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Journal Article

Measurement of Loss Pathways in Small, Two-Stroke Internal-Combustion Engines

2017-03-14
2017-01-9276
The rapid expansion of the market for remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) includes a particular interest in 10-25 kg vehicles for monitoring, surveillance, and reconnaissance. Power-plant options for these aircraft are often 10-100 cm3 internal combustion engines. Both power and fuel conversion efficiency decrease with increasing rapidity in the aforementioned size range. Fuel conversion efficiency decreases from ∼30% for conventional-scale engines (>100 cm3 displacement) to <5% for micro glow-fuel engines (<10 cm3 displacement), while brake mean effective pressure decreases from >10 bar (>100 cm3) to <4 bar (<10 cm3). Based on research documented in the literature, the losses responsible for the increase in the rate of decreasing performance cannot be clearly defined. Energy balances consisting of five pathways were experimentally determined on two engines that are representative of Group-2 RPA propulsion systems and compared to those in the literature for larger and smaller engines.
Journal Article

Mapping of Fuel Anti-Knock Requirements for a Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0045
Small remotely piloted aircraft (10-25 kg) powered by internal combustion engines typically operate on motor gasoline, which has an anti-knock index (AKI) of >80. To comply with the single-battlefield-fuel initiative in DoD Directive 4140.25, interest has been increasing in converting the 1-10 kW power plants in the aforementioned size class to run on lower AKI fuels such as diesel and JP-8, which have AKIs of ~20. It has been speculated that the higher losses (short-circuiting, incomplete combustion, heat transfer) that cause these engines to have lower efficiencies than their conventional-scale counterparts may also relax the fuel-AKI requirements of the engines. To investigate that idea, the fuel-AKI requirement of a 3W-55i engine was mapped and compared to that of the engine on the manufacturer-recommended 98 octane number (ON) fuel.
Technical Paper

Air Cycle Machine for Transient Model Validation

2016-09-20
2016-01-2000
As technology for both military and civilian aviation systems mature into a new era, techniques to test and evaluate these systems have become of great interest. To achieve a general understanding as well as save time and cost, the use of computer modeling and simulation for component, subsystem or integrated system testing has become a central part of technology development programs. However, the evolving complexity of the systems being modeled leads to a tremendous increase in the complexity of the developed models. To gain confidence in these models there is a need to evaluate the risk in using those models for decision making. Statistical model validation techniques are used to assess the risk of using a given model in decision making exercises. In this paper, we formulate a transient model validation challenge problem for an air cycle machine (ACM) and present a hardware test bench used to generate experimental data relevant to the model.
Technical Paper

Electromechanical Actuator Cooling Fan Reliability Analysis and Safety Improvement

2016-09-20
2016-01-1997
The aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling fan is a critical component because an EMA failure caused by overheating could lead to a catastrophic failure in aircraft. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to access the failure probability of EMA fans with the goal of improving their mean time to failure (MTTF) from ∼O(5×104) to ∼ O(2.5×109) hours without incurring heavy weight penalty and high cost. The dual-winding and dual-bearing approaches are analyzed and a contra rotating dual-fan design is proposed. Fan motors are assumed to be brushless direct current (BLDC) motors. To have a full understanding of fan reliability, all possible failure mechanisms and failure modes are taken into account. After summarizing the possible failure causes and failure modes of BLDC fans by focusing on each failure mechanism, the life expectancy of fan ball bearings based on a major failure mechanism of lubricant deterioration is calculated and compared to that provided in the literature.
Journal Article

A First Principles Based Approach for Dynamic Modeling of Turbomachinery

2016-09-20
2016-01-1995
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems increases, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for reducing development cost and optimizing performance. To facilitate this, an appropriate modeling environment is required that allows developers to rapidly explore a wider design space than can cost effectively be considered through hardware construction and testing. This wide design space can then yield solutions that are far more energy efficient than previous generation designs. In addition, non-intuitive cross-coupled subsystem behavior can also be explored to ensure integrated system stability prior to hardware fabrication and testing. In recent years, optimization of control strategies between coupled subsystems has necessitated the understanding of the integrated system dynamics.
Technical Paper

Effect of Unsteady Flow on Intercooler Performance

2014-09-16
2014-01-2220
Two compact intercoolers are designed for the Rotax 914 aircraft engine to increase engine power and avoid engine knock. A study is performed to investigate the effects of unsteady airflow on intercooler performance. Both intercoolers use air-to-liquid cross flow heat exchangers with staggered fins. The intercoolers are first tested by connecting the four air outlets of the intercooler to a common restricted exit creating a constant back pressure which allows for steady airflow. The intercoolers are then tested by connecting the four air outlets to a 2.4 liter, 4 cylinder engine head and varying the engine speed from 6000 to 1200 RPM corresponding to decreasing flow steadiness. The test is performed under average flight conditions with air entering the intercooler at 180°F and about 5 psig. Results from the experiment indicate that airflow unsteadiness has a significant effect on the intercooler's performance.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of a Pre-Chamber Jet Igniter in a Turbocharged Rotax 914 Aircraft Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1629
An experimental study is performed to investigate the possibility of relaxing the octane requirement of a Rotax 914 engine equipped with a pre-chamber jet ignition system. A pre-chamber jet igniter with no auxiliary fuel addition is designed to replace the spark plug in cylinder two of the test engine and is evaluated across engine speeds ranging from 2500 to 5500 RPM. Experiments are performed across both normally aspirated and boosted configurations using regular 87 AKI gasoline fuel. Normally aspirated results at 98 kPa manifold absolute pressure show a 7-10° burn rate improvement with the jet ignition combustion system. Tests to determine the maximum load at optimal combustion phasing (no spark retard) are then conducted by increasing boost pressure up to maximum knock limits.
Technical Paper

Control of Fuel Octane for Knock Mitigation on a Dual-Fuel Spark-Ignition Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0320
A two-port fuel-injection (PFI) system is added to a Rotax 914 four-cylinder spark-ignition engine to allow two fuels of different reactivity to be injected simultaneously in order to vary the fuel octane number during engine operation. Engine performance using the dual-fuel PFI system is compared to that using injection of primary-reference-fuel (PRF) blends via a single-PFI system for fuel octane ratings of 50, 70, and 87 octane. The on-the-fly octane control of dual-PFI system is found to control fuel-octane well enough to produce maximum indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPn) results within ± 2% of single-PFI PRF IMEPn results. IMEPn is compared among dual-PFI blends from 20 to 87 octane, neat n-heptane, neat JP-8, and JP-8/isooctane blends. Maximum IMEPn for these fuels is established for the Rotax 914 engine operating from 2500 to 5800 rev/min.
Technical Paper

Double Bypass Turbofan Engine Modeling including Transient Effects

2010-11-02
2010-01-1800
Modern military engines desire both the fuel efficiency of high-bypass turbofans and the high specific thrust of a low-bypass turbofan. Using traditional engine architectures, performance and efficiency are in conflict, so an engine is usually designed to best meet requirements for its primary mission. While the concept of a variable cycle engine is not new, recent advances in engine architecture technology suggest that adding a second bypass stream to a traditional turbofan can provide significant benefits. This “third stream” (the core flow being the primary stream and the inner bypass being the second stream) airflow can be independently modulated so that engine airflow demand can be matched with the available inlet flow at a variety of operating points, thereby reducing spillage drag. Additionally, the third stream air provides a valuable heat sink for cooling turbine cooling air or dissipating other aircraft heat loads.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Electric Drive Stand Issues for Jet Engine Simulation

2010-11-02
2010-01-1810
Next generation aircraft will require more electrical power, more thermal cooling, and better versatility. To attain these improvements, technologies will need to be integrated and optimized at a system-level. The complexity of these integrated systems will require considerable analysis. In order to characterize and understand the implications of highly-integrated aircraft systems, the effects of pulsed-power, highly-transient loads, and the technologies that drive system-stability and behavior, an approach will be taken utilizing integrated modeling and simulation with hardware-in-the-loop (HIL). Such experiments can save time and cost and increase the general understanding of electrical and thermal phenomena as it pertains to aircraft systems before completing an integrated ground demonstration. As a first step toward completing an integrated analysis, a dynamometer “drive stand” was characterized to assess its performance.
Journal Article

Designing for Large-Displacement Stability in Aircraft Power Systems

2008-11-11
2008-01-2867
Due to the instabilities that may occur in power systems with regulated loads such as those used in military aircraft, ships, and terrestrial vehicles, many analysis techniques and design methodologies have been developed to ensure stable operation for expected operating conditions. However, many of these techniques are difficult to apply to complex systems and do not guarantee large-displacement stability following major disturbances such as faults, regenerative operation, large pulsed loads, and/or the loss of generating capacity. In this paper, a design paradigm is set forth guaranteeing large-displacement stability of a power system containing a significant penetration of regulated (constant-power) loads for any value of load power up to and including the steady-state rating of the source. Initial investigations are performed using an idealized model of a dc-source to determine the minimum requirements that ensure large-displacement stability.
Technical Paper

Hardware-in-the-Loop Power Extraction Using Different Real-Time Platforms

2008-11-11
2008-01-2909
Aircraft power demands continue to increase with the increase in electrical subsystems. These subsystems directly affect the behavior of the power and propulsion systems and can no longer be neglected or assumed linear in system analyses. The complex models designed to integrate new capabilities have a high computational cost. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) is being used to investigate aircraft power systems by using a combination of hardware and simulations. This paper considers three different real-time simulators in the same HIL configuration. A representative electrical power system is removed from a turbine engine simulation and is replaced with the appropriate hardware attached to a 350 horsepower drive stand. Variables are passed between the hardware and the simulation in real-time to update model parameters and to synchronize the hardware with the model.
Technical Paper

Effects of Transient Power Extraction on an Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Aircraft/Propulsion/Power System

2008-11-11
2008-01-2926
As aircraft continue to increase their power and thermal demands, transient operation of the power and propulsion subsystems can no longer be neglected at the aircraft system level. The performance of the whole aircraft must be considered by examining the dynamic interactions between the power, propulsion, and airframe subsystems. Larger loading demands placed on the power and propulsion subsystems result in thrust, speed, and altitude transients that affect the aircraft performance and capability. This results in different operating and control parameters for the engine that can be properly captured only in an integrated system-level test. While it is possible to capture the dynamic interactions between these aircraft subsystems by using simulations alone, the complexity of the resulting system model has a high computational cost.
Technical Paper

Transient Turbine Engine Modeling and Real-Time System Integration Prototyping

2006-11-07
2006-01-3040
Aircraft power demands continue to increase with the increase in electrical subsystems. These subsystems directly affect the behavior of the power and propulsion systems and can no longer be neglected or assumed linear in system analyses. The complex models designed to integrate new capabilities have a high computational cost. This paper investigates the possibility of using a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) analysis with real time integration. A representative electrical power system is removed from a turbine engine model simulation and replaced with the appropriate hardware attached to a 350 horsepower drive stand. In order to update the model to proper operating conditions, variables are passed between the hardware and the computer model. Using this method, a significant reduction in runtime is seen, and the turbine engine model is usable in a real time environment. Scaling is also investigated for simulations to be performed that exceed the operating parameters of the drive stand.
Technical Paper

Integrated Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of a Complex Turbine Engine and Power System

2006-11-07
2006-01-3035
The interdependency between propulsion, power, and thermal subsystems on military aircraft such as the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and F-22 Raptor continues to increase as advanced war-fighting capabilities including solid-state radars, electronic attack, electric actuation, and Directed Energy Weaponry (DEW) expand to meet Air Force needs. Novel analysis and testing methodologies are required to predict these interdependencies and address adverse interactions prior to costly hardware prototyping. As a result, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has established a dynamic hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test-bed wherein transient simulations can be integrated through advanced real-time simulation with prototype hardware for integrated system studies and analysis. This paper details a test-bed configuration where a dynamic simulation of an aircraft turbine engine is utilized to control a dual-head electric drive stand.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Flight Control Development on the Active Aeroelastic Wing Aircraft

2004-11-02
2004-01-3116
A highly modified F/A-18 aircraft is being used to demonstrate that aeroelastic wing twist can be used to roll a high performance aircraft. A production F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft uses a combination of aileron deflection, differential horizontal tail deflection and differential leading edge flap deflection to roll the aircraft at various Mach numbers and altitudes. The Active Aeroelastic Wing program is demonstrating that aeroelastic wing twist can be used in lieu of the horizontal tail to provide autonomous roll control at high dynamic pressures. Aerodynamic and loads data have been gathered from the Phase I AAW flight test program. Now control laws have been developed to exploit aeroelastic wing twist and provide autonomous flight control of the AAW aircraft during Phase II. Wing control surfaces are being deflected in non-standard ways to create aeroelastic wing twist and develop the required rolling moments without use of the horizontal tail.
Technical Paper

Bracing Position for Side-Facing Seats During Impact

2000-04-11
2000-01-2111
Side-facing seats are present in a variety of aircraft. During impact, these seats load the occupants in a different manner than typical forward-facing seats, namely the occupants are exposed to a lateral impact. In order to minimize injury during a crash, it is necessary for the occupants to prepare themselves and be situated in a position for maximum protection. In an effort to understand occupant initial position in a side-facing seat, a 3-D rigid-body model was developed of a side-facing seat configuration with three occupants, using the Articulated Total Body (ATB) program. The occupants were seated side-by-side in webbed troop-style seats, and each occupant was restrained by a lap belt. Three different initial occupant positions were studied, and each of the three occupants in a given simulation were seated in the same position. A 10 G lateral pulse with an approximate duration of 200 ms was applied to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

A System-of-Systems Approach to Aerospace Ground Equipment

1999-10-19
1999-01-5555
The Air Force Research Laboratory Deployment and Sustainment Division (AFRL/HES), in coordination with Arthur D. Little, Inc., has undertaken a system-of-systems approach to defining and designing aerospace ground equipment (AGE). This method is usually used to take advantage of the open architecture nature of ne and developing electronics through modular design. This paper discusses how we applied it across the electronic, mechanical, and structural aspects of AGE to research and develop a new concept to meet the burgeoning needs of the 21st century Air Force.
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