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Technical Paper

Modular and Swappable 48V Battery Systems for Emerging Markets

2019-01-09
2019-26-0032
Electrification globally shows promise in reducing greenhouse and noxious emissions. Although there is immense potential in such technologies penetrating across vehicle segments in the Indian market, the key lies in offering scalable, cost effective battery solutions suiting the diverse product and customer needs. This paper describes the development and possible applications of a low voltage battery system that fulfills the current needs on the Indian market. Based on real-world driving profiles the energy and power output required for the target platform are determined. Keeping in mind the Indian operating conditions, safety requirements, driving behavior, charging infrastructure, operational costs, supplier network and serviceability, technical requirements for such systems are described. Also, benchmarking data of current battery systems help to optimize the mechanical, thermal, and electrical layouts.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development of a High Performance and Fuel Efficient TGDI Engine Guided by CFD Simulation and Test

2017-10-08
2017-01-2282
A TGDI (turbocharged gasoline direct injection) engine is developed to realize both excellent fuel economy and high dynamic performance to guarantee fun-to-drive. In order to achieve this target, it is of great importance to develop a superior combustion system for the target engine. In this study, CFD simulation analysis, steady flow test and transparent engine test investigation are extensively conducted to ensure efficient and effective design. One dimensional thermodynamic simulation is firstly conducted to optimize controlling parameters for each representative engine operating condition, and the results serve as the input and boundary condition for the subsequent Three-dimensional CFD simulation. 3D CFD simulation is carried out to guide intake port design, which is then measured and verified on steady flow test bench.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Solutions for Electrified Trucks and Buses

2017-05-10
2017-01-1937
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Integrated Safety and Security Development in the Automotive Domain

2017-03-28
2017-01-1661
The replacement of safety-critical mechanical components with electro-mechanical systems has led to the fact that safety aspects play a central role in development of embedded automotive systems. Recently, consumer demands for connectivity (e.g., infotainment, car-2-car or car-2-infrastructure communication) as well as new advances toward advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) or even autonomous driving functions make cybersecurity another key factor to be taken into account by vehicle suppliers and manufacturers. Although these can capitalize on experiences from many other domains, they still have to face several unique challenges when gearing up for specific cybersecurity challenges. A key challenge is related to the increasing interconnection of automotive systems with networks (such as Car2X). Due to this connectivity, it is no longer acceptable to assume that safety-critical systems are immune to security risks.
Technical Paper

Scale-Resolving Simulations of the Flow in Intake Port Geometries

2016-04-05
2016-01-0589
A computational study of the flow in intake port geometries has been performed. Three different intake port geometries, namely two combined tangential and helical ports and one quiescent port were analyzed. Each of these cases was calculated for different valve lifts and the results were compared with available measurements. The focus of this paper is on the performance assessment of the variable resolution Partial-Averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method. Calculations have been also performed with the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model, which is presently a state-of-the-art approach for this application in the industry. Besides the averaged integral values like a discharge coefficient and a swirl coefficient, the predicted velocity magnitude fields at the measured cross sections of the ports are compared due to available Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0183
Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Technical Paper

Objective Driveability Development of Motorcycles with AVL-DRIVE

2014-11-11
2014-32-0020
Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Journal Article

Computational Study of the Aerodynamics of a Realistic Car Model by Means of RANS and Hybrid RANS/LES Approaches

2014-04-01
2014-01-0594
The aerodynamic properties of a BMW car model, representing a 40%-scaled model of a relevant car configuration, are studied computationally by means of the Unsteady RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) and Hybrid RANS/LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) approaches. The reference database (geometry, operating parameters and surface pressure distribution) are adopted from an experimental investigation carried out in the wind tunnel of the BMW Group in Munich (Schrefl, 2008). The present computational study focuses on validation of some recently developed turbulence models for unsteady flow computations in conjunction with the universal wall treatment combining integration up to the wall and high Reynolds number wall functions in such complex flow situations. The turbulence model adopted in both Unsteady RANS and PANS (Partially-Averaged Navier Stokes) frameworks is the four-equation ζ − f formulation of Hanjalic et al. (2004) based on the Elliptic Relaxation Concept (Durbin, 1991).
Journal Article

A Study on Operation Fluid Consumption for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Application using both, EGR and SCR

2013-09-24
2013-01-2474
This paper describes a method for optimization of engine settings in view of best total cost of operation fluids. Under specific legal NOX tailpipe emissions requirements the engine out NOX can be matched to the current achievable SCR NOX conversion efficiency. In view of a heavy duty long haul truck application various specific engine operation modes are defined. A heavy duty diesel engine was calibrated for all operation modes in an engine test cell. The characteristics of engine operation are demonstrated in different transient test cycles. Optimum engine operation mode (EOM) selection strategies between individual engine operation modes are discussed in view of legal test cycles and real world driving cycles which have been derived from on-road tests.
Technical Paper

Multi-Component Modeling of Diesel Fuel for Injection and Combustion Simulation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0007
Accurate simulation tools are needed for rapid and cost effective engine development in order to meet ever tighter pollutant regulations for future internal combustion engines. The formation of pollutants such as soot and NOx in Diesel engines is strongly influenced by local concentration of the reactants and local temperature in the combustion chamber. Therefore it is of great importance to model accurately the physics of the injection process, combustion and emission formation. It is common practice to approximate Diesel fuel as a single compound fuel for the simulation of the injection and combustion process. This is in many cases sufficient to predict the evolution of the in-cylinder pressure and heat release in the combustion chamber. The prediction of soot and NOx formation depends however on locally component resolved quantities related to the fuel liquid and gas phase as well as local temperature.
Technical Paper

LES Simulation of Flame Propagation in a Direct-Injection SI-Engine to Identify the Causes of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1084
A Large-Eddy-Simulation (LES) approach is applied to the calculation of multiple SI-engine cycles in order to study the causes of cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. The single-cylinder research engine adopted in the present study is equipped with direct fuel-injection and variable valve timing for both the intake and exhaust side. Operating conditions representing cases with considerably different scatter of the in-cylinder pressure traces are selected to investigate the causes of the cycle-to-cycle combustion variations. In the simulation the engine is represented by a coupled 1D/3D-CFD model, with the combustion chamber and the intake/exhaust ports modeled in 3D-CFD, and the intake/exhaust pipework set-up adopting a 1D-CFD approach. The adopted LES flow model is based upon the well-established Smagorinsky approach. Simulation of the fuel spray propagation process is based upon the discrete droplet model.
Technical Paper

Advanced Methods for Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Optimization and Prediction During Dynamic Warm Up Tests (EDC)

2013-01-09
2013-26-0113
A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e.g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper

A Novel Ultrasonic Intake Air Flow Meter for Test Bed Applications

2013-01-09
2013-26-0118
The development process of a combustion engine is now a days strongly influenced by future emission regulations which require further reduction in fuel consumption and precise control of combustion process based on Intake air measurement, during engine development. Intake air flow meters clearly differentiate themselves from typical industrial gas flow meters because of their ability to measure extremely dynamic phenomenon of combustion engine. Thus, high internal data acquisition rate, short response time, ability to measure pulsating and reverse flows with lower measurement uncertainty are the factors that ensures the reliability of the results without being affected by ambient influences, sensor contamination or sensor aging. The AVL developed FLOWSONIX™ is based on ultrasonic transit time measuring principle with broad-band Capacitive Ultrasonic Transducer (CUT) characterized by an excellent air impedance matching strongly distinguishes itself by fulfilling all those requirements.
Journal Article

Compact Engine Architecture for Best Fuel Efficiency and High Performance - Challenge or Contradiction

2011-11-08
2011-32-0595
The world of automotive engineering shows a clear direction for upcoming development trends. Stringent fleet average fuel consumption targets and CO2 penalties as well as rising fuel prices and the consumer demand to lower operating costs increases the engineering efforts to optimize fuel economy. Passenger car engines have the benefit of higher degree of technology which can be utilized to reach the challenging targets. Variable valve timing, downsizing and turbo charging, direct gasoline injection, highly sophisticated operating strategies and even more electrification are already common technologies in the automotive industry but can not be directly carried over into a motorcycle application. The major differences like very small packaging space, higher rated speeds, higher power density in combination with lower production numbers and product costs do not allow implementation such high of degree of advanced technology into small-engine applications.
Technical Paper

SOUND ENGINEERING FOR ELECTRIC AND HYBRID VEHICLES: Procedures to create appropriate sound for electric and hybrid vehicles

2011-05-17
2011-39-7228
Importance of electric and hybrid vehicles steeply increased in the last few years. Especially topics like CO2 reduction and local zero emissions are forcing companies to focus on electrification. While main technical problems seem to be solvable from a technical point of view, commercial and security topics are gaining more importance. For full electric vehicles the driving range is limited by the capacity of available batteries. As those batteries are one of the most heavy and expensive parts of these vehicles, reduction of battery size is a big topic in vehicle development. To increase a vehicle's driving range without increasing battery size some range extending backup system has to be available. Such a Range Extender should be a small system combining combustion engine and electric generator to produce the required electricity for charging the batteries whenever required.
Journal Article

A Metal Fibrous Filter for Diesel Hybrid Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0604
Trends towards lower vehicle fuel consumption and smaller environmental impact will increase the share of Diesel hybrids and Diesel Range Extended Vehicles (REV). Because of the Diesel engine presence and the ever tightening soot particle emissions, these vehicles will still require soot particle emissions control systems. Ceramic wall-flow monoliths are currently the key players in the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) market, offering certain advantages compared to other DPF technologies such as the metal based DPFs. The latter had, in the past, issues with respect to filtration efficiency, available filtration area and, sometimes, their manufacturing cost, the latter factor making them less attractive for most of the conventional Diesel engine powered vehicles. Nevertheless, metal substrate DPFs may find a better position in vehicles like Diesel hybrids and REVs in which high instant power consumption is readily offered enabling electrical filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

2010-04-12
2010-01-0249
At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Three-Way Catalyst Light-off During the NEDC Test Cycle: Fully Coupled 0D/1D Simulation of Gasoline Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Aftertreatment Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1755
The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of engine control strategies in combination with efforts to optimize in-cylinder combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents the comprehensive simulation approach of a virtual vehicle model. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by four key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, a model for the conversion of pollutants in a catalyst and a model for the effect of manifold wall wetting and fuel evaporation. The general species transport feature is linking these model together as it allows to transport an arbitrary number of chemical species in the entire system. Finally this highly detailed engine model is integrated into a vehicle model.
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