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Technical Paper

Strain Rate Effect on Martensitic Transformation in a TRIP Steel Containing Carbide-Free Bainite

2019-04-02
2019-01-0521
Adiabatic heating during plastic straining can slow the diffusionless shear transformation of austenite to martensite in steels that exhibit transformation induced plasticity (TRIP). However, the extent to which the transformation is affected over a strain rate range of relevance to automotive stamping and vehicle impact events is unclear for most third-generation advanced high strength TRIP steels. In this study, an 1180MPa minimum tensile strength TRIP steel with carbide-free bainite is evaluated by measuring the variation of retained austenite volume fraction (RAVF) in fractured tensile specimens with position and strain. This requires a combination of servo-hydraulic load frame instrumented with high speed stereo digital image correlation for measurement of strains and ex-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction for determination of RAVF in fractured tensile specimens.
Technical Paper

Constitutive Modeling and Thermomechanical Fatigue Life Predictions of A356-T6 Aluminum Cylinder Heads Considering Ageing Effects

2019-04-02
2019-01-0534
Cast aluminum alloys are frequently used as materials for cylinder head applications in internal combustion gasoline engines. These components must withstand severe cyclic mechanical and thermal loads throughout their lifetime. Reliable computational methods allow for accurate estimation of stresses, strains, and temperature fields and lead to more realistic Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) lifetime predictions. With accurate numerical methods, the components could be optimized via computer simulations and the number of required bench tests could be reduced significantly. These types of alloys are normally optimized for peak hardness from a quenched state that maximizes the strength of the material. However due to high temperature exposure, in service or under test conditions, the material would experience an over-ageing effect that leads to a significant reduction in the strength of the material.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Optimal Rooftop Punch Shape for Force Reduction and Dimensional Accuracy Control

2019-04-02
2019-01-1091
The rooftop punch is proposed to reduce the maximum cutting force during the trimming operation for advanced high strength steels (AHSS), by introducing a shearing angle at the tool edge. However, such non-simultaneous shearing mechanism results in the inconsistent deformation around the hole perimeter, and consequently affects the dimensional accuracy of the trimmed hole. A numerical study was conducted to investigate the effects of punch tipping angle and tipping heights on the force reduction and dimensional discrepancies. The 60mm hole punching operation for DP 1180 (1.2mm) material was simulated with finite element analysis. The tipping height was reduced by introducing flat portions to the rooftop punch and it can mitigate the material deformation difference before trimming. The results showed tipping height played a significant role of dimensional accuracy control by adopting small tipping angle and broad flat portions.
Technical Paper

Tooling Effects on Edge Stretchability of AHSS in Mechanical Punching

2019-04-02
2019-01-1086
Edge stretchability reduction induced by mechanical trimming is a critical issue in advanced high strength steel applications. In this study, the tooling effects on the trimmed edge damage were evaluated by the specially designed in-plane hole expansion test with the consideration of three punch geometries (flat, conical, and rooftop), three cutting clearances (6%, 14%, and 20%) and two materials grades (DP980 and DP1180). Two distinct fracture initiation modes were identified with different testing configurations, and the occurrence of each fracture mode depends on the tooling configurations and materials grades. Digital Image Correlations (DIC) measurements indicate the materials are subject to different deformation modes and the various stress conditions, which result in different fracture initiation locations.
Technical Paper

A Material Efficiency Ratio to Evaluate the Methods for Improving the Torsional Rigidity of a Pickup Chassis Frame

2018-04-03
2018-01-1024
While offering improved crash worthiness and significant lightweighting opportunities, the increased use of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) may compromise the stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles due to reduced part thickness. Different methods to improve the torsional rigidity were studied on a pickup chassis frame. These methods include adding bulkhead pairs as reinforcement, increasing the thicknes of frame parts, and enlarging the closed sections on the rails. Structural optimization was conducted for each stiffness improvement method and the minimal mass increase required to reach the improvement targets was obtained. A material efficiency ratio μ is proposed in this research and used as a criterion to evaluate the efficiency of a mass increase to improve the structural stiffness and NVH characteristics of vehicles. Based on this parameter, the methods to improve the torsional rigidity of the pickup frame in all design spaces were evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Hole Punching Force for AHSS

2018-04-03
2018-01-0802
The elevated strength of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) leads to enormous challenges for the sheet metal processing, one of which is hole punching operation. The total tonnage must be estimated at each trimming stage to ensure successful cutting and protect the press machine. This paper presents the effects of hole punch configurations on the punching force with the consideration of punch shape, cutting clearance and material grade. The hole punching experiments were performed with DP590, DP980, DP1180 and one mild steel as a reference. The punching force coefficient is defined and presents a negative correlation with the material strength based on the experimental data. Surface quality was examined to analyze the damage accumulation during the punching process. The cutting mechanisms with various punch shapes were revealed through an extensive finite element simulation study.
Technical Paper

Effects of Punch Shapes and Cutting Configurations on the Dimensional Accuracy of Punched Holes on an AHSS Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0800
Dimensional accuracy of punched hole is an essential consideration for high-quality sheet metal forming. An out-of-shape hole can give rise to manufacturing issues in the subsequent production processes thus inducing quality defects on a vehicle body. To understand the effects of punch shapes and cutting configurations on punched hole diameter deviations, a systematical experimental study was conducted for multiple types of AHSS (DP1180, DP980, DP590) and one mild steel. Flat, conical and rooftop punches were tested respectively with three cutting clearances on each material. The measurement results indicated different diameter enlargement modes based on the punch profiles, and dimensional discrepancies were found to be more significant with the stronger materials and higher cutting clearance. To uncover the mechanism of punched hole enlargement, a series of finite element simulations were established for numerical investigation.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Model for Spring-Back Prediction in U-Channel Forming with Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0805
Spring-back phenomena are critical in stamping procedures for advanced high strength steel. An analytical model is developed to predict the spring-back effect for a U-channel part with post-stretching process. The stress distribution is obtained by direct application of material constitutive relationship. The subjected loading conditions are sequentially bending, (un-bending), and uniform stretching, based on different zones in the part. Both the loading history and the friction effects are considered in the model. The bending moments are obtained to generate a theoretical spring-back shape. Great performance in spring-back control is achieved by applying certain high level of external forces. FE simulation is conducted for the identical stamping process with post-stretching. Good correlation is observed between the analytical and numerical solutions/experimental results under various scenarios.
Technical Paper

A Tailor Welded Blanks Design of Automotive Front Rails by ESL Optimization for Crash Safety and Lightweighting

2018-04-03
2018-01-0120
Utilizing the tailor welded blanks (TWBs) design along with the latest AHSS grades for the front rails on a sedan was studied to reduce the weight of the vehicle and improve the crash safety performance. To find the most efficient material usage, the front rail parts were tailored into multiple blanks with varying thickness. A structural thickness optimization study of the tailored front rails was conducted for IIHS moderate overlap frontal crash, and the tailored blank thickness was set as design variable. The equivalent static loads (ESL) method was adopted for the thickness optimization, which allows many design variables to be optimized simultaneously. The torsion and bending stiffness of the sedan body in prime were set as design constraints, and would not be compromised. The optimal thickness configurations of the TWB designs by ESL optimization suggest that the weight of the frontal rails can be reduced by more than 30% while still maintaining the crash safety performance.
Technical Paper

Initial Comparisons of Friction Stir Spot Welding and Self Piercing Riveting of Ultra-Thin Steel Sheet

2018-04-03
2018-01-1236
Due to the limitations on resistance spot welding of ultra-thin steel sheet (thicknesses below 0.5 mm) in high-volume automotive manufacturing, a comparison of friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting was performed to determine which process may be more amenable to enabling assembly of ultra-thin steel sheet. Statistical comparisons between mechanical properties of lap-shear tensile and T-peel were made in sheet thickness below 0.5 mm and for dissimilar thickness combinations. An evaluation of energy to fracture, fracture mechanisms, and joint consistency is presented.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Twist Spring-back Control with an Unbalanced Post-stretching Approach for Advanced High Strength Steel

2018-04-03
2018-01-0806
Twist spring-back would interfere with stamping or assembling procedures for advanced high strength steel. A “homeopathic” resolution for controlling the twist spring-back is proposed using unbalanced post-stretching configuration. Finite element forming simulation is applied to evaluate and compare the performance for each set of unbalanced post-stretching setup. The post-stretching is effectuated by stake bead application. The beads are separated into multiple independent segments, the height and radii of which can be adjusted individually and asymmetrically. Simulation results indicate that the twist spring-back can be effectively controlled by reducing the post-stretching proximate to the asymmetric part area. Its mechanism is qualitatively revealed by stress analyses, that an additional but acceptable cross-sectional spring-back re-balances the sprung asymmetrical geometry to counter the twist effect.
Journal Article

Modeling Forming Limit in Low Stress Triaxiality and Predicting Stretching Failure in Draw Simulation by an Improved Ductile Failure Criterion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0801
A ductile failure criterion (DFC), which defines the stretching failure at localized necking (LN) and treats the critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness, was proposed in a previous study. In this study, the DFC is revisited to extend the model to the low stress triaxiality domain and demonstrates on modeling forming limit curve (FLC) of TRIP 690. Then, the model is used to predict stretching failure in a finite element method (FEM) simulation on a TRIP 690 steel rectangular cup draw process at room temperature. Comparison shows that the results from this criterion match quite well with experimental observations.
Journal Article

Development of a Lightweight Third-Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel (3GAHSS) Vehicle Body Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-1026
This article covers an application of third-generation advanced high-strength steel (3GAHSS) grades to vehicle lightweight body structure development. Design optimization of a vehicle body structure using a multi-scale material model is discussed. The steps in the design optimization and results are presented. Results show a 30% mass reduction potential over a baseline mid-size sedan body side structure with the use of 3GAHSS.
Journal Article

Sizing Next Generation High Performance Brake Systems with Copper Free Linings

2017-09-17
2017-01-2532
The high performance brake systems of today are usually in a delicate balance - walking the fine line between being overpowered by some of the most potent powertrains, some of the grippiest tires, and some of the most demanding race tracks that the automotive world has ever seen - and saddling the vehicle with excess kilograms of unsprung mass with oversized brakes, forcing significant compromises in drivability with oversized tires and wheels. Brake system design for high performance vehicles has often relied on a very deep understanding of friction material performance (friction, wear, and compressibility) in race track conditions, with sufficient knowledge to enable this razor’s edge design.
Technical Paper

Latest Advances in Aluminum Shape Casting

2017-03-28
2017-01-1665
With the increasing use of aluminum shape castings in structural applications in automobiles, assurance of cast product integrity and performance has become critical in both design and manufacturing. In this paper, the latest understanding of the relationship between casting quality and mechanical properties of aluminum castings is summarized. Examples of newly developed technologies for alloy design, melting and melt treatment, casting and heat treatment processes in aluminum casting are reviewed. Robust design and development of high integrity aluminum castings through an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) approach is also discussed.
Technical Paper

A Method of Evaluating the Joint Effectiveness on Contribution to Global Stiffness and NVH Performance of Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0376
While Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and the next generation AHSS grades offer improved crash safety and reduced weight for vehicles, the global stiffness and NVH performance are often compromised due to reduced material thickness. This paper discusses an advanced method of evaluating the joint effectiveness on contribution to global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. A stiffness contribution ratio is proposed initiatively in this research, which evaluates the current contribution of the joints to the global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. Another parameter, joint effectiveness factor, has been used to study the potential of each joint on enhancing the global stiffness. The critical joints to enhance the vehicle stiffness and NVH performance can be identified based on above two parameters, and design changes be made to those critical joints to improve the vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) Multi-Scale Model Development for Advanced High Strength Steels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0226
This paper presents development of a multi-scale material model for a 980 MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning heat treatment (QP980), based on integrated computational materials engineering principles (ICME Model). The model combines micro-scale material properties defined by the crystal plasticity theory with the macro-scale mechanical properties, such as flow curves under different loading paths. For an initial microstructure the flow curves of each of the constituent phases (ferrite, austenite, martensite) are computed based on the crystal plasticity theory and the crystal orientation distribution function. Phase properties are then used as an input to a state variable model that computes macro-scale flow curves while accounting for hardening caused by austenite transformation into martensite under different straining paths.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

Predicting Forming Limit Curve Using a New Ductile Failure Criterion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0312
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
Journal Article

Retained Austenite Stability and Impact Performance of Advanced High Strength Steel at Reduced Temperatures

2017-03-28
2017-01-1707
Retained austenite stability to both mechanically induced transformation and athermal transformation is of great importance to the fabrication and in-vehicle performance of automotive advanced high strength steels. Selected cold-rolled advanced high strength steels containing retained austenite with minimum tensile strengths of 980 MPa and 1180 MPa were pre-strained to pre-determined levels under uniaxial tension in the rolling direction and subsequently cooled to temperatures as low as 77 K. Room temperature uniaxial tensile results of pre-strained and cooled steels indicate that retained austenite is stable to athermal transformation to martensite at all tested temperatures and pre-strain levels. To evaluate the combined effects of temperature and pre-strain on impact behavior, stacked Charpy impact testing was conducted on the same 980 MPa minimum tensile strength steel following similar pre-straining in uniaxial tension.
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