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Technical Paper

Purification Characteristics of Catalytic Converters for Natural Gas Fueled Automotive Engine

1991-11-01
912599
The purification performances of some kinds of catalytic converters ( Pt, Rh, Pd, Pd/Rh, Pd/Pt, Pt/Rh/Pd, Pt_Pd and Pd_Cu) were investigated to select suitable catalytic converters for natural gas fueled automotive engines. Pd series catalysts showed better performance among the noble metal catalysts for oxidation of unburned methane in exhaust gas. The optimum loading of Pd catalyst is the range of 1.6 to 3.2 g/L. The dual-bed catalyst, Pt_Pd, consisting of a Pt catalyst in the front and a Pd catalyst in the rear, showed a performance better than Pd series catalysts. When aged to an accumulated running distance of 50000 miles, the catalytic activity of the Rh catalysts is much reduced, but those of Pd and Pt catalyst are affected little by aging. The aged Pd/Rh catalyst showed superior emissions' purification performance at the stoichiometric condition, but poor at lean mixture conditions.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of the South Coast Alternative Motor Fuels Demonstration Project

1991-11-01
912665
The conceptual design for a large scale, alternative motor fuels demonstration using delivery vans in the Los Angeles area is described. Vehicles built by Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors will be demonstrated on compressed natural gas, methanol (M-85), ethanol blend, reformulated gasoline, and liquefied petroleum gas. Control vehicles will run on unleaded gasoline. About 20 vehicles will run on each fuel. A smaller number of electric vehicles from other sources will also be demonstrated. Data will be collected over a 24-month period on speciated emissions, safety, performance, reliability, maintenance, and durability. An economic assessment of the use of each of the fuels will be performed from a fleet operator's perspective. Federal Express Corporation will serve as the host fleet.
Technical Paper

Use of Ethyl-t-Butyl Ether (ETBE) as a Gasoline Blending Component

1990-10-01
902132
The U. S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE, ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found.
Technical Paper

The Seasonal Impact of Blending Oxygenated Organics with Gasoline on Motor Vehicle Tailpipe and Evaporative Emissions - Part II

1990-10-01
902129
Evaporative and tailpipe emissions from a 1987 GM Corsica with adaptive learning closed loop control were measured with six fuels and four temperatures. Measured emissions were total (THC) and speciated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ethanol, MTBE, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, CO, and NOx. Tests were also performed to determine the effect of air conditioning (AC) and oxygen sensor failure. In general, AC reduced Highway Fuel Economy emissions, increased FTP emissions, and reduced fuel economy for both test cycles. Oxygen sensor malfunction increased tailpipe emissions and fuel economy. Higher levels of regulated tailpipe emissions were generally produced at the low test temperature. None of the fuels tested appeared to offer a consistent reduction in tailpipe THC and CO emissions under the conditions tested.
Technical Paper

Fuel Blending and Analysis for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1990-10-01
902098
This paper provides an overview of the blending techniques and analytical methods used to formulate the fuels for Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP). Details of the base stocks and final blend compositions and properties are also included. Phase I involves the blending and testing of 30 different fuels in four different fuel matrices. The four matrices included gasoline reformulations, methanol fuels, gasoline oxygenate and RVP effects, and gasoline sulfur effects. Specifications for the gasoline fuels were very tight, with several properties being held constant while varying four main fuel properties. Another goal of the blending program was that the gasolines were to be blended from existing refinery streams and not from pure components. Nine laboratories participated in the certification of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Gasoline and Methanol Vehicle Emissions Using VOC Reactivity

1990-10-01
902095
This paper compares the mass, composition and reactivity towards ozone formation of gasoline and methanol vehicle emissions. Methods used to estimate ozone forming potential include published reactivity scales and the EPA-OZIPM model. Evaluation of the available vehicle emission measurement data does not indicate any ozone benefit for methanol. The data show a wide range in the reactivity of gasoline vehicle VOC emissions. Emissions from vehicles with advanced emission control systems and low mileage have the lowest reactivity. Methanol vehicles emit essentially the same amounts of VOC (on a carbon basis), NOx and CO as gasoline-powered vehicles, and their VOC reactivity fails within the range for gasoline vehicles. When methanol fuels are compared directly with gasoline in flexible fuel vehicles, their VOC emissions have the same or higher reactivity.
Technical Paper

Effect on Intake Valve Deposits of Ethanol and Additives Common to the Available Ethanol Supply

1990-10-01
902109
With the widespread introduction of the third generation additives to modern gasolines, Phillips Petroleum Company chose to further define the effects of gasoline/ethanol blends (gasohol) on intake system deposits (ISD). The third generation additives referred to here are those that provide protection against ISD. This paper presents detailed results of the investigation in this area. During evaluation of various ISD additives, it was found that additive levels capable of controlling ISD with normal gasolines were unable to do so with fuels containing neat ethanol. Most fuel grade ethanol available in the marketplace is pretreated with additives intended to control accumulation of port fuel injector (PFI) deposits. These currently accepted PFI additives proved to be even more of a problem to intake valves than neat ethanol in gasoline. Some, however, contributed more to valve deposits than others.
Technical Paper

Interpretation of Engine Cycle-To-Cycle Variation By Chaotic Time Series Analysis

1990-10-01
902103
In this paper we summarize preliminary results from applying a new mathematical technique- chaotic time series analysis (CTSA)- to cylinder pressure data from a spark-ignition (SI) four-stroke engine fueled with both methanol and iso-octane. Our objective is to look for the presence of “deterministic chaos” dynamics in peak pressure variations and to investigate the potential usefulness of CTSA as a diagnostic tool. Our results suggest that sequential peak cylinder pressures exhibit some characteristic features of deterministic chaos and that CTSA can extract previously unrecognized information from such data.
Technical Paper

High-Alcohol Microemulsion Fuel Performance in a Diesel Engine

1990-10-01
902101
Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necessitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C1-C4 alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated.
Technical Paper

The Composition of Gasoline Engine Hydrocarbon Emissions - An Evaluation of Catalyst and Fuel Effects

1990-10-01
902074
Twenty-three hydrocarbon components were analysed in the exhaust emissions from a 2.3 litre gasoline engine. The effect of a three-way catalyst on emission rates was investigated, as was the effect of addition to fuel of specific aromatic and olefinic compounds. The addition of 1-hexene and 1-octene (olefins) caused statistically significant increases in reactive olefins - ethene and propene - in the exhaust. The addition of benzene and toluene led to increases in these compounds in the exhaust, and indicated that whilst fuel-toluene is the main source of toluene emissions, the emission of benzene has sources in addition to fuel-benzene. A three-way catalyst, when operating at > 600°C, eliminated most hydrocarbons except methane and traces of the light aromatics. At idle, however, the catalyst exhibited substantial selectivity towards different hydrocarbons according to their ease-of-oxidation.
Technical Paper

Extending Injector Life in Methanol-Fueled DDC Engines Through Engine Oil and Fuel Additives

1990-10-01
902227
Considerable development effort has shown that conventional diesel engine lubricating oil specifications do not define the needs for acceptable injector life in methanol-fueled, two-stroke cycle diesel engines. A cooperative program was undertaken to formulate an engine oil-fuel additive system which was aimed at improving performance with methanol fueling. The performance feature of greatest concern was injector tip plugging. A Taguchi matrix using a 100 hour engine test was designed around an engine oil formulation which had performed well in a 500 hour engine test using a simulated urban bus cycle. Parameters investigated included: detergent level and type, dispersant choice, and zinc dithiophosphate level. In addition, the influence of a supplemental fuel additive was assessed. Analysis of the Taguchi Matrix data shows the fuel additive to have the most dramatic beneficial influence on maintaining injector performance.
Technical Paper

Review of the Cold Starting Performance of Methanol and High Methanol Blends in Spark Ignition Engines: High Methanol Blends

1990-10-01
902181
This paper summarizes the results of a survey and analysis of cold starting data for spark ignition engines utilizing high methanol blends. All available published information, as well as additional data supplied by contributing agencies was considered. The report includes graphical comparisons of test results and a detailed discussion of the various factors which influence cold starting. Recommendations are made for further work needed to improve cold starting.
Technical Paper

Transit Bus Operation with a DDC 6V-92TAC Engine Operating on Ignition-Improved Methanol

1990-10-01
902161
The use of methanol as a fuel in transit buses is being demonstrated through the use of diesel engine retrofits and an ignition improver to methanol. This project is aimed at retrofitting the Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 6V-92TAC diesel engine in a GM RTSII bus to operate on methanol. The engine is modified by installing higher compression ratio pistons, higher flowrate mechanical fuel injectors, and a different blower. The bus fuel system is also modified to accommodate the properties of methanol. New fuel lines are installed, and the diesel fuel tank is replaced with two stainless steel tanks. A high-pressure electric fuel pump and a fuel cooler are used to prevent methanol from boiling in the engine. Currently, three buses have been retrofitted. The buses operate at the Southern California Rapid Transit District (SCRTD) in Los Angeles, California.
Technical Paper

Dimethyl Ether as a Methanol Ignition Improver: Substitution Requirements and Exhaust Emissions Impact

1990-10-01
902155
Methanol is one of the leading alternatives to diesel fuel and gasoline. In Diesel applications methanol's low cetane number has necessitated the use of glowplugs, spark plugs or expensive additives for ignition assistance. This paper reports on the use of Dimethyl Ether (DME) as an ignition improver for neat methanol in a compression ignition engine. Gaseous DME was admitted to the intake air stream of a four stroke test engine operating on directly injected methanol. The amount of DME required to achieve stable operation over the load/speed range of the engine without the use of a glow plug was determined. DME's effect on ignition delay and rate of pressure rise is discussed. Exhaust emissions were measured and compared with operation on methanol with glow plug assisted ignition. Hydrocarbon emissions were reduced by a factor of 10 at light loads. Aldehyde emissions were also reduced.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Evaluation of Safety-Related Additives for Neat Methanol Fuel

1990-10-01
902156
An extensive literature search was conducted and potential additive candidates were identified to improve the safety aspects associated with the use of methanol as a motor fuel. Before any laboratory measurements were conducted, candidate additives were evaluated for possible formation of known or suspected toxic compounds as combustion products. The remaining potential additives were then screened for their effectiveness in improving methanol fuel properties in a laboratory test program emphasizing flame luminosity, lubricity, and flammability. Flame luminosity was measured with a specially designed system to monitor the light produced by the flame in lux. Lubricity was measured with a Ball-on-Cylinder Lubricity Evaluator (BOCLE). For flammability limits, a device was designed to determine the presence of flammable vapors above the liquid at different additive concentrations.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Possible Methanol Fuel Additives for Reducing Engine Wear and/or Corrosion

1990-10-01
902153
The use of fuel additives is one possible approach to reduce wear and corrosion in methanol fueled automobile engines. One hundred and six compounds added to M100 fuel in modest concentrations (1%) were tested in a Ball on Cylinder Machine (BOCM) for their ability to improve lubricity. The most promising candidates were then tested in an engine using a modified ASTM Sequence V-D wear screening test. Additive performance was measured by comparing the buildup of wear metals in the oil to that obtained from an engine fueled with neat M100. The BOCM method of evaluating the additive candidates proved inadequate in predicting abrasive engine wear under the test conditions utilized for this research program.
Technical Paper

Methanol-Fueled Caterpillar 3406 Engine Experience in On-Highway Trucks

1990-10-01
902160
A variety of “alternative” fuels are being considered as potential future replacements for petroleum-based fuels. One of the leading contenders for replacing diesel fuel in some heavy duty applications is methanol, since methanol can be made from abundantly- available materials such as natural gas, coal, and biomass, and because neat methanol can result in reduced NOx and particulate exhaust emissions relative to diesel fuel. Because of various fuel property differences between methanol and diesel fuel, engine modifications must be made to the conventional diesel engine to allow it to utilize methanol fuel. A patented (1) ignition-assist combustion system initially applied to a 2 valve, 4 stroke Caterpillar 3306 DIT engine (121 mm bore) demonstrated methanol combustion feasibility in a tractor application (2).
Technical Paper

Ford Methanol FFV Performance/Emissions Experience

1990-10-01
902157
The progress and interim results of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority's Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) demonstration program are reported. Four FFVs have been operated for a total of more than 150,000 miles. Two FFVs were operated for 50,000 miles on gasoline and have switched over to using M85. The other two vehicles have been primarily using MB5. The FFVs were tested for exhaust emissions on a chassis dynamometer over the FTP, HFET and NYCC driving schedules. The vehicles were fueled with gasoline, M85 and in one test M60. In a series of tests they were also evaluated using inactive catalysts to measure catalyst effectiveness and deterioration. Results for the dependency of emissions on fuel composition, mileage and driving schedule are presented. In general, emissions decreased with increasing methanol content and increased with mileage.
Technical Paper

Technology Demonstration of U.S. Army Methanol-Fueled Administrative Vehicles

1990-10-01
902158
A technology demonstration program using modified administrative-type vehicles was conducted by the Army to determine the feasibility of using methanol as an alternative fuel. Over 1,026,000 miles (1,651,190 km) were accumulated using 64 sedan and pickup vehicles. Approximately 750,000 of these miles (1,207,010 km) were accumulated using M85 methanol fuel. Using M85 increases the fuel cost by a factor of approximately 3.0. No catastrophic engine failure occurred with the use of the M85 fuel. Even though wear rates, indicated from used oil samples analyses, obtained when using M85 fuel appear to be 2 to 4 times those obtained using unleaded gasoline, actual wear, from inspections and measurements, does not appear to be as severe. M85 refueling stations were set up at four fleet test sites, and no significant operational or safety problem was encountered during the program.
Technical Paper

Volvo's MEP and PCP Engines: Combining Environmental Benefit with High Performance

1991-01-01
910010
In two research programs, Volvo has investigated high performance turbocharged versions based on the new 3-litre inline six-cylinder naturally aspirated engine. Power and torque targets were 180 kW and 385 Nm respectively, with a wide usable torque range. The MEP-(Methanol Environment Performance)-project was linked to alternative fuel studies and focused on methanol (M85) and Flexible Fuel Vehicle-(FFV)-development. With alternative fuels, it is important to investigate not only the emissions and fuel efficiency, but also the performance potential, in particular when used in turbocharged engines. The MEP-engine could be reduced to 2.5 litre displacement, due to the good specific performance with M85 fuel. Higher charge pressures could be used compared to gasoline. An M85 turbocharged high performance engine must be designed for higher peak combustion pressures.
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