Methanol share of up to 25% in Diesel-Methanol blends for a stabilization period of 30 days.
Technical Paper

Chemical Reactivity Control of DME/Ethanol Dual Fuel Combustion

2021-09-21
2021-01-1176
The use of renewable fuels in place of conventional hydrocarbon fuels can minimize the carbon footprint of internal combustion engines. DME has been treated as a suitable surrogate to diesel fuel because of its high reactivity and soot-less combustion characteristics. The lower energy density of DME fuel demands a higher fuel supply rate to match the engine loads compared to diesel, which was achieved through prolonged injection duration and larger nozzle holes. When used as a pilot fuel to control the combustion behavior in a dual-fuel application, the fuel energy delivery rate becomes less critical allowing the use of a standard diesel common-rail injector for DME direct injection. In this work, the combustion of DME-Ethanol dual-fuel reactivity-controlled compression ignition was experimentally investigated.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on Adsorption/Desorption Process in SI Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1184
Ethanol is regarded as a potential alternative fuel for combustion engine as it provides lower exhaust emissions, higher efficiency and higher octane rating. However, the solubility of ethanol in oil can effect lubricant quality. The impact of ethanol-blend gasoline on lubricants is a matter of concern that must be addressed. With this in mind, the current study investigates the effect of blending ethanol with gasoline on the oil layer adsorption/desorption mechanism. The blends used for the study are E0, E5, E10, and E15. The study is carried out with the help of a mathematical model that predicts the fuel adsorbed/desorbed in the oil layer of an engine. The mathematical model predictions are compared to experimental results obtained on a single-cylinder gasoline engine. Fuel adsorbed in the oil layer ranges from 0.46% for E0 fuel to 0.35% for E15 fuel. Similarly, the desorbed fuel ranges from 0.45% to 0.29% as the ethanol fraction increases from 0% to 15%.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol-Blended Fuel on Combustion Characteristics, Gaseous and Particulate Emissions in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engines

2021-09-22
2021-26-0356
Ethanol fuel blends with gasoline for spark ignition (SI) internal combustion engines are widely used on account of their advantages in terms of fuel economy and emissions reduction potential. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of these blends on combustion characteristics such as in-cylinder pressure profiles, gas-phase emissions (e.g., unburned hydrocarbons, NOx) and particulates (e.g., particulate matter and particle number) using both measurement campaigns and digital engineering workflows. Nineteen load-speed operating points in a 1L 3-cylinder GDI SI engine were measured and modelled. The measurements for in-cylinder pressure and emissions were repeated at each operating point for three types of fuel: gasoline (E0, 0% by volume of ethanol blend), E10 (10 % by volume of ethanol blend) and E20 (20% by volume of ethanol blend).
Technical Paper

Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0556
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy.
Technical Paper

Methane Conversion and Ammonia Formation Model over a Pd-Rh Three-Way Catalyst for CNG Heavy-Duty Engines

2021-09-05
2021-24-0002
Research activities in the development of reliable computational models for aftertreatment systems are constantly increasing in the automotive field. These investigations are essential in order to get a complete understanding of the main catalytic processes which clearly have a great impact on tailpipe emissions. In this work, a 1D chemical reaction model to simulate the catalytic activity of a Pd/Rh Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) for a Natural Gas heavy-duty engine is presented. An extensive database of tests carried out with the use of a Synthetic Gas Bench (SGB) has been collected to investigate the methane abatement pathways, linked to the lambda variation and oxide formation on palladium surface. Specific steady-state tests have shown a dynamics of the methane conversion even at fixed λ and temperature conditions, essentially due to the Pd/PdO ratio.
Standard

Fuel Dispensing Filter Test Methods

2020-05-26
CURRENT
J2793_202005
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to gasoline and diesel fuel filters installed on fuel dispensing equipment, mobile or stationary. It describes a set of tests used to characterize the structural integrity, filtration performance, and reaction to water contaminant with fuel dispensing filters.
Standard

Fuel Dispensing Filter Test Methods

2011-02-04
HISTORICAL
J2793_201102
This SAE Recommended Practice is applicable to gasoline and diesel fuel filters installed on fuel dispensing equipment, mobile or stationary. It describes a set of tests used to characterize the structural integrity, filtration performance, and reaction to water contaminant with fuel dispensing filters.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Ethanol-Containing Fuel Supply Control Efficiency in Spark Ignition Engine

2021-09-21
2021-01-1232
The article is devoted to investigation of fuel supply control efficiency in a spark ignition engine equipped with a catalytic converter during use of ethanol-containing fuels with different ethanol content. The study involves determining the efficiency of fuel supply controlling algorithm for the engine, which is powered by conventional petrol and non-adapted for using fuels with high ethanol content. Within the study the following fuels were used: petrol, ethanol and fuel blends with ethanol content varying from 15 to 90%. The efficiency of fuel supply control is evaluated in terms of providing the specified fuel-air mixture composition, fuel consumption and emissions in transient engine operation modes during vehicle motion in the driving cycle. The data obtained during the engine bench tests using petrol and ethanol-containing fuels were used for evaluation.
Journal Article

Measurement of Vapor Pressures and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Gasoline and Ethanol Blends and Their Effects on Mixture Preparation in an SI Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-0317
Global ethanol trade is forecast to increase 25-fold by 2020. Most of it will be blended with gasoline to make biofuel. However, blending ethanol with gasoline has a profound effect on the evaporation characteristics of the mixture. In particular, the thermodynamic properties of the blends can be significantly different than the constituents. A clear understanding of the blend's properties is essential for optimizing engine design, e.g. utilizing charge cooling effect. Data available in the literature is very limited, considering ethanol-gasoline blends will be used as a fuel in large scale worldwide. In this work, comprehensive measurements of vapor pressures were carried out. The enthalpies of vaporization were derived from vapor pressure data using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Maximum vapor pressure occurs with 20% ethanol-gasoline blend at which a positive azeotrope is formed. The trend is different in enthalpy of vaporization.
Technical Paper

Real Driving Emissions of Diesel and LNG Euro VI Heavy-Duty Vehicles Measured with FTIR-PEMS

2021-09-05
2021-24-0066
To replace conventional Diesel and to make the transport sector CO2 neutral, liquid bio methane or liquefied biogas (LBG) is one possible solution to replace conventional fuel. Due to the ongoing development of methane engines for trucks and the possible perspective of realizing closed CO2 cycles, a pilot project "Use of LBG (Liquefied Biogas) for Swiss heavy-duty transportation" has been launched in Switzerland. This project is intended to demonstrate the performance of LBG trucks as well as their environmental benefits. The emission behavior of the vehicles is a critical point in the evaluation of the idea of using methane as a fuel. In the present paper the conducted real drive emission measurements of two different methane gas and one Diesel powered truck, as reference, with the parallel use of a standard and FTIR-PEMS are presented. The configuration of both PEMS systems mounted on a trailer is shown, as well as the real drive scenario.
Journal Article

Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Dual Fuel Lean Flames Using Local Burning Velocity and Critical Chemical Timescale

2019-07-02
Abstract Addition of hydrogen to hydrocarbons in premixed turbulent combustion is of technological interest due to their increased reactivity, flame stability and extended lean extinction limits. However, such flames are a challenge to reaction modelling, especially as the strong preferential diffusion effects modify the physical processes, which are of importance even for highly turbulent high-pressure conditions. In the present work, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modelling is carried out to investigate pressure and hydrogen content on methane/hydrogen/air flames.
Journal Article

Effect of Start of Injection on the Particulate Emission from Methanol Fuelled HCCI Engine

2011-12-06
2011-01-2408
New combustion concepts developed in internal combustion engines such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) have attracted serious attention due to the possibilities to simultaneously achieve higher efficiency and lower emissions, which will impact the environment positively. The HCCI combustion concept has potential of ultra-low NOX and particulate matter (PM) emission in comparison to a conventional gasoline or a diesel engine. Environmental Legislation Agencies are becoming increasingly concerned with particulate emissions from engines because the health and environmental effects of particulates emitted are now known and can be measured by sophisticated instruments. Particulate emissions from HCCI engines have been usually considered negligible, and the measurement of mass emission of PM from HCCI combustion systems shows their negligible contribution to PM mass. However some recent studies suggest that PM emissions from HCCI engines cannot be neglected.
Journal Article

Impact of Reformed Ethanol on the Volumetric Efficiency in I.C. Engines

2010-05-05
2010-01-1465
This article presents a set of formulas for estimating the impact of reformed ethanol fuel on volumetric efficiency in I.C. engines. Both partial and complete usages of reformed ethanol fuel are discussed. Analysis suggests that volumetric efficiency drastically decreases as the level of fuel reforming increases in S.I. engines. Such impact on volumetric efficiency is reduced when the reformed fuel is partially used in diesel engines. A formula for calculating the impact of intake air temperature variation on volumetric efficiency is also presented. This formula is validated against engine simulation on factors such as engine load, speed, displacement, intake air temperature and reformed fuel temperature. Validation results show a maximum of 0.5% error, indicating an accurate approximation and hence high feasibility of this formula.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Assessment of Tailpipe Emission Characteristics on Diesel Engine Using Nanofluid with R-EGR Setup

2020-09-25
2020-28-0442
The current research over the use of nano additive as a distinguishable thing on decelerating hazardous diesel engine emissions. The experiment was conducted with biofuel, there is no significance of engine modifications for using the biofuel. The surplus amount of oxygen integrated within the biofuel can able to generate higher combustion rate relatively it produces more NOx, the NOx burden can be reduced with the help of REGR (reformed exhaust gas recirculation). The reforming of exhaust gases causes the measurable generation of smoke, CO and HC. In order to reduce the formation of above emissions, the affordable and sustainable alternate identified from the present research, by citronella biofuel with 100ppm Cobalt Chromite nano additive. The scrutinized output enumerates that the substantial reduction in HC, CO, and BSFC with elevated EGT (exhaust gas temperature) achieved by CBN-REGR than the typical usage of the traditional CB-EGR system.
Technical Paper

A Temperature Controller for Glow Plugs and its Usage in an Engine

1991-11-01
912510
Increased power outputs in high performance diesel engines are being obtained by the use of increased boost pressures obtained from the engine's turbochargers. Reduced compression ratio because of high boost tends to cause cold starting problems and white smoke at idle and light load, especially with a cold engine. One method of alleviating these problems is to make use of glow plugs in the engine cylinders. Applications of glow plugs include a glow plug ignited natural gas engine, methanol DI engine, and IDI and DI diesel engines. This paper describes a glow plug control system that actually controls the glow plug temperature directly. This new control system is better than the systems currently fitted to IDI diesel vehicles. The glow plug controller maintains a constant temperature at the glow plug without the use of any sensor external to the glow plug.
Technical Paper

Unburned Methanol and Formaldehyde Emission Measurements from Methanol - Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV)

1991-11-01
912557
In the quantitative analysis of oxygenated exhaust emissions (unburned methanol and formaldehyde) from methanol fueled vehicles, the oxygen contained in oxygenated exhaust emissions results in undesirable response to a conventional FID (Flame Ionization Detector) analyzer and hence leads to erroneous HC (Hydrocarbons) reading. For correct measurement of various HC, including oxygenated HC, emitted from FFV (a Flexible Fuel Vehicle), a measurement method of real HC emissions should be established. A measuring method by GC (Gas Chromatography) and HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is used in this paper to analyze unburned methanol and formaldehyde in the exhaust emissions. From the emission test of FFV, it is observed that unburned methanol and formaldehyde are emitted mostly during engine warm-up period, and that formaldehyde emission level is proportional to engine displacements.
Technical Paper

A Study on Performance Improvement of Natural Gas Engine

1991-11-01
912559
Natural gas possesses several characteristics that make it desirable as an engine fuel; 1)lower production cost, 2)abundant commodity and 3)leaner energy source than gasoline. Due to the physical characteristics of natural gas, the volumetric efficiency and flame speed of a natural gas engine are lower than those of a gasoline engine, which results in a power loss of 10-20% when compared to a normal gasoline engine. This paper describes the results of a research to improve the performance of a natural gas engine through the modification and controls of compression ratio, air/fuel ratio, spark advance and supercharging. It emphasizes how to improve the power characteristics of a natural gas engine. Combustion characteristics are also studied using an ion probe. The ion probe is applied to measure flame speed of gasoline and methane fuels.
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