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Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Solutions for Electrified Trucks and Buses

2017-05-10
2017-01-1937
Local air pollution, noise emissions as well as global CO2 reduction and public pressure drive the need for zero emission transport solutions in urban areas. OEMs are currently developing battery electric vehicles with the focus to provide emission free urban transportation combined with lowest total cost of ownership and consequently a positive business case for the end customers. Thereby the main challenges are electric range, product cost, system weight, vehicle packaging and durability. Hence they are the main drivers in current developments. In this paper AVL describes two of its truck and bus solutions - a modular battery concept as well as a concept for an integrated electric axle. Based on the vehicle requirements concept designs for both systems are presented.
Technical Paper

Highly Integrated Fuel Cell Analysis Infrastructure for Advanced Research Topics

2017-03-28
2017-01-1180
The limitation of global warming to less than 2 °C till the end of the century is regarded as the main challenge of our time. In order to meet COP21 objectives, a clear transition from carbon-based energy sources towards renewable and carbon-free energy carriers is mandatory. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) allow an energy-efficient, resource-efficient and emission-free conversion of regenerative produced hydrogen. For these reasons fuel cell technologies emerge in stationary, mobile and logistic applications with acceptable cruising ranges as well as short refueling times. In order to perform applied research in the area of PEMFC systems, a highly integrated fuel cell analysis infrastructure for systems up to 150 kW electric power was developed and established within a cooperative research project by HyCentA Research GmbH and AVL List GmbH in Graz, Austria. A novel open testing facility with hardware in the loop (HiL) capability is presented.
Journal Article

Sulfur Poisoning of a NOx Storage Catalyst - A Comprehensive Modelling Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0964
This paper describes the development of a 0-D-sulfur poisoning model for a NOx storage catalyst (NSC). The model was developed and calibrated using findings and data obtained from a passenger car diesel engine used on testbed. Based on an empirical approach, the developed model is able to predict not only the lower sulfur adsorption with increasing temperature and therefore the higher SOx (SO2 and SO3) slip after NSC, but also the sulfur saturation with increasing sulfur loading, resulting in a decrease of the sulfur adsorption rate with ongoing sulfation. Furthermore, the 0-D sulfur poisoning model was integrated into an existing 1-D NOx storage catalyst kinetic model. The combination of the two models results in an “EAS Model” (exhaust aftertreatment system) able to predict the deterioration of NOx-storage in a NSC with increasing sulfation level, exhibiting higher NOx-emissions after the NSC once it is poisoned.
Journal Article

A Model-Based Configuration Approach for Automotive Real-Time Operating Systems

2015-04-14
2015-01-0183
Automotive embedded systems have become very complex, are strongly integrated, and the safety-criticality and real-time constraints of these systems raise new challenges. The OSEK/VDX standard provides an open-ended architecture for distributed real-time capable units in vehicles. This is supported by the OSEK Implementation Language (OIL), a language aiming at specifying the configuration of these real-time operating systems. The challenge, however, is to ensure consistency of the concept constraints and configurations along the entire product development. The contribution of this paper is to bridge the existing gap between model-driven systems engineering and software engineering for automotive real-time operating systems (RTOS). For this purpose a bidirectional tool bridge has been established based on OSEK OIL exchange format files.
Technical Paper

Objective Driveability Development of Motorcycles with AVL-DRIVE

2014-11-11
2014-32-0020
Originally developed for the automotive market, a fully automatic real-time measurement tool AVL-DRIVE is commercially available for analyzing and scoring vehicle drive quality, also known as “Driveability”. This system from AVL uses its own transducers, calibrated to the sensitivity and response of the human body to measure the forces felt by the driver, such as acceleration, shock, surging, vibration, noise, etc. Simultaneously, the vehicle operating conditions are measured, (throttle grip angle, engine speed, gear, vehicle speed, temperature, etc.). Because the software is pre-programmed with the scores from a multitude of different vehicles in each vehicle class via neural networks and fuzzy logic formula, a quality score with reference to similar competitor vehicles is instantly given. This tool is already successfully implemented in the market for years to investigate such driveability parameters for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Single Cylinder 25kW Range Extender as Alternative to a Rotary Engine Maintaining High Compactness and NVH Performance

2013-10-15
2013-32-9132
Due to the restricted capacity of today's battery systems and therefore limited operating range of electric vehicles (EV), several solutions for recharging the energy storage during driving already have been published and still are the subject of extensive development programs. One example is the Range Extender (RE), which is a combination of an internal combustion engine (ICE) with a generator unit, which serves the purpose of a power back-up in case of a battery with low state of charge (SOC), without any direct connection to the drivetrain. For this kind of RE-application, different boundary conditions are very important. Especially in EVs topics like packaging space and NVH behavior play a main role. To fulfill these important characteristics, AVL has developed a Wankel-RE unit in which the generator is driven directly from the eccentric shaft of the rotary-piston ICE.
Technical Paper

Technology Features and Development Methods for Spark Ignited Powertrain to Meet 2020 CO2 Emission Targets

2013-10-07
2013-36-0438
For achieving the forthcoming CO2 emission targets of 95g/km by 2020 and for the years beyond, comprehensive activities for powertrain technology as well as development methodology has to be utilized. It will by far not be enough to add a few single technology features to achieve the desired result. More and more the success will result from comprehensive combining of synergetic utilization of complementary effects. This will be the powertrain perfectly matched to the vehicle, including the energy source, and all together integrated by means of advanced development tools and methodology.
Technical Paper

Advanced Methods for Calibration and Validation of Diesel-ECU Models Using Emission and Fuel Consumption Optimization and Prediction During Dynamic Warm Up Tests (EDC)

2013-01-09
2013-26-0113
A calibration and validation workflow will be presented in this paper, which utilizes common static global models for fuel consumption, NOx and soot. Due to the applicability for warm-up tests, e.g. New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), the models need to predict the temperature influence and will be fitted with measuring data from a conditioned engine test bed. The applied model structure consisting of a number of global data-based sub-models is configured especially for the requirements of multi-injection strategies of common rail systems. Additionally common global models for several constant coolant water temperature levels are generated and the workflow tool supports the combination and segmentation of global nominal map with temperature correction maps for seamless and direct ECU setting.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

2010-04-12
2010-01-0249
At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
Technical Paper

Integrated 1-D Tools for Modeling Vehicle Thermal Management System

2004-11-16
2004-01-3406
The need to improve the engine performance and fuel consumption subject to ever more stringent emission standard spar the interest in the aspects of understanding and quantifying the thermal behavior of engine components and systems. Considering these points during the design of the vehicle thermal management system based on test would consume far too many resources. Fortunately, the simulation tools have become more prominent in the pre-prototype phase of the vehicle development process and they had reached a mature stage; where they can contribute successfully to a significant extend to meet the vehicle development targets. In this work, a methodology to model the Vehicle Thermal Management System (VTMS) in order to understand and quantify its behavior has been developed. The partial systems under consideration are: the gas circuit, the cooling circuit, the lubrication circuit and the thermal capacitance of the engine structure under the vehicle driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Converters in a 1d Cycle Simulation Code Considering 3d Behavior

2003-03-03
2003-01-1002
The objective of this study to introduce the newly developed Discrete Channel Method (DCM) as a fast and efficient method for the prediction of the 3d and transient behavior of honeycomb-type catalytic converters in automotive applications. The approach is based on the assumption that the regions between the channels are treated as a reactor with a homogeneously distributed heat source due to chemical conversion. Therefore, each radial direction can be described by a center, a boundary and only a few intermediate channels between them. The discrete channels are described by transient, 1d conservation equations that characterize the behavior of channels at different radial positions. The heat entering and leaving each discrete channel is evaluated by the gradients of the temperature field in conjunction with the heat conductivity of the substrate. The approach is validated by experimental data and serves as a module in the thermodynamic and engine analysis design tool BOOST.
Technical Paper

An integrated 1D/3D workflow for analysis and optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine

2001-09-23
2001-24-0004
The present contribution gives an overview of the use of different simulation tools for the optimization of injection parameters of a diesel engine. With a one-dimensional tool, the behavior of the mechanics and fluid dynamics of the entire injection system is calculated. This simulation provides information on the dynamic needle lift, injection rates, pressures, etc. The flow within the injector is simulated using a three-dimensional CFD tool. By use of a two-phase model, it is possible to analyze the cavitating flow inside the injector and to calculate the effective nozzle hole area as well as the exit flow characteristics. Mixture formation, combustion and pollutant formation simulation is performed adopting three-dimensional CFD. In order to provide the initial and boundary conditions for the engine CFD simulation and to optimize the engine cycle performance a one-dimensional tool is adopted.
Technical Paper

Analytical system for combustion engine exhaust emissions

2000-06-12
2000-05-0346
As emission regulations become tighter and tighter, equipment must evolve to be able to achieve the new standards. Also additional test requirements demand a system that is flexible and can accommodate differences both in the tests and the test facility. By that test cell equipment for chassis dynamometer as well as engine dynamometer applications is getting increasingly complex. That also will require new concepts for the design of such systems. In the past emission system design was more likely a collection and packaging process, which has interfaced various independent components. Now, the development of modern analytical emission systems requires a true holistic design process. This paper will describe the demands and the realization of a modern emission system. It can be shown that an extended effort during the design process will result in a high performance system, which still remains simple and robust.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Driveability Assessment using Neural Networks for Development, Calibration and Quality Tests

2000-03-06
2000-01-0702
Actual automotive themes in the beginning century are globalization and platform concepts. Platforms reduce manpower for basic power train development and enable a higher vehicle quality by sharing development cost to many models. New drive train generations with direct injected diesel and gasoline engines, variable valve train systems and hybrid drives require complex electronic control systems with many control parameters, which must be calibrated for each platform model to fulfill the targets for emissions, diagnostics and driveability. Calibration becomes a critical procedure in vehicle development. A negative effect of the platform is the reduced possibility to give a model or an OEM a brand specific driveability character, traditionally an important sales - promoting factor. The paper describes a tool for the objective real time assessment of vehicle driveability and vehicle character, using a new subjective - objective approach.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation of Vehicle Driveability

1998-02-23
980204
Vehicle driveability evolves more and more as a key decisive factor for marketability and competitiveness of passenger cars, since the final decision of customers to buy a car is usually taken after a more or less intensive test drive. Car manufacturers currently evaluate vehicle driveability with subjective assessments and by having their experienced test drivers fill out form sheets. These assessments are time and cost intensive, limited in repeatability and not objective. The real customer requirements cannot be recognized in detail with this method. This paper describes a completely new approach for an objective and real time evaluation of relevant driveability criteria, for use in a vehicle and on a high dynamic test bed. The vehicle application enables an objective comparison between vehicles and an application as a development tool in many development and calibration phases, where ever fast and objective driveability results are required.
Technical Paper

Gasoline DI Engines: The Complete System Approach By Interaction of Advanced Development Tools

1998-02-23
980492
Gasoline direct injection is one of the main issues of actual worldwide SI engine development activities. It requires a comprehensive system approach from the basic considerations on optimum combustion system configuration up to vehicle performance and driveability. The general characteristics of currently favored combustion system configurations are discussed in this paper regarding both engine operation and design aspects. The engine performance, especially power output and emission potential of AVL's DGI engine concept is presented including the interaction of advanced tools like optical diagnostics and 3D-CFD simulation in the combustion system development process. The application of methods like tomographic combustion analysis for investigations in the multicylinder engine within further stages of development is demonstrated. The system layout and operational strategies for fuel economy in conjunction with exhaust gas aftertreatment requirements are discussed.
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