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Journal Article

Development of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Naval Aviation Applications

Experimental Lithium-ion (Li-ion) cells were constructed with three different types of Li-ion cathode materials and two different graphitic anodes. The cathode materials were lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide, LiNiXCoYAlZO2 (NCA), lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide, LiNiXCoYMnZO2 (NCM), and lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4 (FEP). The two graphitic anodes differed only in particle size. The cells were built in lots identified by their cathode and anode materials. The goal was to develop a battery for Naval Aviation applications. Initial testing favored the cells built with an NCM cathode. Further testing was per MIL-PRF-8565/14(AS) with Amendment 1, which resulted in a reduced voltage range during testing favoring the NCA lots. The cells were tested under two different types of cycle life conditions. In both cases, the NCA lots fared best. The NCA lots also had the lowest DC Resistance (DC Res) results (both ≤10 mΩ).
Technical Paper

The New 4-Cylinder Turbocharged GDI Engine from SAIC Motor

SAIC Motor Corporation Limited (SAIC Motor) has developed a new 1.5 L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine to meet the market demand and increasingly stringent requirement of CAFE and tail-pipe emission regulations. A series of advanced technologies for improving engine fuel economy, engine-out emission, torque and power output specially low end torque performance have been employed, such as: central gasoline direct injection, integrated exhaust manifold, high tumble combustion system, Miller Cycle, cooled external EGR, 35MPa fuel injection system, multi-hole injector with variable hole size design, efficient turbo charging with electric wastegate (EWG), etc. As a result, the engine is able to achieve over 39% brake thermal efficiency (BTE), as well as substantial fuel consumption reduction in vehicle driving cycle. It delivers 275 Nm maximum torque and 127kW rated power, with fast low end torque response.
Journal Article

Numerical Study of Pore Size and Distribution Effects on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance

Abstract The improved brake thermal efficiency of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is accompanied by a significant increase in Particulate Matter (PM) mass and higher Particulate Number (PN) emissions as compared to (multi)Port Fuel Injected (PFI) engines. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) with high filtration efficiency and low backpressure will be required to meet the future, stringent PM/PN regulations. A two-dimensional (2D) CFD study was performed to determine the effects of pore size and distribution on the interdependent performance parameters of filtration efficiency and backpressure for clean GPFs. Simulation results show an on linear change infiltration efficiency as the pore size distribution tightens and determine a recommended distribution range, controlling the quantity of small-sized pores. Pore size distributions beyond this recommended range can cause a filtration performance loss or intolerable backpressure penalty for the GPF.
Technical Paper

Effect of Initial Fuel Temperature on Spray Characteristics of Multicomponent Fuel

Fuel design concept has been proposed for low emission and combustion control in engine systems. In this concept, the multicomponent fuels, which are mixed with a high volatility fuel (gasoline or gaseous fuel components) and a low volatility fuel (gas oil or fuel oil components), are used for artificial control of fuel properties. In addition, these multicomponent fuels can easily lead to flash boiling which promote atomization and vaporization in the spray process. In order to understand atomization and vaporization process of multicomponent fuels in detail, the model for flash boiling spray of multicomponent fuel have been constructed and implemented into KIVA3V rel.2. This model considers the detailed physical properties and evaporation process of multicomponent fuel and the bubble nucleation, growth and disruption in a nozzle orifice and injected fuel droplets.
Journal Article

Modeling of Ducted-Fan and Motor in an Electric Aircraft and a Preliminary Integrated Design

Abstract Electric ducted-fans with high power density are widely used in hybrid aircraft, electric aircraft, and VTOL vehicles. For the state-of-the-art electric ducted-fan, motor cooling restricts the power density increase. A motor design model based on the fan hub-to-tip ratio proposed in this article reveals that the thermal coupling effect between fan aerodynamic design and motor cooling design has great potential to increase the power density of the motor in an electric propulsion system. A smaller hub-to-tip ratio is preferred as long as the power balance and cooling balance are satisfied. Parametric study on a current 6 kW electric ducted-fan system shows that the highest motor power density could be increased by 246% based on the current technology. Finally, a preliminary design was obtained and experiments were conducted to prove the feasibility of the model.


This document describes Airborne Collision Avoidance System X (ACAS X) functionality and provides the necessary interface definitions and protocols to accommodate the requirements of RTCA DO-385: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Airborne Collision Avoidance System X (ACAS X) ACAS Xa and ACAS Xo) (latest version applies) and the requirements of RTCA DO-386: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for Airborne Collision Avoidance System X (ACAS X) ACAS Xu (latest version applies). Additionally, this document describes interfaces and protocols necessary to accommodate Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI) based on the reception of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) data and Traffic Information Services–Broadcast (TIS-B) data. The equipment becomes ACAS X with ADS-B IN applications added, as defined by RTCA DO-317C: Minimum Operational Performance Standards for (MOPS) for Aircraft Surveillance Applications (ASA) Systems (latest version applies).
Journal Article

In Pursuit of Emergency Procedures for Automated Driving System-Involved Scenarios

Abstract As automated driving technology becomes more widely deployed, it is imperative to determine how such operations may impact public safety officials’ interactions with these vehicles. The current study collected responses from 79 public safety officials (i.e., representatives from law enforcement, fire and rescue, and emergency medical services [EMS]) from 22 states in the United States of America (USA) and three Canadian provinces.
Journal Article

Cold Start Concept (CSC™): A Novel Catalyst for Cold Start Emission Control

Catalytic emission control systems are installed on nearly all automobiles and heavy-duty trucks produced today to reduce exhaust emissions for the vehicles to meet government regulations. Current systems can achieve very high efficiencies in reducing tailpipe emissions once the catalytic components reach their operating temperatures. They are, however, relatively ineffective at temperatures below their operating temperature windows, especially during the cold start period of the vehicles. With the increasingly stringent government regulations, reducing the emissions during the cold start period before the catalytic components reach their operating temperatures is becoming a major challenge. For cold start HC control, HC traps based on zeolites have been investigated and commercialized for certain applications. For cold start NOx control, especially in lean burn engine exhaust, NOx storage and release catalysts have been evaluated.


This MCDU standard consists of the original ARINC 739 definition with enhancements to allow it to be logged on to up to two systems at one time. Alternate form factors are included to allow the MCDU to be introduced into a wide variety of airframes candidate for CNS/ATM upgrade.


The GNSS sensor standard integrates Global Positioning System/Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) sensors. The sensor provides position information for display to pilots, and data to other navigation systems on the airplane.


This document defines a Traffic Surveillance capability for NextGen and SESAR airspace environments. Supplement 2 adds hybrid surveillance functionality. It satisfies recent updates to FAA Airworthiness Circular AC 20-151B - Airworthiness Approval of Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS II), and Technical Standard Order TSO-119d requiring the annunciation of a hybrid surveillance failure. Supplement 2 also adds strobe program pinning, updates TCAS inputs status, improves aircraft troubleshooting, and supports recent central maintenance computer function block point updates.


Mark 4 Air Traffic Control Transponder (ATCRBS/MODE S) describes an Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System/Mode Select (ATCRBS/Mode S) airborne transponder with Extended Interface Functions (EIF). The ATC surveillance system is made up of airborne transponders and ground interrogator-receivers, processing equipment, and antenna systems. Mode S is a cooperative surveillance system for air traffic control with ancillary communications capabilities. ARINC 718A supports elementary surveillance. Provisional enhanced surveillance functionality is also defined as a customer option. The Mark 4 transponder, like its predecessor, will support Collision Avoidance System which includes TCAS and ACAS X functions.

Accident Reconstruction, 2012

The 29 papers in this technical paper collection discuss accident reconstruction. Topics covered include air brake performance, acceleration and braking performance of buses and motorcycles, sanding applications, close-range photogrammetry,3D scanners, and more. The 29 papers in this technical paper collection discuss accident reconstruction. Topics covered include air brake performance, acceleration and braking performance of buses and motorcycles, sanding applications, close-range photogrammetry,3D scanners, and more.
Journal Article

Linking the Physical Manifestation and Performance Effects of Injector Nozzle Deposits in Modern Diesel Engines

The formation of deposits within injector nozzle holes of common-rail injection fuel systems fitted to modern diesel cars can reduce and disrupt the flow of fuel into the combustion chamber. This disruption in fuel flow results in reduced or less efficient combustion and lower power output. Hence there is sustained interest across the automotive industry in studying these deposits, with the ultimate aim of controlling them. In this study, we describe the use of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging to characterise fuel injector hole deposits at intervals throughout an adaptation of the CEC Direct Injection Common Rail Diesel Engine Nozzle Coking Test, CEC F-98-08 (DW10B test)[1]. In addition, a similar adaptation of a previously published Shell vehicle test method [2] was employed to analyse fuel injector hole deposits from a fleet of Euro 5 vehicles. During both studies, deposits were compared after fouling and after subsequent cleaning using a novel fuel borne detergent.
Journal Article

Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Gas Turbine Engine Burning Soap-Derived Biokerosene/Jet A-1 Blends

Abstract There has been an increased interest as regards the use of biofuels in aviation gas turbine engines due to global efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along with fluctuating jet fuel prices. This work researches the use of soap-derived biokerosene (SBK) in aircraft engines. SBK is a promising biofuel option for emerging tropical countries as its production requires a relatively simple technology, and its feedstock sources are abundant in these countries. Blends of Jet A-1 with up to 20 vol.% SBK were tested on a 1S/60 Rover gas turbine engine over a range of brake powers to measure engine performance and emissions. The results were then compared to those of pure Jet A-1. It shows that the engine running on SBK/Jet A-1 blends and pure Jet A-1 have almost similar engine performance parameters including engine efficiency, specific fuel consumption (SFC), turbine inlet temperature (TIT), and exhaust gas temperature (EGT).
Journal Article

Nonlinear Input Transformation for EGR and VGT Control in Diesel Engines

In diesel engines with EGR and VGT, the gas flow dynamics has significant nonlinear effects. This is shown by analyzing DC-gains in different operating points showing that these gains have large variations. To handle these nonlinear effects, a nonlinear state dependent input transformation is investigated. This input transformation is achieved through inversion of the models for EGR-flow and turbine flow. It is shown that the input transformation handles the nonlinear effects and decreases the variations in DC-gains substantially. The input transformation is combined with a new control structure that has a pumping work minimization feature and consists of PID controllers and min/max-selectors for coordinated control of EGR-fraction and oxygen/fuel ratio. The EGR flow and the exhaust manifold pressure are chosen as feedback variables in this structure. Further, the set-points for EGR-fraction and oxygen/fuel ratio are transformed to set-points for the feedback variables.
Journal Article

Modeling of the Soot Accumulation in DPF Under Typical Vehicle Operating Conditions

The pressure losses across the different parts of a regenerative Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) have been modeled and compared with the measured pressure loss and with the measured changes in the instantaneous weight of the DPF of a commercial automotive diesel engine. The comparisons were made in three operating conditions selected among those included in the transient cycle established in the European Emission Directive. The first one is a low-load mode, with high soot emissions and therefore with high contribution to the DPF charge. The second one is a medium-load mode, in which the balance of soot charge versus spontaneous soot regeneration leads to a slow DPF charging, the temperature at the exhaust manifold being high enough to permit active regeneration. The third one is a high-load mode, in which the spontaneous regeneration leads to a net DPF discharge, the active regeneration becoming useless.
Journal Article

Effect of Biodiesel on NOx Reduction Performance of Urea-SCR System

The use of biomass fuels for vehicles has been a focus of attention all over the world in terms of prevention of global warming, effective utilization of resources and local revitalization. For the purpose of beneficial use of unused biomass resources, the movement of the use of bioethanol and biodiesel made from them has spread in Japan. In Japan, biodiesel is mainly made from waste cooking oil collected by local communities or governments, and in terms of local production for local consumption, it is used as neat fuel (100% biofuel) or mixed with diesel fuel in high concentration for the vehicles. On the other hand, extremely low emission level must be kept for not only gasoline vehicles but also diesel vehicles in the post new long-term regulation implemented from 2009 in Japan.